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SENTENCE | POLA KALIMAT

DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS


02.29 adji sukmana

Noun yaitu jenis kata yang menunjuk sesuatu atau seseorang


Noun Phrase yaitu noun yang dimodifikasikan atau diterangkan,
dijelaskan, diuraikan, dan dibatasi oleh embel-embel (modifiers)
yang leataknya ada di depan, di belakang, atau di depan dan di
belakang noun.
Pronoun yaitu kata yang digunakan untuk menggatikan
nounseperti: I, You, They, He, She, It dan lain-lain.
Gerund yaitu kata benda yang berasal dari kata kerja dalam
bentuk Ving.
Gerund Phrase yaitu gerund yang diikuti oleh elemen-elemen

complemenentary seperti C, A, atau O.


To infinitive yaitu kata benda yang berasaldari kata kerja.
Adjective yaitu jenis kata yang berfungsi untuk menjelaskan,
menerangkan, menggambarkan atau menguraikan noun.
Present participle yaitu bentuk Ving yang berfungsi sebagai nonnoun(bukan noun) yaitu sebagai kata sifat (adjective) atau kata
keterangan (Adverb)
Past Participle yaitu VIII yang berfungsi sebagai adjective dan
atau adverb yang ditandai tidak adanya auxiliary be dan
auxiliary have di depan VIII tersebut.
Verb yaitu suatu jenis kata yang menunjukkan perbuatan,
tindakan, kegiatan atau keadaan dari subjek.
Verb phrase yaitu verb yang disusun atas verb utama yang di
dahului oleh kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verb).
Pola Kalimat
Dalam bahasa inggris, bentuk kata kerja (verb) dan to be berubah
mengikuti perubahan waktu terjadinya peristiwa. Bentuk kata
kerja yang menunjuk perubahan waktu ini disebut tenses.
1. POLA KALIMAT I :
S + V + (O) + (A)
S
He

V
studies (verb I)
studied (verb II)
will study
must study
can study
have studied (verb III)
had studied (verb III)

O
English

Dalam bahasa inggris kata kerja (verb) juga mempunyai pola2


tersendiri. Karena itu pola kalimat ini mempunyai beberapa
variasi.

Adv
at school
last semester
next year
for his future
efficiently
for six years
before it

a (S) + V + (O) + (Adv)


For example:
1. Read chapter 10.
2. Please give your assignment tomorrow.
3. Do not forget it.

b. S + V + (Adv)
For example:
1. My father works in a foreign company.
2. The guests arrived this morning.
3. He has come to visit you.
4. The poor man died because of hunger.

c. S + V + O + (Adv)
1. he speaks French fluently
2. I can contact him if necessary
3. He could finish the work in spite of his illness.

d. S + V + O + O + (Adv)
1. They told us the secret.
2. My brother bought me a dictionary.

e. S + V + O + preposition + O + (Adv)
1. They told the secret to us.
2. My brother bought a dictionary for me

f. S + V + to infinitive + (O) + ( Adv)


1. The tourist wants to leave now.
2. We forget to have lunch.

g. S + V + gerund + (O) + (Adv)

1. Some students like playing truant.


2. His uncle has stopped smoking.

h. S + V(linking verb) +
complement(pelengkap) + (Adv)
1. The boy looks happy this morning.
2. The offer sounds interesting.
3. He remained a teacher.

i. S + V + O + complement (pelengkap) +
(Adv)
1. I find statistics difficult
2. They consider you a good student.

j. S + V + O + to infinitive + (Adv)
1.We kindly asked her to come.
2. The committee expect the delegation to arrive soon.

k. S + v = O + infinitive + (O) + (Adv)


1. The dean let them hold the meeting
2. You must make your students think.

l. S + V + O + Ving + (Adv)
1. I saw the children playing in the street.
2. The librarian often catches students stealing the books.

m. S + V + O + VIII + (Adv)
1.
2.

We will have the car repainted.


The clerk can get the identity card done for you.

2. POLA KALIMAT II :

S + to be + complement + (Adv)
Pola kalimat ini mempunyai variasi:

a. S + to be + Adjective (kt.sifat)
1. Those flowers are beautiful.
2. The passengers of the wrecked ship were hopeless
3. Smoking is not good for health.
4. (You) Be careful
Pada pola TO BE tidak mempunyai arti secara harfiah. Pola ini
sering pula diikuti oleh to infinitive.
Contoh:
1. I am pleased to meet you.
2. Statistics is difficult to learn.

b. S + to be + Noun (Kata
benda/dibendakan)
1. I am a student.
2. My hobby is reading
3. Its purpose is to get some information.
4. To love is to sacrifice.
Dalam variasi pola ini TO BE bisa diartikan adalah.
Sedangkan reading(Ving), to get, to love, dan tosacrifice(to
infinitive) dalam hal ini dianggap benda/dibendakan.

c. S + to be + preposition/ Adv
1. All the instruments are in the laboratory
2. The childs mother is there.
3. The mountaineers are on the right way.
Dalam variasi pola ini TO BE bisa diartikan ada/berada

c. S + to be + Verb ing (sedang)


1.
2.

The government is building more vocational schools


They were working in the project.

d. S + to be + verb III (pasif: di-/ter-)


1. This bridge is made of concrete
2. Some of the machines are produced in Indonesia.

e. S + to be + to infinitive (harus;
direncanakan)
1.
2.

You are to leave tomorrow


The minister is to arrive this afternoon.

f. S + to be + Noun clause
1. My reason is that your presence is very poor.
2. That is what I am looking for.
3. POLA KALIMAT III :
There + to be + S + (Adv)

Dalam pola seperti ini there bukan berarti di sana, tetapi


mempunyai arti ada.
Contoh
1. There is a book on the table.
2. There are some differences between them.
3. There is not much improvement in his study.
4. POLA KALIMAT IV :
It + to be/ Verb(lingking) + complement + S + (Adv)

Pola ini mempunyai kesamaan dengan pola kalimat II.


1. To smoke much is bad It is bad to smoke much.
S
V C
V C
S
2. That he came here is true It is true that he came here
S
V C
V C
S
3. It seems primitive to suggest such an idea.
4. It becomes clear that she is innocent.
It + V + (O) + S + ( Adv)

5. It needs a lot of money to finance your study.


6. It took the party two hours to get to the top of the mountain.
7. It seems that youth expect more but work less.