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1 | Liquefaction

TUGAS UAS
SUMMARY LIQUEFACTION & UNSATURATED SOIL

Mata Kuliah:
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Dosen:
Hasbullah Nawir, ST., MT., Ph.D.

Oleh:
Ichsan Permana Putra (250 14 327)

PROGRAM STUDI MAGISTER TEKNIK SIPIL


FAKULTAS TEKNIK SIPIL DAN LINGKUNGAN
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INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG


2016
Likuifaksi

1. Pengertian Likuifaksi
Likuifaksi adalah fenomena yang terjadi pada tanah granular (pasir atau
kerikil) yang jenuh air, dimana kuat geser tanah tereduksi akibat penikatan
excess pore water pressure. Excess pore water pressure ini terakumulasi
akibat getaran gempa, jika besarnya kenaikan excess pore pressure ini
mengimbangi nilai tekanan overburden (vertikal) awal tanah, maka tanah
granular jenuh tersebut akan berperilaku seperti liquid/cairan.
2. Jenis Tanah yang Dapat Terlikuifaksi
Secara
terdapat

natural
pada

sedimen
daerah

tanah pasir
aliran

jenuh

terlikuifaksi

banyak

air (sedimentasi oleh air). Umumnya,

semakin muda dan loose suatu sedimen, dan semakin tinggi muka air tanah,
tanah akan lebih rentan terlikuifaksi. Likuifaksi juga sering terjadi di daerah
dengan air tanah yang berada hingga kedalaman 10 m dari permukaan
tanah. Sedangkan likuifaksi pada area dengan air tanah jarang sekali terjadi
pada kedalaman lebih dari 20 m.
3. Mekanisme Likuifaksi
Mekanisme dapat digambarkan sebagaimana berikut.

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3 | Liquefaction
Simple Liquefaction Mechanism (Jrgen Johansson and Steven Kramer)

Governing Equation: = - u
Kekuatan geser Tanah: =+()
Excess pore water pressure: 'f = '0 - u = 0

Excess pore pressure ratio,

r u=

u
'g

4. Jenis-jenis Likuifaksi
Likuifaksi berdasarkan peri lakunya dibedakan menjadi:
a. Flow Liquefaction
Dapat terjadi ketika static shear stress (yang diperlukan untuk stabilitas)
lebih besar dari shear strength tanah yang terlikuifaksi. Dalam hal ini,
likuifaksi membuat kekuatan tanah berkurang sehingga tekanan statis
menyebabkan flow failure. Flow liquefaction dapat disebabkan oleh
beberapa hal seperti monotonic loading, getaran yang bukan diakibatkan
oleh gempa sepeti pile loading, pergerakan kereta, blasting dan eksplorasi
fisik bumi.
b. Cyclic Mobility
Terjadi ketika static shear stress lebih kecil dari shear strength tanah yang
terlikuifaksi. Dalam hal ini, penambahan deformasi disebabkan oleh
tegangan geser siklik dan statis. Cyclic mobility selalu disebabkan oleh
gempa.
5. Potensi Kerusakan Akibat Likuifaksi
a. Flow slides (keruntuhan lereng)
Beban statik akibat gravitasi pada suatu lereng melebihi tahanan yang
dimiliki tanah akibat likuifaksi.
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b. Lateral spreading (rekahan dipermukaan tanah)


Rekahan di permukaan tanah umumnya terjadi pada lokasi dengan kontur
permukaan yang landai, yang diakibatkan oleh pergerakan tanah akibat
likuifaksi tanah di bawahnya.
c. Reduksi daya dukung pondasi
Kejadian likuifaksi di bawah pondasi atau di sekitaranya (jembatan,
bangunan, jalan, dst) akan cukup signifikan mengurangi daya dukung
vertikal dan lateral dari suatu sistem pondasi.
d. Penurunan Tanah
Tekanan ekses air pori akibat gempa akan terdisipasi tekanan ekses air
pori yang diakibatkan oleh gempa dan memadatnya material tanah yang
terlikuifaksi.
e. Penambahan tekanan pada dinding-dinging penahan tanah
Liquifaksi

pada

tanah

di

belakang

dinding

penahan

tanah

akan

meningkatkan tekanan pada dinding tersebut.


6. Evaluasi Potensi Likuifaksi
Terdapat 3 (tiga) metode yang disarankan dalam melakukan evaluasi potensi
likuifaksi di lokasi fasilitas tenaga nuklir berdasarkan IAEA Safety Standard
(NS-G-3.6), sebagai berikut:
a. Metode Empiris berdasarkan data SPT (standard penetration test,
ASTM) atau CPT (cone penetration test, ASTM)

Membandingkan lokasi tinjauan terhadap database lokasi lainnya yang


terlikuifaksi ataupun yang tidak.

Nilai SPT/CPT, silt content, magnitude gempa (Magnitude referensi 7.5)


dari lokasi tinjauan dibandingkan dengan database lokasi.

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5 | Liquefaction

SPT Based Liquefaction Chart

CPT Based Liquefaction Chart

b. Analisis Konvensional
Besarnya CSR (Cyclic Stress Ratio) didekati dengan metode perambatan
gelombang 1D. Percepatan maksimum di setiap lapisan akibat proses
perambatan gelombang digunakan sebagai dasar perhitungan CSR di
setiap lapisan.
c. Analisis yang lebih advance
Menggunakan soil model (Finn Model, UBC-Sand) yang dapat mendekati
perilaku sebenarnya tanah yang terliquefaksi. Dalam analisis ini dapat
menggunakan software komersil seperti FLAC atau PLAXIS.
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Excess pore pressure dihitung sebagai fungsi induced shear strain yang
digunakan untuk mereduksi modulus geser dan menaikkan damping
tanah. Efek interaksi struktur fondasi dengan tanah disekitarnya.
7. Faktor-faktor yang menentukan likuifaksi di lapangan
a. Intensitas dan lama gempa
Potensi likuifaksi meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya intensitas dan
lama gempa terjadi. Batas getaran yang diperlukan untuk terjadinya
likuifaksi adalah PGA dengan amax = 0,10g dan lokal magnitude M L sebesar
5 (National Research Council 1985, Ishihara 1985), dengan demikian
untuk lokasi yang memiliki PGA dan ML di bawah batas terebut tidak
memerlukan analisis likuifaksi.
b. Muka air tanah
Likuifaksi hanya terjadi pada tanah yang berada di bawah muka air,
sehingga pada unsaturated soil tidak akan terjadi likuifaksi. Pada lokasi
yang muka air tanahnya fluktuatif, potensi likuifaksinya juga akan
fluktuatif sehingga diperlukan history muka air tanah tertinggi.
c. Jenis tanah
Jenis tanah yang rentan terjadi likuifaksi sebagian besar merupakan non
plastic cohesionless soil.
d. Relative density tanah
Berdasarkan studi lapangan, loose cohesionless soil akan berkontraksi
selama getaran seismik yang akan menyebabkan pengembangan tekanan
air pori berlebih yang mengarah pada terjadinya likuifaksi. Setelah
mencapai likuifaksi awal, akan ada peningkatan mendadak dan signifikan
pada perpindahan geser untuk pasir lepas.

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7 | Liquefaction

Untuk pasir padat, keadaan likuifaksi awal tidak menghasilkan deformasi


besar karena kecenderungan dilatasi pasir saat reversal dari cyclic shear
stress.
Tanah yang berdilatasi tidak rentan terhadap likuifaksi karena kekuatan
geser undrained mereka lebih besar dari kekuatan geser drained.
e. Distribusi besaran dan bentuk partikel dari butiran tanah
f. Kondisi penempatan/lingkungan pengendapan
g. Kondisi drainase
h. Confining pressure
i. Umur timbunan
Timbunan yang sudah lama akan lebih tahan terhadap likuifaksi.
j. Sejarah gempa sebelumnya
k. Beban dari superstructure
8. Metode Mitigasi Likuifaksi dalam Praktek
Metode mitigasi liquifaksi yang umum dilakukan dilapangan meliputi 3
kategori besar:
a. Pemadatan tanah
b. Drainase
c. Perbaikan dengan bahan kimia
Semua

alternatif

perbaikan

tanah

tersebut

memerlukan

biaya

yang

sangat mahal, dan biasanya tidak bisa digunakan pada lokasi yang telah
memiliki infrastruktur terbangun.

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8 | Liquefaction

Unsaturated Soil

1. Unsaturated Soil Mechanics


Dengan

mengembangkan

definisi

klasik

Terzaghi,

dengan

demikian,

unsaturated soil mechanics dapat didefinisikan sebagai penerapan hukum


mekanika, hidrolika, dan fisika dasar untuk masalah teknik yang berurusan
dengan tanah sebagian jenuh.
Unsaturated soils dibedakan dari saturated soils berdasarkan negative pore
water pressures yang membentuk suatu soil suction. Negative pore
pressures mempengaruhi sifat dan peri laku tanah. Komponen dari moisture
suction tanah berhubungan dengan capillary head.
Matric suction = ua - uw
ua = tekanan udara pada tanah
uw = tekanan air pada tanah
Soil matric suction merupakan variabel keadaan stres utama yang digunakan
untuk menggambarkan perilaku tanah tak jenuh. Diperlukan hubungan untuk
memodelkan aliran di tanah tak jenuh, hal ini diberikan sebagai fungsi dari
tekanan air pori atau matric suction.
2. Unsaturated Soil Classification
Berbagai

masalah

geoteknik

yang

melibatkan

unsaturated

soil

diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga fenomena umum, yaitu, flow phenomena, stress


phenomena, dan deformation phenomena.
a. Flow Phenomena

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Flow phenomena utamanya membutuhkan penerapan dari hidrolika dan


prinsip-prinsip fisika dasar. Salah satu contoh yang termasuk pada
kategori ini adalah aliran kapiler.
b. Stress Phenomena
Masalah yang membutuhkan pertimbangan baik kesetimbangan mekanik
dan kimia diklasifikasikan sebagai fenomena stres. Hal ini termasuk
masalah geoteknik tradisional seperti tekanan lateral tanah, bearing
capacity, dan analisis stabilitas lereng. Untuk masing-masing masalah,
kekuatan tanah di kondisi batasnya merupakan perhatian yang utama.
Telah diketahui bahwa teori-teori untuk menggambarkan keadaan tekan
dan runtuh dalam unsaturated soil memerlukan pertimbangan dari sifatsifat termodinamika air pori dalam hal soil suction, variabel material
seperti ukuran butir dan distribusi ukuran butir, variabel kondisi seperti
derajat kejenuhan, dan kekuatan antar particle yang konsisten seperti
suction-induced effective stress atau suction stress.
c. Deformation Phenomena
Proses fisik yang ditandai dengan deformasi atau regangan yang besar
diklasifikasikan sebagai fenomena deformasi. Pada unsaturated soil,
deformasi ini sangat sering disebabkan atau diatur oleh perubahan kondisi
kelembaban tanah. Yang termasuk fenomena deformasi penting adalah
pemadatan, konsolidasi dan kompresibilitas multifase, serta perilaku
keruntuhan tanah.
3. Unsaturated Soil in Engineering Practice
Berikut ini daftar yang merangkum beberapa jenis masalah engineering yang
melibatkan tanah didominasi oleh unsaturated soils.
Flow-Related Problems
d. Water balance at the interface of soil and atmosphere
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e. Net recharge rate to the saturated zone or aquifers


f. Design of final covers for underground waste storage and containment
g. Near-surface contaminant transport and remediation
h. Transient and steady seepage in unsaturated embankment dams
Stress-Related Problems
a. Slope stability and land sliding under changing climatic conditions
b. Lateral earth pressure and stability of retaining structures
c. Excavation and bore hole stability
d. Bearing capacity for shallow foundations under moisture loading
e. Stress wave propagation in unsaturated soil
Deformation-Related Problems
a. Swelling and shrinkage of expansive soil
b. Desiccation cracking of clay
c. Collapsing soil
d. Consolidation and settlement of unsaturated soil
e. Soil compaction
4. Tegangan efektif pada Unsaturated Soil
The state of stress in unsaturated soil is fundamentally different from the
state of stress in saturated soil. Unlike saturated soils, which are two-phase
systems comprised essentially of solids and liquid only (i.e., soil particles and
pore water as in a liquid-saturated system) or solids and gas only (i.e., soil
particles and pore air as in a gas-saturated, or perfectly dry, system),
unsaturated soils are three-phase systems comprised of solids (soil particles),
liquid (pore water), and gas

(pore air). The relative amounts

and

corresponding pressures of the pore water and pore air phases in


unsaturated soil have a direct impact on the state of stress acting at the
particle-particle contacts and, consequently, on the macroscopic physical
behavior of the soil mass (e.g., shear strength and volume change). As such,
changes in the relative amounts of the pore air and pore water phases, which
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may occur under natural processes such as precipitation or evaporation, or


under anthropogenic processes such as irrigation or imposed changes in the
boundary conditions (e.g., water table lowering), have a direct impact on the
state of stress and physical behavior of the soil system. Understanding this
impact is of critical importance to the design and performance of engineered
geotechnical systems comprised of unsaturated soils. An excellent practical
example is the common occurrence of precipitation-induced failures in
unsaturated earthen slopes.
Early attempts at understanding capillarity and its role in the stress-strain
behavior of unsaturated soil recognized that when soil is saturated and the
pore water pressure is compressive, the net effect of the water pressure is to
reduce the effective stress. At the opposite condition when the soil is
relatively dry, it was recognized that the pore water in the voids might
sustain very high negative pore pressures, thus creating tensile forces acting
to increase the effective stress and pull the soil grains together. The resultant
inter-particle stress in the range between these extremes was described in a
variety of extended forms of Terzaghis classic effective stress equation
modified to account for the negative pore water pressures. Bishop (1959), for
example, proposed the following single-valued effective stress equation for
unsaturated soil:
= ( ua) + (ua uw)

(4.1)

where is the effective interparticle stress, is total stress, u a is pore air


pressure, uw is pore water pressure, the quantity u a - uw is matric suction, and
is a material property that depends on the degree of saturation or matric
suction. The parameter, which was introduced in the previous chapter, is
referred to as the effective stress parameter.
The first term on the right-hand side of eq. (4.1) ( u a) represents the
component of net normal stress applicable to bulk soil. The product (ua
uw), on the other hand, represents the interparticle stress due to suction,
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herein referred to as suction stress. In the case where capillarity is the sole
mechanism contributing to matric suction, suction stress is identical to the
microscopically formulated suction stress described in the previous chapter.
The effective stress parameter is generally believed to vary with degree of
saturation, being equal to zero for perfectly dry soil and unity for saturated
soil. In either of these extreme cases, eq. (4.1) reduces to the classic
effective stress equation.
Understanding suction stress and its dependency on degree of saturation in
unsaturated soil has historically been a challenging task from both
theoretical and experimental perspectives. Early experimental efforts were
primarily concerned with determining indirectly as a function of water
content or degree of saturation. The majority of the experimental work relied
on measurement or independent control of matric suction and total stress in
triaxial or direct shear specimens loaded to failure conditions. Figure below
shows a series of relationships between and degree of saturation for a wide
range of soil types. The figure illustrates the apparent variation in between
zero and one for perfectly dry and saturated conditions, respectively. Very
few studies in the past, either theoretical or experimental, have investigated
hysteretic phenomena in the suction stress behavior of unsaturated soil.

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Experimental results showing the dependency of Bishops effective stress parameter on


degree of saturation.

5. Mekanisme Hysteresis
Hysteresis

is

well-known

but

poorly

understood

phenomenon

in

unsaturated soil behavior. Perhaps the most outstanding example of


hysteretic behavior is that between wetting and drying paths of the soilwater characteristic curve. There is no unique equilibrium between moisture
content and soil suction. Rather, soil undergoing drying processes such as
evaporation or gravity drainage generally tends to retain a greater amount of
water than for the same magnitude of suction during wetting processes such
as infiltration or capillary rise.

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Conceptual illustration of hysteresis in soil-water characteristic curve

Figure above shows a conceptualization of hysteresis in the suction-water


content relationship for a typical coarse-grained unsaturated porous material.
Note that the horizontal dashed line at some suction value 1 intersects the
curve at different water contents along the wetting loop ( lw) and the drying
loop (ld), where ld > lw. The breadth of the hysteresis loop across the entire
range of water content is most pronounced in the region of relatively rapid
pore drainage or adsorption (i.e., the flat portion of the curve) where pore
water is retained primarily by capillary mechanisms. In general, hysteresis is
less pronounced near the residual water content where pore water retention
falls within the pendular regime. The figure also illustrates that full saturation
(s) may not be reached during the wetting process due to the entrapment of
occluded air bubbles. The portion of the curve from C to D represents a
partial rewetting step along a so-called scanning loop, implying that the
actual soilwater characteristic curve for soil under fluctuating field conditions
will be contained within two boundaries defined by the full wetting and
drying loops, but may have a unique form if small wetting and drying cycles
occur.

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There is strong motivation to understand hysteretic behavior in the soilwater


characteristic curve and its consequent impact on the stress, strength, flow,
and deformation behavior of unsaturated soil systems. This is particularly
true in practical engineering situations where cyclical wetting and drying
processes are likely to occur with fluctuations in atmospheric or moisture
loading conditions. Some form of rationale is required to predict the expected
range of wetting or drying for the system and to then define the boundaries
of the soil-water characteristic curve between these two extremes. Because
most experimental measurement techniques and models for quantifying the
soil-water characteristic curve are path dependent (i.e., specific to either
wetting or drying processes), the type of measurement or model should be
selected to best match the expected direction of moisture change in the
field. By practical constraint, it is common to measure or model the
desorption branch of the curve and assume that it represents a true
equilibrium relationship.
Although not fully understood, significant insight into soil-water hysteresis
has been gained from both experimental and theoretical perspectives (e.g.,
Haines; 1930; Mualem, 1984; Israelachvili, 1992; Nimmo, 1992; Iwata et al.,
1995). Hysteretic behavior has been attributed to several mechanisms that
act on both a relatively microscopic (particle) scale and a relatively
macroscopic (interparticle) scale. Major theorized mechanisms include: (1)
geometrical effects associated with nonhomogenous pore size distribution,
often referred to as the ink-bottle effect, (2) capillary condensation, which
becomes a unique wetting process at relatively low water content, (3)
entrapped air, which refers to the formation of occluded air bubbles in deadend pores during wetting, (4) swelling and shrinkage, which may alter the
pore fabric of fine-grained soil differently during wetting and drying
processes, and (5) contact angle hysteresis, which is related to the intrinsic
difference between drying and wetting contact angles at the soil particle
pore water interface.
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The exact roles and relative importance of the various possible hysteresis
mechanisms for a wide range of soil types and water content regimes remain
unclear. The remainder of this section provides more detailed descriptions of
two mechanisms most likely to be important for relatively coarse-grained
soil, specifically, ink-bottle hysteresis and contact angle hysteresis. The
theoretical development introduced in the previous section for spherical
particles and a nonzero contact angle is then applied to illustrate the
potential role of contact angle in terms of hysteresis for three aspects of
unsaturated soil behavior: (1) the soil-water characteristic curve, (2) the
relationship between the effective stress parameter and water content, and
(3) the relationship between suction stress and water content.

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