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# r

Functions
And Graphs
2 fungsi dan grafik

2-1 FUNCTIONS
Physical chemistry, like all the physical sciences, is concerned with the dependence
of one or more variables of a system upon other variables of the system. For example,
suppose we wished to know how the volume of a gas varies with temperature. With a little
experimentation in the laboratory, we would find that the volume of a gas varies with
temperature in a very specific way. Careful measurements would show that the volume of a
gas V1 at any temperature t on the Celsius scale obeys the specific law
V1 = V0 (1 + t)

(2-1)

2 - 1 fungsi
kimia fisik, sukai semua ilmu eksakta,mempunyai kaitan dengan ketergantungan
dari satu atau lebih variabel dari satu sistem pada saat variabel lain dari sistem. antara lain,
seandainya kita mengingin untuk mengetahui bagaimana volume dari satu gas membedakan
dengan suhu. dengan cecah percobaan pada Laboratoria, kita akan menemukan bahwa
volume dari satu gas membedakan dengan suhu pada satu sangat spesifik cara. pengukuran
saksama akan memperlihatkan bahwa volume dari satu gas V1 di apapun temperatur t pada
celcius menskalakan mematuhi hukum spesifik
Where V0 is the volume of the gas at 0C and is a constant known as the
coefficient of expansion the gas. This equation predicts that there is a one to one
correspondence between the volume of a gas and its temperature. That is, for every value of
value of t substituted into equation (2.1), there is a corresponding value for V1

di mana V0 adalah volume dari gas di dalam memasuki ' c dan satu adalah satu telah
tetap dikenal sebagai koefisien muai gas. penyamaan ini meramalkan yang terdapat sebuah
sesuatu ke satu penyesuaian di antara volume dari satu gas dan ini temperatur. Itu adalah,
bagi setiap nilai berharga t mengganti ke dalam penyamaan (2. 1 ), terdapat sebuah nilai
sesuai untuk V1.
.
Let us define a collection of temperatures as a mathematical set T = (t1,t2,t3,t4,...) and
The corresponding volumes as another set V = {V1,V2,V3,V4,...}. A mathematical set is
defined as a collection of numbers, each member of the set called an element, so we see
that our collection of numbers, each member of the set called an element, so we see that our
collection of temperatures and volumes satisfies this definition. If there is associated with
each element of set T at least one element in the other set V, then this association is said to
constitute a function from T to V, written f : t V1. that is, the function takes every
element
in set T into the corresponding element in set V. we see the equation (2-1) satisfies this
condition . since Vt is a function of t- that is, the value of V depends on the value of t- the
above expression can be written f : t f(t), where Vt = f(t). remember that f(t), read "f of t,"
does not mean f is multiplied by t, but that f(t) is the value of V0(1+ t)at t. hence,
we can write
f(t) = V1 ( 1 + t )
(2-2)
Mari kita mendefinisikan satu koleksi suhu sebagai satu setelan matematis t =
(t1,t2,t3,t4,...) dan volume sesuai sebagai setelan lain v = {v1,v2,v3,v4,...}. Satu setelan
matematis didefinisikan sebagai satu koleksi angka, masing-masing anggota dari dipanggil
yang cocok satu elemen, sehingga kita melihat bahwa koleksi kita dari angka, masingmasing anggota dari dipanggil yang cocok satu elemen, sehingga kita melihat bahwa
koleksi kita dari suhu dan volume memuaskan definisi ini. kalau di situ dihubungkan
dengan masing-masing elemen setelan t paling tidak sesuatu unsur di yang lain menyetel v,
kemudian asosiasi ini dikatakan untuk mendasari satu fungsi dari t ke v, ditulis f:t -> V1.
bahwa adalah, fungsi mengambil tiap-tiap elemen di setelan t ke dalam elemen sesuai di
setelan V. kita melihat penyamaan (2 - 1) puaskan kondisi ini. sejak v1 adalah satu fungsi
dari t yang adalah, nilai dari v bergantung kepada nilai dari t ekspresi di atas dapat ditulis f:t
-> f ( t), di mana V1=f (t ). ingat bahwa f (t ), bacaan "f t," tidak berarti f diperbanyak oleh
t, tapi itu f (t ) adalah nilai dari V0 (1 + di)di t. maka, kita dapat tulis (2 - 2)
A function, then, is defined as a correspondence between elements of two
mathematical sets.
Sebuah fungsi, kemudian, didefinisikan sebagai satu penyesuaian di antara unsur
dua setelan matematis.
In the above example, V1 was considered to be a function of only a single variable t.
such an equation , V1 = f(t), can be represented by a series of points on a two dimensional

## Cartesian coordinate system. Physicochemical system, however, usually depend on more

than one variable. Thus, it is necessary to extend the definition of function given above to
include function of more than one variable. For example, we find experimentally that the
volume of a gas will vary with temperature according to equation (2-2) only if the pressure
of the gas is held constant. Thus, the volume of a gas not only a function of temperature,
but also is a function of pressure. Careful measurements in the laboratory will show that for
most gases at or around room temperature and one atmosphere pressure the law relating the
volume of a gas simultaneously to the temperature and the pressure of a gas is the wellknown ideal gas law
V=

RT
P

= f (T,P)

(2-3)

## Where R is a constant. equation (2-3) implies that there is a one-to-one

correspondence between three sets of numbers: a set of volumes, V = {V1,V2,V3, V4,...}; a
set of temperatures on the absolute temperature scale, T = {T1,T2,T3,T4,...}; and a set of
pressure, P = {P1,P2,P3,P4,...}. These three sets can be represented graphically on a threedimensional coordinate system by plotting V along one axis, T along a second axis, P along
the third axis. Such graphs of P, V, and T commonly are called Phase diagrams.
2-2 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTION
As we saw above, one of the most convenient ways to represent the functional
dependence of the variables of the system is by the use of coordinate system. This is
because each set of numbers is easily represented by a coordinate axis, and the graphs that
result give an immediate visual representation of the behaviour. In this section we shall
explore several types of graphical representation of function. We begin with functions that
describe a linear dependence between the variables.
Equations of the First Degree. Equation that define functions showing a linear
dependence between variables are known as equations of the first degree, or first-degree
equation . These function describe a dependence commonly called the direct proportion,
and the equation are called first-degree equations because all the variables in these
equations are raised only to the first power. First degree equations have the general form
f (x) = mx + b

(2-4)

## Persamaan tingkat satu. Persamaan yang mendefinisikan fungsi ketergantungan

sebuah garis lurus diantara variabel yang dikenal dengan tingkat satu dari sebuah
persamaan, atau persamaan tingkat satu. Fungsi ini mendeskripsikan ketergantungan yang

biasanya disebut proporsi langsung, dan persamaan ini disebut persamaan tingkat satu
karena semua variabel di persamaan ini dinaikkan hanya untuk pangkat pertama.
Persamaan tingkat pertama punya bentuk umum
f(x)=mx+b

(2 - 4)

## Where m and b are constants. As an example of a first-degree equation, consider the

9
equation F = 5 C + 32. Illustrated in fig. 2-1 this familiar equation describes the
temperature of a system on the Fahrenheit scale and its relationship to the temperature on
the Celsius temperature scale. Note that, indeed, the equation is that of a straight line. From
the graph we can determine the significance of the constant m and b in Equation (2-4). let
us consider the latter, b = 32. We can see that the line crosses the F-axis at the point where
9
the value of C is zero . If we substitute zero for C into the equation F = 5 C + 32, we
obtain F = 32. But this is just the value of b in the equation. Hence, (0,b) are the
coordinates of the point where the line crosses the F-or y-axis, and thus b is called the yintercept. It also may be of interest to consider the value of C for which F = f(C) = 0, this
point represents the point where the line crosses the C-or x-axis, and is known as the zero
of the function. Rearranging equation (2-4) gives
b
m

0 = mx + b or x = -

24

(2-5)

9
5 C+32

## Dimana m dan b konstan. Misalnya pada persamaan tingkat satu, pertimbangkan

persamaan F=9/5C+32, dijelaskan dalam gambar 2.1. Persamaan yang sudah lazim ini
menjelaskan temperatur dari suatu sistem dalam skala Fahrenheit dan hubungannya dengan
skala Celcius dalam skala temperatur. Melihat hal itu, bahwasannya, persamaan adalah
sebagai suatu garis lurus. Dari grafik kita bisa menentukan arti dari nilai m dan b dalam
persamaan (2-4). Mari kita perhatikan yang terakhir, b=32. Kita dapat melihat persilangan
garis sumbu F pada titik dimana harga C adalah nol. Apabila kita membagi nol untuk C
dalam persamaan F=9/5C+32, kita memperoleh F=32. Tapi ini hanyalah nilai dari b
dalam persamaan. Karenanya, (0,b) adalah kordinat dari titik dimana persilangan garis F
atau sumbu y dan demikian b disebut intercept y. Itu juga mungkin menarik untuk
mempertimbangkan nilai dari C yang mana F = f(C) = 0. Titik ini menggambarkan titik
dimana persilangan garis C atau sumbu x, dan hal itu dikenal sebagai fungsi nol. Susunan
ulang persamaan (2-4) yang diberikan
0 = mx + b atau x = -

24

b
m

(2-5)

9
5 C+32

y
2

1.8

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1

0.8

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0.3
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

## Figure 2-4 Variation of slope as a function of x.

For the value of x, dividing both sides of the equation by a and rearranging the
equation gives
x2 +

b
a

x=-

c
a
(2-11)

Next, adding (b2/4a2) to both sides of the equation to complete the square gives

x2 +

b
a

x+

b2
4a2

b2
4a2

c
a

(2-12)

Or

b
x+
2a

b 2 4 ac
4 a2

## Taking the square root of both sides of the equation gives

x+

b
2a

b24 ac
2a
(2-13)

or
b b24 ac
x=
2a
(2-14)
Which is well known quadratic formula.
Sometimes the zeros of the equation, called the roots, can be determined by the
factoring method. For example, consider the equation
x2 3x + 2 = 0

(2-15)

## Which can be factored into the terms

(x 1) ( x 2) = 0

(2-16)

The roots of the equation now can be found by solving the equations
(x 1) = 0 and (x 2) = 0

(2-17)

Which gives x = 1 and x = 2. Substituting a =1, b =-3, and c = 2 into the quadratic formula,
equation (2-14), yields the same results.
in cases where the equation defining a particular physical situation is a second
-degree equation (or even one of higher order), there arises a problem that is not present
when one simply considers the pure mathematics, as we have done above. Since quadratic
equations necessarily have two roots, we must decide, in cases where both roots are not the
same, which root correctly represents physical situation, even though both are
mathematically correct, consider the equilibrium equation
A+B=C+D
Assume that initially the concentrations of A,B,C,and D are each 1 molar. Suppose we wish
to determine the equilibrium concentration of A,B,C, and D given that the equilibrium
constant in terms of molar concentration, Kc , equals 50. If we assume that at equilibrium
the concentration at C is (1+x), molar, then the equilibrium concentration of A,B,C, and D
must be (1 - x),(1 - x), and (1 + x) molar, respectively. Substituting these values into the
equilibrium constant equation
We have

(C)( D)
Kc = ( A )(B)

50 =

( 1+ x )( 1+ x )
( 1x )( 1x)

(2-18)
Rearranging Equation (2-18) gives the quadratic equation
49x2 102x + 49 = 0

(2-19)

Substituting the values a = 49, b=-102, and c =49 into equation (2-14) yields the two
solutions x = 1.3 and x 0.75.
We know must decide which value of x is physically correct. If choose x = 1.3, the
equilibrium concentration of A and B will be negative numbers, which physically does not
make sense. Thus, the physically correct value for x must be 0.75, giving for the
equilibrium concentration of A,B,C, and D : 0,25M, 0,25M,1,75M, and 1,75M,
respectively. We see, then, that although both roots were mathematically correct, only one

## Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. Exponential functions are functions

whose defining equation is written in the general form
f(x) = ax

(2-20)

## Where a > 0. An important exponential function that is used extensively in physical

chemistry, and indeed in the physical sciences as a whole, is the function
f(x) = ex

(2-21)

Where the constant e is a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal having the value, to five
significant figures,

( 1+ x )
e = lim
x 0

1
x

=1+

1
1!

1
2!

1
3!

+ ......

= 2, 7183
This function is illustrated in fig. 2-5. note that all exponentials have the point (0,1) in
common, since a=1 for any a. also note that there are no zeros to the function, since the
lim 0
function approaches zero as x approaches -. The expression x
means that (1+x)1/x
approaches a value of 2, 7183 as x approaches 0, and is read "in the limit that x approaches
zero." the physical significance of the constant e will be discussed in chapter 3.
There is a direct relationship between exponential functions and logarithmic
function. The power of exponent to which the constant a is raised in the equation y = axis
called the logarithm of y to the base a and is written
loga y = x

(2-22)

The logarithmic function log2 y = x is illustrated in fig. 2-6. Note, as in the case of
exponential functions, that the point (0, 1) is common to all logarithmic functions, since
loga 1 = 0 for any a. logarithms have many useful properties and are an important tool in the
study of physical chemistry. For this reason the general properties of logarithms are
reviewed in chapter 3.
y

y

## Figure 2-6 graph of log2 y = x

Circular Functions. A circle is defined as the locus off all points in a plane that are
at a constant distance from a fixed point. Circles are described by the equation
(x - a)2 + (y - b)2 = r2

(2-23)

Where a and b are the coordinates of the center of the circle (the fixed point) and r is the
radius. A unit circle is one with its center at the origin and a radius equal to unity.
x2 + y2 = 1

(2-24)

Consider, now, the triangle inscribed in the unit circle shown in fig. 2-7. Let us
define three functions: sine (abbreviated sin), which takes the angle () into the ycoordinate of a point (x,y), cosine (abbreviated cos), which takes the angle () into the xcoordinate of the point (x,y), and tangent (abbreviated tan), which is the ratio of y

(x,y)

unit circle
x2 + y2 = 1

## TABLE 2-1 DEPENDENCE OF r ON FOR THE FUNCTION r = A cos

(degree)
0
30
45
60
90
120

r
1.000A
0.866A
0.707A
0.500A
0
-0.500A

(degree)
135
150
180
210
225
240

r
-0.707A
-0.866A
-1.000A
-0.866A
-0.707A
-0.500A

(degree)
270
300
315
330
360

r
0
0.500A
0.707A
0.866A
1.000A

To x. Thus,
sin = y
cos = x
tan =

y
x

sin
cos

(2-25)
These functions are called circular or trigonometric functions. Note that equations (2-25)
are just the transformation equations (1-4) with r =1. It is interesting to compare the graphs
of functions, such as sin and cos , in linear coordinates (coordinates in which is
plotted along one axis) to those in plane polar coordinates. Consider, for example the

equation r = A cos , where A is a constant. Such an equation can be used to describe the
wave properties of p-type atomic orbitals in two dimensions, the functional dependence of
r upon can be seen in table 2-1.
When r versus is plotted in linear coordinates [shown in fig. 2-8(a)], the typical
cosine curve results. On the other hand, when r versus 0 is plotted in polar coordinates
[shown in fig. 2-8(b)], the more familiar shape of the p-orbital can be seen. It is important
to note that both graphs are equivalent, the shapes of the curves depending merely on the
choice of coordinate system.
TABEL 2-1 KETERGANTUNGAN DARI r PADA UNTUK FUNGSI r = A cos

(degree)
0
30
45
60
90
120

r
1.000A
0.866A
0.707A
0.500A
0
-0.500A

(degree)
135
150
180
210
225
240

r
-0.707A
-0.866A
-1.000A
-0.866A
-0.707A
-0.500A

(degree)
270
300
315
330
360

r
0
0.500A
0.707A
0.866A
1.000A

ke x. Dengan demikian,
sin = y
cos = x
tan =

y
x

sin
cos

(2-25)
Fungsi ini disebut sirkuler (bundar) atau fungsi trigonometri. Melihat persamaan itu (2-25)
hanyalah persamaan transformasi (1-4) dengan r = 1. Sangat menarik untuk
membandingkan grafik dari fungsi, seperti sin dan cos , dalam koordinat garis lurus
(koordinat yang mana direncanakan sepanjang satu sumbu) untuk itu dalam koordinat
polar pesawat. Pertimbangkan, antara lain pesamaan r = A cos , dimana A adalah tetap.
Persamaan tersebut bisa digunakan untuk menjelaskan sifat gelombang dari orbital p atom
sejenis pada dua dimensi. Ketergantungan fungsional dari r pada dapat dilihat dalam
Tabel 2-1.
Saat r banding direncanakan dalam koordinat garis lurus (ditunjukkan dalam
Gambar 2-8 (a)), hasil kurva kosinus membelok. Di sisi lain, ketika r banding

direncanakan dalam koordinat polar (ditunjukkan dalam Gambar 2-8 (b)), yang lebih
dikenal dengan bentuk dari orbital p dapat dilihat. 1 Penting untuk dicatat bahwa kedua
grafik yang ekuivalen, bentuk dari kurva hanya bergantung pada pemilihan sistem
koordinat.
2-3 ROOTS TO POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS
We saw in the previous sections that the zeroes of the function (the roots) can be found
easily if the equations are first- or second-degree equations. But how do we find the roots to
equations that are not linear or quadratic? Before the age of computers this was not a simple
task. One standard way to find the roots of polynomial equation without using a computer
is to graph the function. For example, consider the equation
y = x4 + x3 3x2 x + 1
In polar coordinates, negative values of r have no meaning, so we are actually plotting |r|= A cos

## 2-3 AKAR PERSAMAAN POLINOMIAL

Kita melihat pada bab sebelumnya bahwa fungsi dari nol (akar) dapat ditemukan dengan
mudah apabila pada persamaan tingkat satu atau dua. Tapi bagaimana kita menemukan akar
untuk persamaan yang tidak berupa garis lurus atau persaman kuadrat? Sebelum masa
komputer, ini bukanlah tugas sederhana. Satu standar cara untuk menemukan akar dari
persamaan polinomial tanpa mengunakan komputer adalah membuat grafik fungsi. Antara
lain,pertimbangkan persamaan
y = x4 + x3 3x2 x + 1
Di koordinat polar, nilai negatif dari r tidak punya arti, sehingga kita sebenarnya merencanakan |r|= A cos

## Section 2-3 Roots to Polynomial Equations

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.8 Graphs of r = A cos plotted in (a) linear coordinates and (b) polar coordinates.

If we plot this function from x = -3 to x = +3, we obtain the graph shown in fig. 2-9. The
roots to the equation are the values of x for which y = 0, or the points on graph where the
graph crosses the x-axis. Careful examination of the graph will show that the roots are x =
-2.09, x = -0.74, x = + 0.47, and x = + 1.36. In

## Fig. 2-9 Graph of y = x4 + x3 3x2 x + 1.

Chapter 11 we shall discuss numerical methods of finding roots to polynomial equations
using a computer.
1. BRADLEY, GERALD L, And SMITH, KARI. J., Calculus, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle
River,
NJ, 1995.
2.

3.
4.
PROBLEMS
1. Determine the zeros of the following
functions:
a
b
c
d
e
2. Plot the following functions in plane polar
coordinates from 0 to 2 (phi) (remeber
that in polar coordinates, negative
Values of r have no meaning):
a
b
c
3. Plot the following functions in Cartesian coordinates:
a
b
c
d
4. Plot the following functions choosing
suitable coordinate axes:
a
b
c
d
e
f
5. Plot the functions in problem 4 choosing coordinates so that a straight line
results.
6. Evaluate ....... for the following:
a
b
7. Radioactive decay is a first - order process
In which the concentration of the
radioactive material C is related to time
r by the equation
C= C0e-kt
Where Co and k are constants (e is the
Exponential). Given the following data,
determine the values of Co and k by

## plotting the data in such a way that a

straight line result.

a
b
c
d