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TUGAS TERMODINAMIKA 1

Solution Chapter 3

Oleh :
Raju Pratama
03031181520108

Dosen Pembimbing :
Dr. Ir. H. Abdullah Saleh, M.S.

JURUSAN TEKNIK KIMIA

FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA
INDRALAYA
2017
DAFTAR ISI
SOAL NOMOR 3.2................................................................................... 3
SOAL NOMOR 3.4................................................................................... 3
SOAL NOMOR 3.6................................................................................... 5
SOAL NOMOR 3.8................................................................................... 6
SOAL NOMOR 3.10................................................................................. 8
SOAL NOMOR 3.12............................................................................... 12
SOAL NOMOR 3.14............................................................................... 14
SOAL NOMOR 3.16............................................................................... 15
SOAL NOMOR 3.18............................................................................... 17
SOAL NOMOR 3.20............................................................................... 19
SOAL NOMOR 3.22............................................................................... 21
SOAL NOMOR 3.24............................................................................... 26
SOAL NOMOR 3.26............................................................................... 27
SOAL NOMOR 3.28............................................................................... 28
SOAL NOMOR 3.30............................................................................... 29
SOAL NOMOR 3.32............................................................................... 31
SOAL NOMOR 3.34............................................................................... 34
SOAL NOMOR 3.36............................................................................... 40
SOAL NOMOR 3.38............................................................................... 41
SOAL NOMOR 3.40............................................................................... 62
SOAL NOMOR 3.42............................................................................... 89
SOAL NOMOR 3.44............................................................................... 91
SOAL NOMOR 3.46............................................................................... 92
SOAL NOMOR 3.48............................................................................... 93
SOAL NOMOR 3.50............................................................................... 93
SOAL NOMOR 3.52............................................................................... 94
SOAL NOMOR 3.54............................................................................... 95
SOAL NOMOR 3.56............................................................................... 96
SOAL NOMOR 3.58............................................................................... 97
SOAL NOMOR 3.60............................................................................... 98
SOAL NOMOR 3.62............................................................................. 100
SOAL NOMOR 3.2
Dit: Buktikan persamaan berikut ini

( P ) =( T k )
T P

Jawab:

Tinjau terlebih dahulu nilai ( P ) T

2 2

( ) =
1 V
P T V 2 P ( )( ) (T
k
T P
+
1 V
V T P
=k + ) V
T P ( )
Lalu tinjau nilai dari ( T k ) P

1 2 V 2 V

k
( ) 1 V
= 2
T P V P ( )( ) (P
k

T T V T P
=k
T P ) ( )
2 2

k
( ) 1 V
= 2
T P V P ( )( ) ( P
k
T T
+
1 V
V T P
= k+ ) V
T P ( )
k
P T( ) ( )
=
T P

SOAL NOMOR 3.4

Diketahui :
c
k = V (P + b)

Isothermal Compressibility
m = 1 kg air
P1 = 1 bar ; P2 = 500 bar
T = 60oC
b = 2700 bar
c = 0.125 cm3/g

Ditanya : W = ..... ?
Jawab :
Persamaan 1 W = P dV (Hukum Termodinamika 1)
c
k=
Persamaan 2 V ( P+ b) (Smith J, 66)

1
Persamaan 3
k =
V (dV
dP )
T

Persamaan 2 dan 3 digabung menjadi

1 dV c
V ( )
dP
T =
V (P+b)

c dP
dV =
P+b

P2
c dP P
W = P =c dP
P+b P 1 P+b

P2 P2 P2
P+ bb P+ b b
W =c dP=c dPc dP
P1 P+b P1 P+ b P1 P+b

P2 P2
1
W =c dPbc dP
P1 P1 P+b

P2
( + b)ln ( P 1 +b)
ln
W =c ( P 2 P1 )bc

[
W = c ( P 2 P 1 )bc ln
(P 2 +b)
(P 1+b) ]

500 + 2700

1 +2700

ln
W = 0.125 cm 3 /g (500 bar 1 2700 (0.125cm
3 /g)

cm3 (0.1695)
g

cm3 337.5
g
W =62.375

cm 3
g

cm3 57.20625
g
W =62.375

cm3
g
W =5.16875

cm 3 bar 0.000001 m3
W = 5.16875 x
g 1 cm3

m 3 bar 100000 J
W = 0.00000517 x
g 1 m 3 bar

W = 0.516875 J/g

SOAL NOMOR 3.6

Diketahui : m = 5 kg
T 1 =0 C=273.15 K

T 2 =20 C=293.15 K
3
= 1.2 x 10 K
1 1
C p =0.84 kJ k g K

rho=1,590 kg m

V1 1 m3
= 1590 kg
t
Ditanya : v
W

Q
H t

U t

Jawab : Dengan indenpendent dari T dengan

P=Konstan
Maka ;
Persamaan Volume expansivity

1 V
=
V T ( ) p

dV
= dT
V
( T 2 T 1 ) }

V 2=V 1 exp

1 m3
V 2= exp [ 1,2 x 103 K 1 ( 293,15 K273,15 K ) ]
1590 kg

1 m3
V 2= exp
1590 kg

1 m3
V 2= exp 0,024
1590 kg
3
1 m
V 2= 1,0242
1590 kg
4 3
V 2=6,4415 x 10 m kg

V =V 2V 1
3
1 m
V =6,4415 x 104 m3 kg
1590 kg
5 3
V =1,5219182 x 10 m /kg

Diketahui:
P1 = 8 bar
P2 = 1 bar
T1 = 600K
Cp = 7/2R
Cv = 5/2R

Ditanya:

Hitung W,Q, U,& H pada kondisi

a. Volume konstan
b. Suhu konstan

Penyelesaian:

a. Volume konstan

W=0
U = Q = CvT
H = CpT

T = T2-T1

P2
T2 =T1 P1

8

T2 = 600K 1

T2 = 75K
T = 75K-600K
T = -525K

Cp = 7/2R
Cp = 7/2(8,314 J/K mol)
Cp = 29.099 J/K mol

Cv = 5/2R
Cv = 5/2(8,314 J/K mol)
Cv = 20,785 J/K mol

U = Q = CvT
= 20.785 J/K mol x -525K
= -10.912 J/mol
= -10,912 KJ/mol

H = CpT
= 29,099 J/K mol x -525K
= -15.276 J/mol
= -15,276 KJ/mol

b. Suhu konstan
U = H = 0
P2
Q = W = R x T1 x ln P 1

P2
Q = W = R x T1 x ln P 1

8

= 8,314 J/K mol x 600K x ln 1

= - 10.373 J/mol
= - 10,373 KJ/mol

Q=0
U = W = CvT
H = CpT

Cp
= Cv

29,099 J / Kmol
= 20,785 J / Kmol

= 1,4
1 /

T2 = T1 [ ] P2
P1
8

1

T2 = 600K

T2 = 331,227K

T = T2-T1
T = 331,227K 600K
T = - 268,773K

U = W = CvT
= 20,875 J/K mol x -268,773K
= -5.609 J/mol
= -5,609 KJ/mol

H = CpT
= 29,099 J/K mol x -268,773K
= -7.819 J/mol
= -7,819 KJ/mol

SOAL NOMOR 3.10

Diketahui :

5
C P= R
2

P1=1

P2=12

3
CV = R
2

V t1=12 m3

t 3
V 2=1 m

Ditanya :

Q, W, U dan H untuk :

a. Isothermal compression.
b. Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant
pressure.
c. Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant
volume.
d. Heating at constant volume followed by cooling at constant
pressure.
e. Cooling at constant presure followed by heating at
constant volume.

Asumsi :

- T = konstant
- U = 0 dan H = 0 pada semua kondisi

Penyelesaian :

a. Isothermal Compression
P2
Q=R T 1 ln
P1

P1 V 1=R T 1

P2
Maka Q=P1 V 1 ln
P1

101325 N
J
1,01325 m2
1 kJ
Nm
1 =2981,88 kJ
1000 J

12
3
Q=1
12 m ln

- Hukum 1 termodinamika

U =Q+W U = 0
0=Q+ W

W =Q=2981,88 kJ

b. Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at

constant pressure

- First Step
' y ' P 1 1y
P2 (V ) =P1 V 1 V =V 1 ( )
P2

P V P1 V 1
W 1= 2
y1

( 122,71 ) m3
101325 N
1,671
J
1,01325 m2
1 kJ
Nm
W 1=
1000 J

3063 kJ .(1)

- Second Step
W 2=P2 (V 2V )

m3101325 N
J
1,01325 m2
1 kJ
Nm
W 2=12 ( 12,71 )
1000 J

2025 kJ (2)

c. Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at

constant volume

Q=0

- First Step
' y ' V 1 1y
P2 (V ) =P1 V 1 P =P1 ( ) y =1,67
V2

1 1,67
P=1( ) =63,42
2
P V 2P1 V 1
W 1=
y1

( 63,421112 ) m3
101325 N
1,671
J
1,01325 m
2
1 kJ
Nm
W 1=
1000 J

7674,76 kJ

- Second Step
Volume constant sehingga W2 = 0
W =W 1+ W 2=7674,76 kJ +0 kJ =7674,76 kJ

d. Heating at constan volume followed by cooling at
constan pressure
- First step
Volume konstan sehingga W1=0
- Second Step
W 2=P2 V
W 2=P2 (V 2V 1 )
m3101325 N
J
1,01325 m2
1 kJ
Nm
W 2=12 ( 112 )
1000 J

13200 kJ

- Hukum 1 termodinamika
U =Q+W U = 0
0=Q+ W

Q=W =13200 kJ

e. Cooling at constant pressure followed by heating at
constant volume
- First Step
W 1=P1 V
W 1=P1 (V 2V 1 )
m3101325 N
J
1,01325 m2
1 kJ
Nm
W 2=1 ( 112 )
1000 J

1100kJ

- Second Step
Volume konstan sehingga W2=0
- Hukum 1 termodinamika
U =Q+W U = 0
0=Q+ W

Q=W =1100 kJ

SOAL NOMOR 3.12

Pada contoh 2.12 (halaman 49) untuk mass balance :

d ( mU )tank
H ' m' =0
dt

d ( m )tank
Dimana : '=
m
dt

Jika kedua persamaan digabungkan, maka :

d ( mU )tank ' d (m)tank
H =0
dt dt
Persamaan tersebut dikalikan dengan dt dan asumsikan
bahwa H' adalah konstan, maka :

'
( mU )tank H mtank =0

m 2 U 2 m1 U 1=H ' ( m 2m 1 )

Jika massa awal tangki adalah kosong ( m1=0 ) , maka :

'
m2 U 2 ( 0 ) U 1=H ( m20 )

m 2 U 2 =H ' ( m 2 )
'
H ( m2 )
U 2=
m2

U 2=H '

H=U + PV

H=U + RT

Maka :
' ' '
H =U +R T
' '
U 2=U + R T

U 2U ' =R T '

Cv
Untuk konstan :
U =C v T

(U 2 U ' )=C v (T 2T ' )

Maka :
' '
C v ( T 2T )=R T
dT R
=
T Cv

Dimana :
CP
=
Cv

C PC v =R

Maka :
( T 2 T ' ) R
=
T '
Cv

( T 2 T ' ) C PC v
=
T
'
Cv

T2 T ' CP Cv
'
'
=
T T Cv Cv
T2 CP
'
1= 1
T Cv

T2 CP
'
1+1=
T Cv

T2 CP
'
=
T Cv

CP '
T2= T
Cv

T 2 = T '

SOAL NOMOR 3.14

Diketahui : V= 0.1 m3
T1= 25 o C = 298 K
P1= 101.33 kPa
T2= 45 oC = 318 K
P2= 1500 kPa
CP= 7/2R
CV= 5/2R
Ditanya : Q.....?
Dijawab :
Q=n Cp ( T 2 - T1 ) -V P

( P 1 - P2 )V
n=
R T1

( P 1 - P2 ) V
Q= Cp R ( T2 - T 1) - V P
R T1

( 101.33 kPa-1500 kPa ) 0.1 m 3 7
Q= ( 318 K-298 K ) -0.1 m 3 (1398.67 kPa)
298 K 2

3
Q=172.71 m kPa

3 10 -2 bar 105 J 10 -3 KJ
Q=172.71 m kPa 3
1 kPa 1 m bar 1 J

Q=172.7KJ

SOAL NOMOR 3.16

3.16 Ditanya : cara mengembangkan persamaan untuk
T2
menghasilkan dari gas yang tersisa didalam tangki
P1
setelah tangki mengalami kebocoran dari tekanan
P2
awal ke tekanan akhir?

Jawab :
Asumsi yang dibuat dalam memecahkan masalah ini
adalah bahwa gas ideal dengan kapasitas panas
konstan. Neraca energi yang tepat diberikan oleh
Persamaan (2.29) pada BAB 2, tertulis bahwa :

d (nU )tank
+ H ' ' = Q

dt

' '
d (nU )+ H d n =dQ

di mana n dan U diasumsikan untuk isi tangki, dan

H ' dan ' diasumsikan untuk aliran keluar. H' =

n dU +U dn H dn=Q atau n dU ( H U ) dn=dQ

Dimana :

dU =C v dT

HU =PV =RT

dQ=mC dT

kapasitas panas.

Dengan demikian,

n C v dT RT dn=mC dT

atau

dT R R d ( nC v ) R d (n C v + mC )
= dn= =
T n C v + mC C v n C v + mC C v n C v +mC

Integrasi yields :

T2 n2 C v +mC
ln ( ) R
= ln
T 1 Cv (
n1 C v +mC )

Atau :
R / Cv
T 2 n2 C v + mC
=
(
T 1 n1 C v + mC )

P2 V tank PV
n2= dan n1= 1 tank
RT2 RT1

T2 n2
Persamaan ini dapat diselesaikan untuk dan .
mC Cv T 2 =T 1 mC=0 , maka
Jika >> , maka . Jika
kita pakai rumus ekspansi isentropik.

18. An ideal gas, initially at 30C and 100 Kpa,

undergoes the following cyclic processes in a closed
system :
(a) In mechanically reversible processes, it is first
compressed adiabatically to 500 Kpa the cooled at a
constant pressure of 500 Kpa to 30C and finally
expanded isothermally to its original state.
(b)The cycle traverser exactly the same changes of state
but each step is irreversible with an efficiency of 80%
compared with the corresponding mechanically
reversible process

Calculate :

(1)Q
(2)W
(3)U
(4)H
For each step of the process and for the cycle. Table

Cp = R and Cv = R

Dik :

P1 = 100 Kpa

P2 = 500 Kpa

Cp = R

Cv = R

Closed system

T2 =
479,
897
K

U =
CV T

U =
CV ( T2
T1 )
U = R ( 479, 897 K 303 K )

U = 442,243 K x 8,314 L.KPa.K-1.mol-1

U = 3677,019 Kj.mol-1

H = Cp T

H = R ( T2 T1 )

H = 619,1395 K x 8,314 L.KPa.K-1.mol-1

H = 5147,525 Kj.mol-1

W = U

W = 3677,019 Kj.mol-1

SOAL NOMOR 3.20

. diketahui :
T1 = 150 C = 423,15 K
P1 = 8 bar
Perubahan reversible.
T2 = 50 C = 323,15 K
P3 = 3 bar
Cp = (7/2) R
Cv= (5/2) R
Ditanya:
W?
Q?
U =?

H= ?

Jawab:

Step 12
Secara isotermal ( temperatur konstan)
H=0 kJ /mol

U =0 kJ /mol
V1
W= RT1 ln V3
P1T 3
= RT1 ln P3T 1

= 8,314 x 10-3 kJ/ K mol (423,15 K) (ln

3 x 323,15 K
( )
8 x 423,15 K )

= 3,518 ln (0,491)
= - 2,502 kJ/ mol
U =Q+W

Q= -W
= 2,502 kJ/ mol

Step 23
Secara Isokhorik (Volume Tetap)
W=0
Q = U = C T v

= Cv (T3 T2 )
= 5/2 R (323,15 423,15) K
= 5/2 (8,314 x 10-3 kJ/mol . K (-100 K)
= -2,0785 kJ/ mol
H= Cp T

= Cp (T3 T2)
= 7/2 R (T3 T2)
= 7/2 (8,314 x 10 -3
kJ/mol. K (323,15 K
423,15 K)
= - 291 kJ/mol

UNTUK PROSES KESELURUHAN :

W= W12 +W23
= (-2,502 + 0 ) kJ/ mol
= - 2,502 kJ/mol
Q= Q12 + Q23
= (2,502 2,0785 ) kJ/mol
= 0,424 kJ/mol
U = U 12+ U 23

= (0 2,0785 ) kJ/mol
= -2,0785 kJ/mol
H= H 12+ H 23

= (0 2,91) kJ/mol
= -2,91 kJ/mol

SOAL NOMOR 3.22

22. Diket : n = 1 mol
T1 = 300C
T2 = 1300C
P1 = 1bar
P2 = 10 bar
a. Dipanaskan dengan Isokhorik lalu Dikompress
Isotermal
b. Dipanaskan Isobarik lalu dikompres isothermal
c. Dikompres isothermal lalu dipanaskan isobaric

Ditanya : Q ,W , H , U =?

Jawab :

W =0
5 8.314 J
U =Cv T U= ( 403 K303 K )
2 mol K

5 8.314 J J
U= (100 K ) U =2078,5
2 mol K mol

KJ
U =2,0785
mol

7 8.314 J
H=Cp T H= ( 403 K303 K )
2 mol K

7 J J
H= 8,314 100 K H=2909,9
2 mol K mol

KJ
H=2,91
mol

KJ
U =Q+W U =Q+0 Q=2,0785
mol

DiKompres Isotermal
P2
U = H=0 W =R T 2 ln
P1

1

10 J
W =7714,908
J mol
W =8.314 K 403 K ln
mol

KJ
W =7,715
mol

KJ KJ
U =Q+W 0=Q+ 7,715 Q=7,715
mol mol

5
U =Cv T U= RT
2

5 J J
U = 8.314 K ( 403303 ) K U =2078,5
2 mol mol

U =2,0785 KJ /mol

7 8.314 J
H=Cp T H= ( 403 K303 K )
2 mol K

7 J J
H= 8,314 100 K H=2909,9
2 mol K mol

KJ
H=2,91
mol

J
W =R T W =8,314 K ( 403303 ) K
mol

J J
W =831,4 W =0,8314
mol mol

U =Q+W

KJ J KJ
2,0785
mol (
=Q+ 0,8134
mol ) Q=2,9099
mol

Dikompress Isotermal

P2
U = H=0 W =R T 2 ln
P1

1

10 J
W =7714,908
J mol
W =8,314 K 403 K ln
mol

W =7,715 KJ /mol

KJ
U =Q+W 0=Q+ 7,715 Q=7,715 KJ /mol
mol

C. Dikompres Isotermal

P2
U = H=0 W =R T 1 ln
P1

1

10 J
W =5800,54
J mol
W =8,314 K 303 K ln
mol

KJ
W =58
mol

KJ KJ
U =Q+W 0=Q+ 58 Q=58
mol mol

5
U =Cv T U= RT
2

5 J J
U = 8,314 K ( 403303 ) K U =2078,5
2 mol mol

KJ
U =2,0785
mol

7 8.314 J
H=Cp T H= ( 403 K303 K )
2 mol K

7 J J
H= 8,314 100 K H=2909,9
2 mol K mol

KJ
H=2,91
mol

J
W =R T W =8,314 K ( 403303 ) K
mol

J J
W =831,4 W =0,8314
mol mol

U =Q+W

KJ J KJ
2,0785
mol (
=Q+ 0,8134
mol ) Q=2,9099
mol

SOAL NOMOR 3.24

Diketahui:
Step 1: n= 1 mol
T1 = 800 K
P1= 4 bar
T2= 350 K
(Isobarik)
T3= 800 K
P2 = 4 bar
Jika kedua step tersebut diganti dengan Single
Isothermal Expansion(P=4bar, T=800 K)
Ditanya : P final (PF)?
Penyelesaian :

Isobarik: Isokhorik:
W R.T W 0
W R(T3 T2 ) U Q W
U Q

T3 T1
maka,
W R(T1 T2 )

Single Isothermal Expansion:

PF
W RT ln
P1

PF
R (T1 T2 ) RT1 ln
P1
PF R (T1 T2 )
ln
P1 RT1
PF T1 T2
ln
P1 T1
T2 T1
PF P1 exp
T1
(350 800) K
PF 4bar exp
800 K
450 K
PF 4bar exp
800 K
PF 4bar exp( 0.5625)
4bar
PF
exp( 0.5625)
4bar
PF
1.75505
PF 2.27913bar

PF
R (T1 T2 ) RT1 ln
P1
PF R (T1 T2 )
ln
P1 RT1
PF T1 T2
ln
P1 T1
T2 T1
PF P1 exp
T1
(350 800) K
PF 4bar exp
800 K
450 K
PF 4bar exp
800 K
PF 4bar exp( 0.5625)
4bar
PF
exp( 0.5625)
4bar
PF
1.75505
PF 2.27913bar

P final (PF) nya adalah 2.27913 bar

Diketahui :

= Cp/Cv

nA = nB sejak volume total adalah

konstan,

2. nA . R . T 1 n A . R . ( TA+TB ) 2. T 1
P1 = P2 atau P1 =

TA+ TB
P2 (1)

1
P2
(a) P2 = 1,25 atm TB = T1 ( )
P1

(2)

P2
TA = 2.T1. P 1 TB Q = nA.(UA + UB)

Q
q=
Ketetapan nA q = Cv (TA + TB

2.T1) (3)

kJ
q=3,118
TB = 319,75 K TA = 430,25 K mol

Ans.

(b) Kombinasikan persamaan (1) & (2) untuk

dieliminasi terhadap rasio dari tekanan :

TA = 425 K TB = 300 K
1
TA+TB
Yang mana TB = T1 ( 2. T 1 )
TB = Find(TB)

TB = 319,02 K
Ans.

TA+TB
P2 =
P1 ( 2.T 1 ) (1) P2 = 1,24 atm

Ans.

kJ
q=2,993
q = Cv.(TA + TB 2.T1) mol

Ans.
(c) TB = 325 K oleh persamaan (2)
1
TB
P2 = P1
T1 ( )
P2 = 1,323 atm

Ans.

P2
TA = 2.T1. P 1 TB (1) TA = 469 K

Ans.

kJ
q=4,032
q = Cv.(TA + TB 2.T1) mol

Ans.

(d) Eliminate TA + TB dari persamaan (1) & (3) :

kJ q. P1
q=3
mol P2= 2. T 1. Cv + P1 P2 = 1,241 atm

Ans.
1
TB
TB = T1. ( )
T1

(2) TB = 319,06 K

Ans.

P2
TA = 2.T1. P 1 TB (1) TA = 425,28 K

Ans.

SOAL NOMOR 3.28

Diketahui : 1 mol dengan tekanan awal P1 dan tekanan
akhir P2
Ditanya : persamaan yang membandingkan dengan gas
ideal
Penyelesaian:
Dari mechanically reversible kita tahu bahwa:
V2

W= PdV (eq 3.25 hal.74)

VI
Z=1+B'P ( di soal)
PV
Z= RT ( gas ideal)

PV
RT = 1+B'P

RT
V= P (1 + B'P)

1
V=RT( P + B')

dV 1
dP = RT ( P2 + 0)

RT
dV= P
2 dP
V2

W= PdV
VI

V2

W= RT
P2 PdV
VI

V2

= RT 1P dP
VI

=RT Ln PP 21

= RT (Ln P2 Ln P1)
P2
W= RT Ln P 1

SOAL NOMOR 3.30

Diketahui:

T = 100 C = 373.15 K

P1 = 1 bar

P2 = 55 bar

B = 242.5 cm3mol1
C = 25200 cm6mol2

B
B = RT

CB2
C = ( RT )2

W = .?

Penyelesaian:

B
B = RT

2
CB
C = ( RT )
2

(a) Selesaikan virial Equation untuk menentukan V

RT
V = P1

B C
1+ +
Z= V V2

P1V 1 B C
=1+ + 2
RT V1 V 1

V1 = 30780 cm3/mol

P2V 2 B C
=1+ + 2
RT V2 V2

V2 = 241.33 cm3/mol

Eliminasi P dari Eq 1.3 menggunakan virial equations:
V2

W= RT 1+ VB + VC2 V1 dV
( )
V1

W = 12.62 kJ/mol

(b)Eliminasi dV dari Eq 1.3 menggunakan virial equation
dalam P:

dV =
1
(
R T 2 +C ' dP
P )
P2

W= RT
P1
( 1P +C P ) dP
'

W = 12.596 kJ/mol

ilai W pada bagian (a) dan (b) berbeda karena hubungan

antara 2 set parameter tersebut hanya tepat untuk
infinite series

Diketahui :
T=25C =298.15K
P= 12 bar
Tc=282,3 K
Pc=50.4 bar
W= 0.087
Tc=1.056

T
Tr = Tc

P
Pr = Pc

Ditanya : a. The truncated virial equation [ Eq.(3.39)]

with the following experimental values of virial
coofecients :

B = -140 cm3 mol-1 C = 7,200 cm6 mol-2
b. The truncated virial equation [Eq.(3.37) with a value
of B from the generalized Pitzer correlation [E.q(3.59)]
c. The Redlich / Kwong equation
d. The Soave / Redlich / Kwong equation
e. The Peng / Robinson equation B = -140 cm3
Penyelesaian mol-1
RT
a.V = P
12
K ( 298.15 K )
(83.14) cm mol
= = 2066 cm3/mol

RT B C
V= P (1+ V + V )

140 cm mol
= 2066 cm3 / mol ( 1 + 2066 cm mol +

7200 cm mol
( 2066 ) cm mol

= 2066 cm3 / mol ( 0.9340 cm3 / mol ) = 1930

cm3/mol

PV
Z= RT
) cm mol
( 12 ) ( 1930
= ( 83.14 ) cm 3 mol
K ( 298.15 ) K

23160
= 24789 = 0.935

0.422 0.172
b. B0 = 0.083 Tr 1.6 B1 = 0.139 Tr 4.2
0.422
= 0.083 1.091 = 0.139

0.172
1.257

= - 0.304 = 2.1662 x 10-3

Pr
Z = 1 + ( B0 +. B1 ) Tr

= 1 + ( - 0.304 + 1.885 x 10-4 ) ( 0.225 ) = 0.9316

ZRT
V= P
12
= ( 0.9316 ) (83.14 cm 3 mol
K ( 298.15 ) K ) = 1924

c. =1; =0 ; =0.0664 ; =0.42748

( Tr ) = Tr -0.5
= 1.056-0.5=0.973
. (T r )
q( Tr ) = . T r
0.416
=5.073
= 0.7082

Pr ( 0.08664 ) (0.238)
= = =0.0195
Tr 1.056

Hitung Z Asumsi Z = 0.9

Masukkan ( E.q. 3.49 ) V=
Z. R.T
=1916.5
P
ZB
Z = 1 + q ( Z + )( Z + ) =

3
(0.928).( 83.14) cm mol K ( 298.15 ) K
12

0.90.195
= 1 + 0.0195 0.099 ( 0.9 )( 0.0195 )
0.8805
= 1 + 0.0195 0.099( 0.92755 )= 0.928

)]2

= [ 1 + ( 0.480 + 0.137 1.32 x 10-3 ) ( 1 1.028 ) ]2

= [ 1 + ( 0.6157 ) ( - 0.028 ) ]2 = 2.98 x 10-4

. ( Tr , )
q(Tr ) = . Tr

1.274 x 104
= 0.0915 = 1.392 x 10-3

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = Tr
0.0207
=0.0196
= 1.056

Hitung Z Asumsi Z= 0.9

Z
Z = 1 + q ( Z + . ) ( Z + . ) V=

Z. R.T
=1900
P

0.90.0196
= 1 + 0.0196 2.2729 ( 0.9196 )( 1.9196 ) =

( 0.92 ) ( 83.14 ) cm3 mol

K ( 298.15 ) K
12
= 1 + 0.0196 2.729

0.8804
=0.928
1.766

1
= ; =1 2 ; =0.0779; =0.45724
e. 2

( 1- Tr 0.5 ) ]2

= [ 1 + 0.37464 + 0.1342 2.043 x 10-3 ) ( 1 1.028 )

]2
= [ 1.5068 x ( -0.028 ) ]2= 1.7800 x 10-3
. ( Tr , )
q(Tr ) = . Tr
4
8.1389 x 10
= =9.902 x 103
0.0822

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = Tr
0.0185
=0.0176
= 1.056

Hitung Z Asumsi Z= 0.9

Z
Z = 1 + q ( Z + . ) ( Z + . ) V=

Z. R.T
=1900
P
0.90.0176
= 1 + 0.0176 1.743 x 10 -4
( 0.893 )( 0.0600 )

( 0.92 ) ( 83.14 ) cm3 mol K ( 298.15 ) K

12
=

0.8824
= 1 + 0.0176 1.743 x 10 -4
0,05358 = 0.92

SOAL NOMOR 3.34

Diketahui :
Sulfur Hexafluoride
T = 75 C + 273 = 348 K
T 348 K
Tr= = =1,092
Tc 318,7 K

P = 15 bar
37,6 =0,399

15
Tc = 318,7 K P
Pr =
Pc

Pc = 37,6 bar
3
Vc = 198 cm mol
=0,286

cm 3 /mol K
R = 83,14

Ditanya :
Hitunglah nilai Z dan V
a. Equation 3.39
3 6 2
B = -194 cm mol C = 15300 cm mol
b. Equation 3.37, nilai B substitusi dari Pitzer Correlation
Equation 3.59
c. The Redlich Kwong Equation
d. The Soave Redlich Kwong Equation
e. The Peng Robinson Equation

Jawab :
Gas Ideal
PV = RT
15 =1929 cm3 mol
cm3 /mol K x 348 K
83,14
V=
RT
=
P

28935
83,14 cm3 /mol K x 348 K=
28932,72
Z= 3
PV 15 x 1929cm mol
=
RT

Z=1

a. Equation 3.39
3
B = -194 cm mol C = 15300 cm 6 mol 2

RT B C
V= P (
1+ + 2
V V )
3
(194 cm /mol) 15300 cm 6 mol2
(
15 1+ +
1929 cm 3 mol (1929 cm 3 /mol)2 )
V= cm3 /mol K x 348 K
83,14

3 6 2

V = 1929 (
cm 3 / mol 1
194 cm mol
3
+
15300 cm mol
6
1929 cm mol 3.721.041 cm mol
2 )
V = 1929 cm 3 /mol ( 10,1+0,004 )

V = 1929 cm 3 / mol ( 0,904 )

V = 1744 cm 3 mol

PV
Z= RT
26160
83,14 cm 3 /mol K x 348 K=
28932,72
Z= 15 x 1744 cm 3 mol

Z = 0,904

b. Equation 3.37
PV BP
=1+
Z = RT RT

Equation 3.59
BP
=B 0+ B 1
RT substitusi ke persamaan 3.37

Pr
B 0+ B 1
sehingga, Z = 1 + ( Tr

0 0,422
B =0,083
Tr 1,6
0 0,422 0,422
B =0,083 =0,083
( 1,092 ) 1,6
1,151

B 0=0,283

1 0,172
B =0,139
(1,092)
4,2

0,172
B 1=0,139
1,447
1
B =0,02

Equation 3.37
Pr
B 0+ B 1
Z=1+( Tr

1,092 )

Z = 1 + ( -0,283 + 0,00572) (0,365)

Z = 0,899

ZRT
V= P

15
3
cm /mol K x 348 K
V= 0,899 x 83,14

V = 1734 cm 3 mol

c. The Redlich Kwong Equation
Z
q
Z=1+ ( Z+ ) (Z+ )

Dari Tabel 3.1

( Tr )=Tr 1 2 ; =1 ; =0; =0,08664 ; =0,42748

Equation 3.50
Pr 0,399
=
=0,08664
Tr 1,092 (
=0,032 )

Equation 3.51
1
2
1,092

q= 0,42748 x
(Tr)
=
Tr
substitusikan nilai dan q ke dalam Persamaan
Redlich Kwong

Z
q
Z=1+ ( Z+ ) (Z+ ) nilai Z = 1

10,032
Z = 1 + 0,032 (5,3 x 0,032) ( 1+ ( 0 x 0,032 ) ) (1+ ( 1 x 0,032 ) )

Z = 1,032 0,16 ( 0,968

1,032 )

Z = 1,032 0,144
Z = 0,888

Z RT
V= P
15

/ mol K x 348 K
V= 0,888 x 83,14 cm3

3
V = 1712,81 cm mol

d. The Soave Redlich Kwong Equation
Z
q
Z=1+ ( Z+ ) (Z+ )

Dari Tabel 3.1

SRK (Tr ; ) ; =1 ; =0 ; =0,08664 ; =0,42748

2

[ ]
1
2
SRK (Tr ; ) = 1+(0,480+1,574 0,176 )(1Tr ) 2

(Tr;
2

[ ]
1
2 2
= 1+(0,480+1,574 (0,286)0,176 ( 0,286 ) )(1(1,092) )
2
(Tr; =[ 1+(0,480+ 0,4500,176 ( 0,082 ) )(11,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+ ( 0,480+0,4500,015 ) (0,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+(0,92)(0,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+(0,04) ]
2
(Tr; =[ (0,96) ]

(Tr; =0,9216

Equation 3.50
Pr 0,399
=
=0,08664
Tr 1,092
=0,032 ( )

Equation 3.51
(Tr ; ) 0,42748 x 0,9216 0,4
q= = = =4,21
Tr 0,08664 x 1,092 0,095

substitusikan nilai dan q ke dalam Persamaan

SRK

Z
q
Z=1+ ( Z+ ) (Z+ ) nilai Z = 1

Z = 1 + 0,032 (4,21 x 0,032)

10,032
( 1+ ( 0 x 0,032 ) ) (1+ ( 1 x 0,032 ) )

Z = 1,032 0,135 ( 0,968

1,032 )

Z = 1,032 0,13
Z = 0,902

Z RT
V= P
15
/mol K x 348 K
V= 0,902 x 83,14 cm3

3
V = 1739,82 cm /mol

e. The Peng Robinson Equation
Z
q
Z=1+ ( Z+ ) (Z+ )

Dari Tabel 3.1

SRK (Tr ; ) ; =1+ 2 ; =1 2 ; =0,07779 ; =0,45724

[ ]
1
2
SRK (Tr ; ) = 1+(0,37464 +1,54226 0,26992 )(1Tr ) 2

(Tr;
2

[ ]
1
2 2
= 1+(0,37464+ 1,54226(0,286)0,26992 ( 0,286 ) )(1(1,092) )
2
(Tr; =[ 1+ ( 0,37464+ 0,4410,26992 ( 0,082 ) ) (11,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+ ( 0,37464+0,4410,022 ) (0,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+ ( 0,37464+0,4410,022 ) (0,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+ ( 0,794 ) (0,045) ]
2
(Tr; =[ 1+(0,035)]
2
(Tr; =[ (0,965) ]

(Tr; =0,931

Equation 3.50
Pr 0,399
=
=0,07779
Tr 1,092 (
=0,028 )

Equation 3.51
(Tr ; ) 0,45724 x 0,931 0,425
q= = = =5
Tr 0,07779 x 1,092 0,085

substitusikan nilai dan q ke dalam Persamaan

Peng Robinson

Z
q
Z=1+ ( Z+ ) (Z+ ) nilai Z = 1
2
1+
1+ ( ( x 0,028 ) )
Z = 1 + 0,028 (5 x 0,028) (1+( (1 2) x 0,028 ) )
10,028

0,972
Z = 1,028 0,14 (( 0,9888 ) (1,0672) )
0,972
Z = 1,028 0,14 ( (1,055) )
Z = 1,028 0,12894
Z = 0,899

Z RT
V= P
15
3 / mol K x 348 K
V= 0,899 x 83,14 cm

V = 1734,03 cm 3 /mol

Diketahui:
Z

B=
'
( )
P T . P =0

B '= ( ZP )
T . =0

Dimana =1 /V

Ditanya: Buktikan pernyataan tersebut!

Jawab:
Pers 3.11 Z =1+ B ' P+C ' P2 + D ' P3

B C D
Z =1+ + +
Pers 3.12 V V2 V 3

PV
Z=
Pers 3.10 RT

Sehingga untuk mendapatkan Pers 3.11

PV =a+ bP+ c P2 +d P3

PV
Z=
Dimana RT

Z=
a

Z =1+ B ' P+C ' P2 + D ' P3

Z
( )
P T
=B ' +2 C ' P+3 D ' P2

( ZP )
T . P=0
=B ' +2 C' (0)+3 D '(0)2

B '= ( ZP )
T . P =0

TERBUKTI

Pers 3.12
B C D
Z =1+ + 2 + 3
V V V

Dimana V =1/

Z =1+ B +C 2 + D 3

Z
( )
T
=B +2C +3 D 2

( ZP )
T . =0
=B '+2 C( 0)+3 D(0)2

B '= ( ZP )
T . =0

TERBUKTI

SOAL NOMOR 3.38

Hitunglah molar volum dari saturated liquid dan
saturated vapor dengan persamaan Redlich/Kwong
untuk :

21,22 Bar

Diketahui :

Table B.1untuk propane:

Tc = 369,8 K Pc = 42,48 K
= 0,152 T = 333,15 K
P = 21,22 bar

Penyelesaian :
T 333,15 P
Tr = TC = 369,8 = 0,900 Pr = PC =

21,22
42,48 = 0,499

Untuk Redlich/Kwong EOS:

=1 =0
= 0,08664 = 0,42748
Pr ( 0,08664 ) (0,499)
= = = 0,0480
Tr 0,900

0,42748 0,900
q(Tr) = Tr3/ 2 = ( 3 /2 = 3,3840
0,08664
Z
Z= 1 + -q
Z ( Z +)

10,0480
= 1 + 0,0480 -3,3840 1(1+ 0,0480) = 0,01

Sehingga Z ;
Z + (Tr , Pr)
Z= (Tr , Pr ) + (Z + .
(Tr , Pr) . ) .

1+ ( Tr , Pr ) Z
q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr )

= 0,0480 + (0,01 + ( 0. 0,0480.1. 0,0480).

1+0,04800,01
( 3,380 ) .(0,0480)

= 0,56
cm3 1
V = Z.R.T/P = 0,56. 83,14 bar. mol K1 .
333,15 K/ 13,71 bar = 112,4 cm3/mol.

Calculate Z untuk vapor ;

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,9

1+ ( Tr , Pr ) Z
Z=1+ ( T r , Pr ) q(Tr). ( Tr , Pr ) .
q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr )

= 1 + 0,0480 - 3,3840. 0,0480.1+0,0480-0,9/- 3,3840.

0,0480
= 0.79
V = Z.R.T/P
cm 3 1
=.0,79. 83,14 bar. mol K1 .333.15

K/21,22 bar
= 920,3 cm3/mol.

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

Vc = 200 cm3/mol Zc = 0,276

Vc . Zc [(1Tr )
0,2857
]
V=

[10,847]
= 200 cm3/mol 0,276

= 102,8 cm3/mol

Untuk Saturated Vapor, digunakan hubungan

Pitzer

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6
1,6
= 0,083 - 0,422/ 0,900

= -0,147

B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2
4,2
=
0,139 -0,127/ 0,900

= -0,058

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1 Tc/Pc
cm3 1
= (83,14 bar. mol K1 . 333,15 K/21,22 bar)

cm 3 1
+ 83,14 bar. mol K1 . -0,147+ (0,152. -

0,058. 369,8,8/42,48)
= 990,4 cm3/mol.

25,94 Bar

Table B.1untuk propane:

Tc = 369,8 K Pc = 42,48 K
= 0,152 T = 343,15 K
P = 25,94 bar

Penyelesaian :
T 343,15 P
Tr = TC = 369,8 = 0,927 Pr = PC =

25,94
42,48 = 0,610

Untuk Redlich/Kwong EOS:

=1 =0
= 0,08664 = 0,42748
Pr 0,610
(Tr,Pr)= = 0,08664 = 0,057
Tr 0,927

3/ 2 0,42748 0,927
q(Tr) = Tr = ( 3 /2 = 3,3840 =
0,08664

5,528
Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01 Maka:

Z = (Tr,Pr) + (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) . (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) (

1+ (Tr , Pr)Z
q Tr . (Tr , Pr ) )

= 0,057 + (1+0).( 0,057)(1+1)( 0,057)1+0,057-0,01/

5,528 . 0,057
= 0,12
3 1 1
V = Z.R.T/P = 0,12 . 83,14 cm bar. mol K .
343,15 K/ 25,94 bar = 133,6 cm3/mol.

Calculate Z untuk vapor ;

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,9

1+ ( Tr , Pr ) Z
Z=1+ ( Tr , Pr ) q(Tr). ( Tr , Pr ) .
q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr )

= 1 + 0,057 -5,528. 0,057 .1+ 0,057 -0,9/-5,528.

0,057
= 0.70
V = Z.R.T/P
3 1 1
=.0,70. 83,14 cm bar. mol K .343.15
K/25,94 bar
= 717,0 cm3/mol.

Vc = 200 cm3/mol Zc = 0,276

[(1Tr )0,2857]
V= Vc . Zc

[ (10,927 ) 0,2857
]
= 200 cm3/mol 0,276

= 109,0 cm3/mol

Untuk Saturated Vapor, digunakan hubungan

Pitzer

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6
1,6
= 0,083 - 0,422/ 0,927

= -0,0393

B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2
4,2
=
0,139 -0,127/ 0,927

= -0,0353

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1 Tc/Pc
cm 3 1
= (83,14 bar. mol K1 343,15 K/25,94 bar)

cm 3 1
+83,14 bar. mol K1 . - 0,0393 + (0,152. -

0,0353. 369,8 K/42,48 K) = 805,0 cm3/mol.

Hitunglah molar volum dari saturated liquid dan
saturated vapor dengan persamaan Redlich/Kwong
untuk :

g) n-Butane pada 120C dimana Psat = 22,38 bar.

Dik. T=120C = 393,15K; P = 22,38 bar; Tc=369,8K ;
Pc=42,48 bar ; = 0,152

(Tr) = Tr-0,5 = 0,847-0,5=1,086 ; (q Tr) = . Tr/ .Tr =

0,42748. 1,086/ 0,08664. 0,847 = 6,3

Maka:

Z = (Tr,Pr) + (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) . (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) (

1+ (Tr , Pr)Z
q Tr . (Tr , Pr ) )

Z = 0,03 + (0,01 + 0) . 0,03 . (0,01 + 1 ) . 0,03

((1+0,03-0,01)/(6,3. 0,03))

Z = 0,057.

cm3/mol.

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,9

Z (Tr , Pr )
Z = 1 + (Tr,Pr) q (Tr) . (Tr,Pr) ( Z . (Z + )(Tr , PZ) )

Z = 0,789

cm3/mol.

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

Vc = 200 cm3/mol

Zc = 0,276
0,2857
cm3
200. 0,276[ ]
[(1Tr )0,2857] ( 10,847 )
Vc . Zc = =137,4 .
V= mol

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6 = 0,083 0,422/0,8471,6 = -0,468

B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2 = 0,139 0,172/0,8474,2 = -0,207

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1 Tc/Pc
= (8,314. 313,15/13,71) + 8,314. -0,468 + (0,152.
-0,207. 369,8/2,48)
= 1074 cm3/mol.

h) n-Butane pada 130C dimana Psat = 26,59 bar.

Dik. T=130C = 403,15K; P = 26,59 bar; Tc=369,8K ;

Pc=42,48 bar ; = 0,152

(Tr) = Tr-0,5 = 0,87-0,5=1,072 ; (q Tr) = . Tr/ .Tr =

0,42748. 1,072/ 0,08664. 0,87 = 6,08

Maka:

Z = (Tr,Pr) + (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) . (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) (

1+ (Tr , Pr)Z
q Tr . (Tr , Pr ) )
Z = 0,04 + (0,01 + 0) . 0,04 . (0,01 + 1 ) . 0,04
((1+0,04-0,01)/(6,08. 0,04))

Z = 0,040.

cm3/mol.

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,9

Z (Tr , Pr )
Z = 1 + (Tr,Pr) q (Tr) . (Tr,Pr) ( Z . (Z + )(Tr , PZ) )

Z = 0,698

cm3/mol.

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

Vc = 200 cm3/mol

Zc = 0,276
0,2857
cm 3
Vc . Zc [(1Tr ) ] 200. 0,276[( 10,87 ) ]
0,2857

= =146,4 .
V= mol

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6 = 0,083 0,422/0,871,6 = -0,423

B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2 = 0,139 0,172/0,874,2 = -0,169

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1 Tc/Pc
= (8,314.323,15/17,16) + 8,314. -0,423 + (0,152.
-0,169. 369,8/2,48)
= 896 cm3/mol.
hitunglah volume molar dari saturated liquid dan volume
molar dari saturated vapor dengan mengikuti persamaan
redlich/kwong dan bandingkan hasilnya dengan nilai yang
didapat dari generalized correlations.

Jawab:

P=16,54 bar

Tc= 408,1 K

= 0,181

ZC= 0,282

Vc= 262,7 cm3/mol

Sehingga:

T
=
TR= Tc 363,15 K / 408,1 K = 0,89

Didapat dari tabel 3.1.

= 1

= 0,42748

= 0,08664

= 0

=TR-1/2= 1,0599

=5,876
= T R

PR
=0,0438
= T R
untuk liquid

1+ Z
( )
Z = + (Z + )(Z + )

1+ 0,0438Z
( )
5,876 (0,0438)

sehingga:

Z = 0,08392

Z RT
V= P

0,08392 x 83,14472 x 363,15

= 16,54 = 153,2 cm3/mol

Untuk vapor

Z=1+- ( ( Z +Z) ( Z + ) )
(0)(0,0438)
Z +1(0,0438)
Z=1+ 0,0438 - 5,876(0,0438) Z0,0438
()

sehingga:

Z = 0,7287

Z RT
V= P

0,7287 x 83,14472 x 363,15

= 16,54 = 1330,3 cm3/mol

Racket equation for saturasi liquid:

V = VcZc(1-Tr)^0,2857

V = 262,7 x 0,282(1-0,89)^0,2857

V = 133,9 cm3/mol

-0,4255

B1 = 0,139 (0,172/Tr4,2) = 0,139 (0,172/0,894,2) =

-0,1416

RT Tc
V= P + R(B0 + B1) Pc

83,14472363,15
V = + 83,14472 (-0,4255 + 0,181 (-
16,54

408,1
0,1416)) 36,48 = 1405,7 cm3/mol

P=20,03 bar

Tc= 408,1 K

= 0,181

ZC= 0,282

Vc= 262,7 cm3/mol

Sehingga:
T
=
TR= Tc 373,15 K / 408,1 K = 0,91

Didapat dari tabel 3.1.

= 1

= 0,42748

= 0,08664

= 0

=TR-1/2= 1,0483

=5,6838
= T R

PR
=0,0524
= T R

untuk liquid

1+ Z
( )
Z = + (Z + )(Z + )

1+ 0,0524Z
( )
5,6838 (0,0524)

sehingga:

Z = 0,10601

Z RT
V= P

0,10601 x 83,14472 x 373,15

= 20,03 = 164,2 cm3/mol
Untuk vapor

Z=1+- ( ( Z +Z) ( Z + ) )
(0)(0,0524)
Z +1(0,0524)
Z=1+ 0,0524 - 5,6838(0,0524) Z0,0524
()

sehingga:

Z = 0,6829

Z RT
V= P

0,6829 x 83,14472 x 373,15

= 20,03 = 1057,9 cm3/mol

Racket equation for saturasi liquid:

V = VcZc(1-Tr)^0,2857

V = 262,7 x 0,282(1-0,91)^0,2857

V = 140,3 cm3/mol

-0,4077

B1 = 0,139 (0,172/Tr4,2) = 0,139 (0,172/0,914,2) =

-0,1166

RT Tc
V= P + R(B0 + B1) Pc
83,14472373,15
V = + 83,14472 (-0,4077 + 0,181 (-
20,03

408,1
0,1166)) 36,48 = 1154,3 cm3/mol

Tc= 408,1 K Pr= 36,48 = 0,181 Zc=0,282 Vc= 262,7

383 24,01
=0,9385 =0,658
Tr= 408,1 Pr= 36,48

=1

=0

= 0,08664

= 0,42748

Zc = 1/3

Tr1/ 2 1/2 0,42748

q= = Tr = (0,9385)3 /2 =5,423
Tr 0,08664

Pr (0,08664) ( 0,658 )
= = =0,0607
Tr (0,9385)

( Z ) (10,0607)
Z= 1+ q Z (Z + )=1+ 0,0607( 5,423 ) (0,0607) 1(1+ 0,0607)

= 0,8687

ZRT ( 0,8687 ) ( 83,14 ) (383)

V= P =
v =1152,09 cm3 /mol
24,01

Z=

0,06070,0607
) ( 0,0607 ) )
=0,083

ZRT ( 0,083 ) ( 83,14 ) (383)

Vl= = =110,07 cm3 /mol
P 24,01

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

Vc = 262,7 cm3/mol

Zc = 0,282
0,2857 0,2857
cm3
Vc . Zc [ ]
=262,7. 0,282[ ]
( 1Tr ) ( 10,9385 )
=6,94 .
V= mol

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6= 0,083 0,422/0,93851,6=

-0,368
B = 0,139 0,172/Tr = 0,139 0,172/0,93854,2 =
1 4,2

-0,081

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1Tc/Pc
= (83,14. 383/24,01) + (83,14)(-0,368) + ((0,181)(
-0,081) (408,1/36,48))
= 1295,46 cm3/mol.

l) Isobutane saat 120oC dimana tekanan Psat=28,53 bar

Tc= 408,1 K Pr= 36,48 = 0,181 Zc=0,282 Vc= 262,7

393 28,53
=0,96 =0,78
Tr= 408,1 Pr= 36,48

(Tr)= Tr-1/2=(0,96)-1/2 = 1,02

=1
=0

= 0,08664

= 0,42748

Zc = 1/3
1/ 2
Tr 0,42748
q= = Tr1/2 = (0,96)3/ 2=5,246
Tr 0,08664

Pr (0,08664) ( 0,78 )
= = =0,0704
Tr (0,96)

(Z ) (10,0704)
Z= 1+ q Z (Z + ) =1+ 0,0704 (5,246 ) (0,0704) 1(1+0,0704)

= 0,7504

ZRT ( 0,7504 ) ( 83,14 ) (393)

Vv= = =859,397 cm3 /mol
P 28,53

Z=

0,07040,0704
) ( 0,0704 ) )
=0,097

ZRT ( 0,097 ) ( 83,14 )( 393)

V= P =
l =111,09 cm3 /mol
28,53

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

Vc = 262,7 cm3/mol

Zc = 0,282
0,2857 0,2857
cm3
Vc . Zc [(1Tr ) ]
=262,7. 0,282[( 10,96) ]
=29,53 .
V= mol

Untuk Saturated Vapor, digunakan hubungan Pitzer:

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6= 0,083 0,422/0,961,6= -0,367
B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2= 0,139 0,172/0,964,2 = -0,061

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1Tc/Pc
= (83,14. 393/28,53) + (83,14)(-0,367) + ((0,181)(
-0,061) (408,1/36,48))
= 1114,63 cm3/mol.
Hitunglah molar volum dari saturated liquid dan
saturated vapor dengan persamaan Redlich/Kwong
untuk :

Dik. T=60C = 333,15K; P = 18,21 bar; Tc=369,8K ;

Pc=42,48 bar ; = 0,152

(Tr) = Tr-0,5 = 0,9-0,5=1,69 ; (q Tr) = . Tr/ .Tr =

0,42748. 1,69/ 0,08664. 0,9 = 9,38

Maka:

Z = (Tr,Pr) + (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) . (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) (

1+ (Tr , Pr)Z
q Tr . (Tr , Pr ) )

Z = 0,04 + (0,01 + 0) . 0,04 . (0,01 + 1 ) . 0,04

((1+0,04-0,01)/(9,38. 0,04))

Z = 0,040.

V = Z.R.T/P = 0,040.8,314. 333,15/ 18,21 bar = 61,7

cm3/mol.
Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,9

Z (Tr , Pr )
Z = 1 + (Tr,Pr) q (Tr) . (Tr,Pr) ( Z . (Z + )(Tr , PZ) )

Z = 0,659

cm3/mol.

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid 0,51

Vc = 200 cm3/mol

Zc = 0,276
0,2857
cm3
Vc . Zc
[(1Tr )0,2857]
= 200. 0,276[( 10,9 ) ]
=53,5 .
V= mol

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6 = 0,083 0,422/0,871,6 = -0,423

B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2 = 0,139 0,172/0,874,2 = -0,169

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1 Tc/Pc
= (8,314.323,15/17,16) + 8,314. -0,423 + (0,152.
-0,169. 369,8/42,48)
= 1276,9 cm3/mol.
n) Propane pada 70C dimana Psat = 22,49 bar.

Dik. T=70C = 343,15K; P = 22,49 bar; Tc=369,8K ;

Pc=42,48 bar ; = 0,152

= 1; = 0; = 0,08664; = 0,42748 dari tabel 3.1

(Tr) = Tr-0,5 = 0,92-0,5=1,042 ; (q Tr) = . Tr/ .Tr =
0,42748. 1,042/ 0,08664. 0,92 = 5,6

Maka:

Z = (Tr,Pr) + (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) . (Z + ) . (Tr,Pr) (

1+ (Tr , Pr)Z
q Tr . (Tr , Pr ) )

Z = 0,04 + (0,01 + 0) . 0,04 . (0,01 + 1 ) . 0,04

((1+0,04-0,01)/(5,6. 0,04))

Z = 0,040.

cm3/mol.

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,9

Z (Tr , Pr )
Z = 1 + (Tr,Pr) q (Tr) . (Tr,Pr) ( Z . (Z + )(Tr , PZ) )

Z = 0,813

cm3/mol.

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

Vc = 200 cm3/mol

Zc = 0,276
0,2857
cm3
Vc . Zc [(1Tr ) ] 200. 0,276[( 10,92 ) ]
0,2857

= =55,1 .
V= mol

Untuk Saturated Vapor, digunakan hubungan Pitzer:

B0 = 0,083 0,422/Tr1,6 = 0,083 0,422/0,921,6 = -0,387
B1 = 0,139 0,172/Tr4,2 = 0,139 0,172/0,924,2 = -0,04

V = R.T/P + R. B0 + B1 Tc/Pc
= (8,314.343,15/22,49) + 8,314. -0,387 + (0,152.
-0,04. 369,8/42,48)
= 1038,5 cm3/mol.
Hitung volume molar cairan jenuh (saturated liquid) dan
volume molar uap jenuh (saturated vapor) dengan
persamaan Redlich/Kwong dan bandingkan hasil dengan
nilai dari korelasi umum.
(o) Klor (Cl2) pada 80oC dimana Psat = 27,43 bar.
(p) Klor (Cl2) pada 90oC dimana Psat = 33,08 bar.
Jawab:
Klor (Cl2)
Tc = 417,2 K Pc = 77,10 bar = 0,069 (Tabel
B.1)
(o) T = 80oC = 353 K
Psat = 27,43 bar
T 353 K
Tr = T c = 417,2 K = 0,846

77,10
P
Pr = Pc = 27,43 = 0,356

Untuk Persamaan Redlich/Kwong:

Parameter RK yang digunakan dapat dilihat pada Tabel 3.1
(hal. 99)
= 1 = 0 = 0,42748
= 0,08664
(Tr) = Tr-0,5 = (0,846)-0,5 = 1,087
(Tr )
q(Tr) = Tr (pers. 3.51)

0,42748 x 1,087 0,46467

q(Tr) = 0,08664 x 0,846 = 0,0733

q(Tr) = 6,33929
Pr
(Tr, Pr) = Tr (pers. 3.50)

0,08664 x 0,356 0,03084

(Tr, Pr) = 0,846 = 0,846

Untuk cairan jenuh (saturated liquid):

Z = + Z (Z + ) ( 1+qZ
) (pers. 3.53)

1+0,0365Z
Z = 0,0365 + Z (Z + 0,0365) ( 6,33929 x 0,0365 )

untuk langkah awal substitusikan Z = pada sisi kanan

persamaan. Iterasikan untuk mendapatkan nilai Z.

Z = 0,0625

Z RT 27,43
Vl = P = 0,0625 x 83,14 cm 3 mol K x 353 K

3
1834,27625 cm /mol
l
V = 27,43

Vl = 66,9 cm3/mol

Untuk uap jenuh (saturated vapor):

Z=1+q ( ZZ
(Z + ) ) (pers. 3.49)

0,0365
))

untuk nilai awal Z = 1 iterasi mendapatkan nilai Z =

0,7613.
Z RT 27,43
Vv = P = 0,7613 x 83,14 cm3 mol K x 353 K

22342,95215 cm3 /mol

v
V = 27,43

Vv = 814,5 cm3/mol

Untuk korelasi umum:

Persamaan racket untuk cairan jenuh (saturated
liquid):
Vc = 124 cm3/mol Zc = 0,265 (Tabel
B.1)

[( 1T )
0,2857
]
V c Zc
r

V= (pers. 3.63)

[ (10,846 )0,2857]
V = 124 cm3/mol x 0,265

Untuk uap jenuh (saturated vapor), gunakan

korelasi Pitzer:
0,422
B0 = 0,083 T 1,6
r
(pers. 3.61)

0,422
0
B = 0,083 0,8461,6

B0 = 0,083 0,552

B0 = -0,469

0,172
1
B = 0,139 T 4,2
r
(pers. 3.62)

0,172
1
B = 0,139 0,8464,2
B1 = 0,139 0,347

B1 = -0,208

Pr Pr
Z=1+B 0
Tr +B 1
Tr (substitusi pers. 3.54

dan 3.60)
0,356 0,356
Z = 1 + (-0,469) 0,846 + 0,069 (-0,208) 0,846

Z = 1 + (-0,19736) + (-0,00603)

Z = 0,7976

Z RT 27,43
3
V= P = 0,7976 x 83,14 cm mol K x 353 K

23408,29979 cm3 /mol

V= 27,43

V = 853,4 cm3/mol

Klor (Cl2)
Tc = 417,2 K Pc = 77,10 bar = 0,069 (Tabel
B.1)
(p) T = 90oC = 363 K
Psat = 33,08 bar
T 363 K
Tr = T c = 417,2 K = 0,870

77,10
P
Pr = Pc = 33,08 = 0,429

Untuk Persamaan Redlich/Kwong:

Parameter RK yang digunakan dapat dilihat pada Tabel
3.1 (hal. 99)
=1 =0 = 0,42748
= 0,08664
(Tr) = Tr-0,5 = (0,870)-0,5 = 1,072
(Tr )
q(Tr) = Tr (pers. 3.51)

0,42748 x 1,072 0,4583

q(Tr) = 0,08664 x 0,870 = 0,0754

q(Tr) = 6,078

Pr
(Tr, Pr) = Tr (pers. 3.50)

0,08664 x 0,429 0,0372

(Tr, Pr) = 0,870 = 0,870

Untuk cairan jenuh (saturated liquid):

Z = + Z (Z + ) ( 1+qZ
) (pers. 3.53)

1+0,0428Z
Z = 0,0428 + Z (Z + 0,0428) ( 6,078 x 0,0428 )

untuk langkah awal substitusikan Z = pada sisi kanan

persamaan. Iterasikan untuk mendapatkan nilai Z.

Z = 0,077
Z RT 33,08
Vl = P = 0,077 x 83,14 cm 3 mol K x 363 K

2323,84614 cm3 /mol

l
V = 33,08

Vl = 70,2 cm3/mol

Untuk uap jenuh (saturated vapor):

Z=1+q ( ZZ
(Z + ) ) (pers. 3.49)

0,0428
))

untuk nilai awal Z = 1 iterasi mendapatkan nilai Z =

0,725.

Z RT 33,08
3
Vv = P = 0,725 x 83,14 cm mol K x 363 K

21880,3695 cm3 /mol

v
V = 33,08

Vv = 661,4 cm3/mol

Untuk korelasi umum:

Persamaan racket untuk cairan jenuh (saturated
liquid):
Vc = 124 cm3/mol Zc = 0,265 (Tabel
B.1)
[( 1T )
0,2857
]
V= V c Zc r

(pers. 3.63)

0,265[ (10,870)
0,2857
]
V = 124 cm3/mol x

Untuk uap jenuh (saturated vapor), gunakan

korelasi Pitzer:
0,422
B0 = 0,083 T 1,6
r
(pers. 3.61)

0,422
0
B = 0,083 0,870
1,6
B0 = 0,083 0,527

B0 = -0,444

0,172
1
B = 0,139 T 4,2
r
(pers. 3.62)

0,172
1
B = 0,139 0,870
4,2

B1 = 0,139 0,309

B1 = -0,170

Pr Pr
Z=1+B 0
Tr +B 1
Tr (substitusi pers. 3.54

dan 3.60)
0,429 0,429
Z = 1 + (-0,444) 0,870 + 0,069 (-0,170) 0,870

Z = 1 + (-0,21894) + (-0,00578)

Z = 0,77528

Z RT 33,08
3
V= P = 0,77528 x 83,14 cm mol K x 363 K

3
23397,81085 cm /mol
V= 33,08

V = 707,3 cm3/mol

Tabel 1. Perbandingan Nilai Volume Molar dengan

Persamaan Redlich/Kwong dan Korelasi Umum
Persamaan
Korelasi Umum
Redlich/Kwong
V
V mo V
V
mol lar mol mol
ar sa ar ar
sat tur sat sat
ura ate urat ura
S ted d ed ted
liqu va liqu vap
id por id or
(cm (c (cm (cm
3
/m m3/ 3
/m 3
/m
ol) mo ol) ol)
l)

814 853,
( 66,9 57
,5 4

661 707,
( 70,2 59,1
,4 3

Hitunglah molar volum dari saturated liquid dan

saturated vapor dengan persamaan Peng Robinson
untuk :

Dik.

Pc=42,48
=0,152

T 313,15 K
Tr= = =0.847
Tc 369,8 K
42,48 =0.323

13,71

P
Pr= =
Pc

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

( Tr , ) =[ 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . ( 1Tr )]

1
2 2

( Tr , ) =1,098

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =7,62
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,03
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:

1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,049

Z .R.T cm3
V= =92,2
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
(( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,776

Z .R.T cm3
V= =1454,5
P mol

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

V =Vc . Zc[ (1Tr)

0,2857
]

[ (10,847 )0,2857 ]
V 200. 0,276

cm3
V =94,17
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,468
Tr
1,6
0,847
1,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,207
Tr 4,2
0,8474,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,207
369,8
0,468+0,152.( ) .
2,48
83,14.313,15
V= + 83,14.
13,71
3
cm3
V =1,538 x 10
mol

Diketahui

Pc=42,48
=0,152

T 323,15 K
Tr= = =0,87
Tc 369,8 K

42,48 =0,40

17,16
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[ 2
(
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,080
. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =7,27
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,036
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:

1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,041

Z .R.T cm3
V= =97,6
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
(( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
Z =0,82

Z .R.T cm 3
V= =1131,8
P mol

3
cm
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

[ (1Tr)0,2857 ]
V =Vc . Zc

0,2857
]

cm3
V =98,1
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,441
Tr 1,6
0,8471,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,164
Tr
4,2
0,847
4,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,164
369,8
0,441+0,152.() .
2,48
83,14.313,15
V= + 83,14.
17,16

cm3
V =1228,714
mol

21,22 Bar.

Diketahui

Tc=369,8 K

Pc=42,48
=0,152

T 333,15 K
Tr= = =0.901
Tc 369,8 K

42,48 =0.500

21,22
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[ 2
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr(
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,098

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =6,93
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,043
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:
1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,049

Z .R.T cm3
V= =104,4
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
( ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,81

Z .R.T cm3
V= =879,2
P mol

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

[ (1Tr)0,2857 ]
V =Vc . Zc
[ (10,901 )0,2857]
V 200. 0,276

cm3
V =102,8
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,416
Tr 1,6
0,8471,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,128
Tr
4,2
0,847
4,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,128
369,8
0,416+ 0,152.( ).
2,48
83,14.313,15
V= + 83,14.
21,22

cm 3
V =990,4
mol

25,94 Bar.

Diketahui

Tc=369,8 K

Pc=42,48
=0,152

T 323,15 K
Tr= = =0,928
Tc 369,8 K
42,48 =0,611

17,16

P
Pr= =
Pc

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

( Tr , ) =[ 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . ( 1Tr )]

1
2 2

( Tr , ) =1,04475

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =6,62
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,051
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:

1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,059

Z .R.T cm 3
V= =113,7
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
(( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
Z =0,79

Z .R.T cm 3
V= =678,1
P mol

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

V =Vc . Zc[ (1Tr)

0,2857
]

[ (10,928 )0,2857 ]
V 200. 0,276

cm3
V =109,0
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,393
Tr
1,6
0,847
1,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,09
Tr 4,2
0,8474,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,09
369,8
0,393+0,152.( ) .
2,48
83,14.313,15
V= + 83,14.
25,94
3
cm
V =805,0
mol

Diketahui

Pc=37,96 =0,200

T 373.15 K
Tr= = =0.878
Tc 425,1 K

37,96
=0.406

15,41
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[ 2
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr (
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,08663
. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =7,28
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,036
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:

1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,041

Z .R.T cm 3
V= =125,2
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
( ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,82

Z .R.T cm3
V= =1453,5
P mol

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

V =Vc . Zc[ (1Tr)

0,2857
]

[ (10,847 )0,2857 ]
V 200. 0,276

cm3
V =125,4
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,437
Tr 1,6
0,8471,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,158
Tr
4,2
0,847
4,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,158
425,1
0,437+0,200.() .
2,48
83,14.373 .15
V= + 83,14.
15,41

cm3
V =1577,0
mol

Diketahui

Pc=37,96 =0,200

T 373.15 K
Tr= = =0,901
Tc 425,1 K

37,96 =0,492

18,66
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr
2
(
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,6923

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =6,97
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,042
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:
1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,049

Z .R.T cm3
V= =132,9
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
( ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,81

Z .R.T cm 3
V= =1156,3
P mol

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

[ (1Tr)0,2857 ]
V =Vc . Zc

[ (10,901 )0,2857]
V 200. 0,276

3
cm
V =130,7
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,415
Tr 1,6
0,8471,6

1 0,172 0,172
B =0,139 =0,139 =0,127
Tr 4,2
0,8474,2

R .T Tc
V= + R . ( B0 + B1 ) .
P Pc

0,127
425,1
0,415+0,200.() .
2,48
83,14.373 .15
V= + 83,14.
18,66
3
cm
V =1296,8
mol

Diketahui

Pc=37,96 =0,200

T 383.15 K
Tr= = =0,925
Tc 425,1 K

37,96 =0,590

22,38
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr
2
(
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,0522

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =6,69
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,050
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:
1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,057

Z .R.T cm3
V= =143,0
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
( ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,80

Z .R.T cm3
V= =915,0
P mol

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

[ (1Tr)0,2857 ]
V =Vc . Zc

[ (10,925)0,2857 ]
V 200. 0,276

3
cm
V =137,4
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,395
Tr 1,6
0,8471,6

1 0,172 0,172
B =0,139 =0,139 =0,100
Tr 4,2
0,8474,2

R .T Tc
V= + R . ( B0 + B1 ) .
P Pc

0,100
425,1
0,395+0,200.() .
2,48
83,14.373 .15
V= + 83,14.
22,38
3
cm
V =1073,989
mol

Dietahui

Tc=425,1 K

Pc=37,96 =0,200

T 383.15 K
Tr= = =0,948
Tc 425,1 K

37,96 =0,700

22,38
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[ 2
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr (
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,0355

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =6,42
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,057
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:
1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,067

Z .R.T cm 3
V= =157,1
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
( ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,79

Z .R.T cm3
V= =915,0
P mol

Persamaan Rackett untuk Saturated Liquid

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

[ (1Tr)0,2857 ]
V =Vc . Zc

[ (10,948)0,2857 ]
V 200. 0,276

3
cm
V =146,4
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,376
Tr 1,6
0,9481,6

1 0,172 0,172
B =0,139 =0,139 =0,076
Tr 4,2
0,9484,2

R .T Tc
V= + R . ( B0 + B1 ) .
P Pc

0,076
425,1
0,376+0,200.() .
2,48
83,14.373 .15
V= + 83,14.
26,59
3
cm
V =896,0
mol

Dietahui

Pc=36,48 =0,181

T 363.15 K
Tr= = =0,890
Tc 408,1 K
36,48
=0,453

16,54

P
Pr= =
Pc

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

( Tr , ) =[ 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . ( 1Tr )]

1
2 2

( Tr , ) =1,0744

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =7,10
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,040
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:

1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,045

Z .R.T cm3
V= =129,4
P mol

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
(( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,81

Z .R.T cm3
V= =1271,9
P mol

cm3
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

V =Vc . Zc[ (1Tr)

0,2857
]

[ (10,890 )0,2857 ]
V 200. 0,276

cm3
V =133,9
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,426
Tr
1,6
0,890
1,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,142
Tr 4,2
0,8904,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,142
408,1
0,426+0,200.() .
36,48
83,14.373 .15
V= + 83,14.
16,54
3
cm
V =1405,7
mol

Dietahui

Pc=36,48 =0,181

T 373.15 K
Tr= = =0,914
Tc 408,1 K

36,48
=0,549

20,03
P
Pr= =
Pc

Untuk persamaan Peng Robinson dari tabel 3.1:

=1+ 2 =0,07779

=1 2 =0,45724

[
( Tr , ) = 1+ ( 0.37464+1.54226 0.26992 ) . 1Tr 2
(
1
2 )]
( Tr , ) =1,0573

. (Tr , )
q ( Tr )= =6,80
. Tr

. Pr
( Tr , Pr ) = =0,047
Tr

Menghitung Z untuk liquid, Asumsi Z = 0,01

Maka:

1+ ( Tr , Pr )Z
Z = ( Tr , Pr ) + ( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) ( q ( Tr ) . ( Tr , Pr ) )
Z =0,054

Z .R.T
V= =138,6
P

Menghitung Z untuk gas, Asumsi Z = 0,6

Z ( Tr , Pr )
Z =1+ ( Tr , Pr )q ( Tr ) . (Tr , Pr ) .
(( Z+ . ( Tr , Pr ) ) . ( Z + . ( Tr , Pr ) ) )
z=0,80

Z .R.T cm3
V= =1239,5
P mol

3
cm
Vc=200
mol

Zc=0,276

[ (1Tr)0,2857 ]
V =Vc . Zc

0,2857
]

cm3
V =133,9
mol

Persamaan Pitzer digunakan Untuk Saturated Vapor

0,422 0,422
B 0=0,083 =0,083 =0,404
Tr 1,6
0,9141,6

0,172 0,172
B 1=0,139 =0,139 =0,112
Tr
4,2
0,914
4,2

R .T 0 1 Tc
V= + R . ( B + B ) .
P Pc

0,142
408,1
0,426+0,200.() .
36,48
83,14.373 .15
V= + 83,14.
20,03

cm3
V =1154,3
mol

The-vapor phase molar volume of particular

compound is reported as 23000 cm 3/mol at 300K
and 1 bar. No other data are variable. Without
assuming ideal-gas behaviour, determine a
resonable estimate of the molar volume of the
vapor at 300K and 5 bar.

DIKETAHUI : P1 = 1 bar T1 = 300K

V1=23000 cm3/mol

P2 = 5 bar T2 = 300K

DITANYA : V2 = ......?

JAWAB :

PV
Z=
RT

BP
Z =1+
RT

P1. V 1 23000 cm 3 /mol

1
Z 1= =
R . T 1 83,14472 cm3 . mol . K 300 K

Z 1=0,922

Substitusikan nilai Z1

BP1
Z 1=1+
RT 1

RT 1+ BP 1
Z 1=
RT 1

Z 1. RT 1RT 1
B=
P1
RT 1(Z 11)
B=
P1

1
3
83,14472 cm . mol . K 300 K (0,9221)
B=

Substitusikan nilai B untuk mencari nilai Z2 dengan nilai

tekanan P2

3 3
1.942 10 cm /mol 5 3
83,14472 cm . mol . K 300 K
B. P2
Z 2=1+ =
R .T 2

Z 2=0,611

P 2.V 2 Z 2. R .T 2
Z 2= V 2=
R.T 2 P2

5
0,611 300 K 83,14472 cm3 . mol . K
V 2=

pressure)

volume)
P= 16 bar

(Tabel) Tc= 369,8K ; Pc= 42,48 bar ; =

0,152 ; Zc= 0,276 ;
3
cm
molar mass= 44,097; Vc= 200
mol

Ditanya : berapakah massa vapour dan liquid propana

dalam vessel ?

T 320
= =0,8653
Jawab: Tr = T c 369,8

P 16
= =0,37664
Pr= Pc 42,48

)0,2875 ] c m3
Vc Zc[ 1Tr
(
Vliq= =97,01795
mol

1. 0,8.Vtank = Vliq. Mol(propane)

= mliq=
3
Vtank 0,35 m 44,097 gr
0,8 mr ( propane )=0,8 6 3

Vliq 10 m mol
97,01795
mol

= mliq= 127266,7584 gr= 127,2667584 kg (ans.)

0,422
2. Bo=0,083 T r 1,6 = -0,4489

0,172
B1=0,139 T r 4,2 = -0,1768

R.T Tc
Vvap= P + (Bo+ B1).R. Pc

+
mol . K
= 83,14472 c m3 . -0,4489+ (0,152.-0,1768).
16
320 K

42,48

369,8 K c m3
mol . K = 1318,531 mol
83,14472c m 3 .

= 0,2.Vtank = Vvap. Mol(propane)

= mvap=
3
Vtank 0,35 m 44,097 gr
0,2 mr ( propane )=0,2 6 3

Vvap 10 m mol
1318,531
mol

A. Diketahui : Etana Vtotal = 0,15 m3

T = 60 C =333,15 K
Tc = 305,3 K
P = 14000 kPa
Pc = 48.72 bar
w = 0,1
Ditanya : m =.....?
Jawab :
mr etana = 2(12,011) + 6(1,008)= 30,07 gr/mol
Dari tabel E.3 & E.4 : Z0=0,463 Z1=-0,037
Z= Z0 + w.Z1 =0,459
Z. R.T
V= P = 90,87 cm3/mol
Vtotal
metana = V /mr = 1,5 x 105 cm3/( 90,87 cm3/mol :

30,07gr/mol)
= 49636,84 gr
= 49,64 kg
B. Diketahui : Etana Vtotal = 0,15 m3
Tc = 305,3 K
P = 20 000 kPa Pc =
48.72 bar
m = 40 kg
Ditanya : T = ...?
Jawab :
V
V = Total
40 kg
P.V
Tr= =
Z dimana R .T c

mol
=29,548
kg

0,889 P .V
Tr= Pr=

Dengan melihat Tabel E.3 dan Tabel E.4, berdasarkan

hubungan data di atas didapatkan :
Tr = 1.283 dan Z = 0.693
T = Tr . Tc
T = 391.7 K atau 118.5 C

SOAL NOMOR 3.48

Diketahui: M water = 15 kg
3
V total = 0,4 m

T = 400c

Ditanya: P..?
Jawab

V
Vtotal 0,4 m3 m3
V= = = 0,0266
Mwater 15 kg kg

cm3
V= 26,667 g

9920 kpa

SOAL NOMOR 3.50

What is the pressure in a 0.5-m vessel when it is charged
with 10 kg of carbon dioxide at 30C?

Diketahui: - V= 0.5 m

- Tc= 304.2 K

T
=0.997
- Tr= Tc

- Pc= 73.83 bar

- = 0.224

- BM CO2= 44 gr/mol

Ditanya: Berapa tekanan (P)=?

Jawaban:

0.422
0.083 =0.341
B= Tr

0.172
0.139 =0.036
B= Tr

3
cm
V 3
=2.2 x 10 mol
V= m
BM

RT
=10.863
P= V B+ . B . R . Tc

( Pc ( ))

SOAL NOMOR 3.52

1.824 cm 3 gr 1 . Tentukan spesifik volumenya pada 415 K

dan 75 bar

Diketahui :

untuk isobutan :

cm3
Tc= 408.1 K V1 = 1.824 gr P1 = 4

bar P2 = 75 bar

Pc = 36.48 bar T1 = 300 K T2 = 415 K

Ditanya : V2 ?
T1 P1 T2
Tr1 = Tc P r1 = Pc Tr2 = Tc

P2
P r2 = Pc

Tr1 = 0 .7 3 5 P r1 = 0 .1 1 Tr2 = 1 .0 1 7 P r2 = 2 .0 5 6

Da ri Fig . (3 .1 7 ): r1 = 2 .4 5

S u h u a kh ir T > Tc , d a n fig . 3 .1 6 m u n g kin t a k h a ru s

d ig u n a ka n . S e h in g g a d a p a t d ig a m b a rka n b a h w a

P .Vc
r = Z. R.T d e n g a n Z d a ri p e rs a m a a n (3 .5 7 )

d a n t a b le E.3 d a n E.4 . s e h in g g a

cm3
Vc = 2 6 2 .7 mol = 0 .1 8 1 Z 0 = 0 .3 3 5 6

Z 1 = -0 .0 7 5 6

P2 V c
Z = Z 0+ . Z 1 Z = 0 .3 2 2 r2 = Z . R . T2

r2 = 1 .7 7 4

r 1 cm
3

Pe rs a m a a n (3 .7 5 ) V2 = V1 r 2 V2 = 2 .5 1 9 gr

SOAL NOMOR 3.54

Dik : Tc = 5 1 3 ,9 K
T = 4 5 3 ,1 6 K
Pc = 6 1 , 4 8 b a r
P = 200 ba r

Dit : ?
T 453,15 K
Pe ny: Tr = Tc = 513,9 K = 0, 8 8 2

61,48
P
Pr = Pc = 200 = 3, 2 5 3

3
cm
Vc = 1 6 7 mol

gm
m ol w t = 4 6 . 0 6 9 mol

fro m fi g 3. 1 7 :
r = 2. 2 8
Pr
= P r . Pc = Vc

r
= Vc
mol watt

2.28
= 167 c m3
46.069 gm

2.28
= c m3
3,625
gm

gm
= 0, 6 2 9 c m3

SOAL NOMOR 3.56

Jaw a b .

Th e Co m pr e s sibility fa ct or is r el at e d t o t h e m e a s u r e d
q u a n titie s b y :
t t
PV MP V
Z= nRT = mRT

(A)

By Eq. (3. 3 8)

( Z1 ) M V t
B = (Z-1)V = m

(B)

dZ dM dP dVt
Z = M + P + Vt -

dm dT
m - T (C)

As su m si n g a Aproxxi m a t ely e q u al e rror in t h e fi v

v a ri a bl e, a 1 Maxi m u m error in Z re q uir e s error in t h e
v a ri a bl e of < 0 , 2 %.

dB Z dZ d V t dM dm
(b). By Eq. (B) = + + t +
B Z1 Z V M m

Z dP dT 2 Z 1 d V t dM dm
By Eq. (C)
dB
=
B Z1 P

T(+
Z1 V t ) +
M

m ( )
Th er efor

Max | %

B | Z1
Z
|(| P|+| T|)+ 2ZZ1
1
t
(| V |+| M |+| m|)

v a ri a bl e s , a 1 m a xi m u m error in B re q u air e s e rror s in

t h e v a ri a bl e s of le s s t h a n a b o u t 0, 0 2 %.This is b e c a u s e
t h e divis or Z-1
0,1thelimit as Z 1, the error B approaches

SOAL NOMOR 3.58

Jika 1 4 0 ft 3 g a s m e t a n a p a d a t e m p e r a t u r 6 0 0F d a n
t ek a n a n 1 a t m s e t a r a d e n g a n 1 g al o n g a s olin u n t uk
b a h a n b a k a r p a d a m o bil, b er a p a v olu m e y a n g
dip erluk a n u n t uk m e m b u a t m e t a n a y a n g b er t ek a n a n
3 0 0 0 p si a d a n 6 0 0F y a n g s e t a r a d e n g a n 1 0 g al o n
g a s olin?

Penyelesaian:

Diket a h ui :

1 0 g a l o n g a s olin s e t a r a d e n g a n 1 4 0 ft 3 m e t a n a p a d a
t e m p e r a t u r 6 0 0F d a n t ek a n a n 1 a t m .

R = 0, 7 3 0 2 ft 3. a t m .lb m -1.R a nkin e -1

P = 1 at m
T = 6 0 0F s e t a r a d e n g a n 5 1 9, 6 7 Ra nkin e
V = 1 4 0 ft 3

D e n g a n m e n g a s u s m sik a n b a h w a ko n di si y a n g a d a p a d a
g a s a d al a h g a s id e al, m a k a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a n
p er s a m a a n g a s id e al dip erol e h :
P.V
n = R.T

n = 3,689 lbmol

Unt uk m e t a n a p a d a 3 0 0 0 p si d a n 6 0 0F a d al a h
Tc = 1 9 0, 6 . 1, 8 Ra nkin e
T = 5 1 9, 6 7 Ra nkin e
T
Tr = T c
Tr = 1,515

Pc = 4 5, 9 9 b a r
P = 3 0 0 0 p si
P
Pr = P c

Pr = 4,498
= 0,012

D ari t a b el E.3 d a n E.4 dip er ol e h :
Z 0 = 0, 8 1 9
Z 1 = 0, 2 3 4
Z = Z0 + . Z1
Z = 0,822

Den g a n m e n g g u n aka n p er s a m a a n gas id e al, m a k a
dip er ol e h :
Z nRT
Vtank = P

Vtank = 5,636 ft3

Jadi, v olu m e t a n ki y a n g dip erluk a n u n t uk g a s olin d e n g a n
t ek a n a n 3 0 0 0 p si d a n t e m p e r a t u r 6 0 0F a d al a h 5,636 ft3

SOAL NOMOR 3.60

Tem p er a t u r B oyl e a d al a h t e m p er a t u r u n t uk p er s a m a a n
dib a w a h ini:

lim
P0
( ZP )
T
=0

a ) B uktik a n b a h w a ko e fi sie n B virial ke d u a a d al a h n ol p a d a

t e m p er a t u r e B oyl e
b) D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a n p er s a m a a n u m u m u n t uk B, u n t uk
m e m p e rkir ak a n h a sil t e m p e r a t u r p a d a p er t a n y a a n (3. 5 9)

JAWAB:

a ) Difer e n si a sik a n p er s a m a a n (3. 1 1) t er h a d a p P :

2 ' 3
Z= 1 + BP+ C P + D P +

Mak a p er s a m a a n n y a m e nj a di:

( ZP )
T
2
= B + 2 CP+ 3 D P +

Dim a n a :

lim
P 0
( ZP )
T
= B

Jika B = 0,

B
B = RT m aka B = BRT = 0

b) Unt uk si m pl e fl uid, =0 , d a n

BPC Pr

Z =1+
BP
RT = 1 + ( )
RT C T r

BP C
=B0 + B1
RT C

BP C
B 0=
RT C

Jika B=0, m a k a :

0,422
B 0=0,083 =0
T 1,6
r

Dan :
( 1 /1,6 )
0,442
Tr= ( 0,083 ) =2,763

SOAL NOMOR 3.62

Some corresponding-states correl ations use the critical
compressi bility factor ZC, rather than the acentric f actor ,
as a third parameter. The two types of correl ation (one
based on TC, PC, and ZC, the other on TC, PC, and ) would be
equival ent were there a-one-to-one correspondence
between ZC, and . The data of App. B allow a test of thi s
correspondence. Prepare a plot of ZC, vs. to see how well
ZC correl ates with . Develop a linear correl ation (Z C = a +
b) for nonpol ar substances.
SOLUTION
Diketahui : Data dan ZC (terlampir di Appendix B)
Ditanya : Korel asi Linear ZC = a + b
Jawab:
Berdasarkan Appendix B, dapat dibuat tabel dari 41
senyawa pertama (diurutkan dari terkecil):

N ZC

0. 0. 0 0
1

2 0. 0. 0 0

0. 0. 0 0
3

0. 0. 0 0
4

0. 0. 0 0
5

0. 0. 0 0
6

0. 0. 0 0
7

0. 0. 0 0
8

0. 0. 0 0
9

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

1 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

2 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

3 0. 0. 0 0

4 0. 0. 0 0

4 0. 0. 0 0

1 1 3 2

Tabel 1. Data Perbandingan Harga terhadap ZC dari 41
Senyawa Pertama
Data di atas dapat digunakan untuk mencari persamaan
korelasi linear dengan rumus:
N N N

b i2+ a i= i Z C i
i=1 i=1 i=1

N N

b + aN= Z Ci
i=1 i=1

Masukkan data-data yang diperlukan sehingga

terbentuk persamaan:
3.0804b + 10.561a = 2.7743
10.561b + 41a = 10.897
Untuk mencari nilai a dan b dapa tdigunakan metode
substitusi:
10.561b +41 a=10.897
10.89710.561 a
a=
41

3.0804b + 10.561a= 2.7743
10.56110.89710.561 b
3.0804 b+ =2.7743
41

b=0.0906

10.89710.561(0.0906)
a=
41

a=0.2891

Sehingga didapatkan persamaan umum : ZC = 0.2891

0.0906. Grafik terhadap Z C dapat digambarkan
sebagai berikut:

0.350

0.300
f(x) = - 0.09x + 0.29
0.250

0.200
ZC 0.150

0.100

0.050

0.000
0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600