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Safety Factor

Mari berbicara tentang safety factor. Apa itu safety factor, mengapa harus ada safety factor dan bagaimana
menghitung safety factor.

Apa itu Safety Factor?
Jika menyadur dari wikipedia:
Factor of safety (FoS), also known as (and used interchangeably with) safety factor (SF), is a term describing
the structural capacity of a system beyond the expected loads or actual loads.
Jadi dapat kita artikan kapasitas sistem diluar dari beban yang dipediksikan. Jadi dapat dikatakan untuk
menjadi pengaman apabila sistem mengalami beban diluar perhitungan.

Mengapa harus ada safety factor?
Seperti yang telah disebutkan diatas bahwa safety factor adalah sebagai pengaman pada sistem jika pada suatu
keadaan sistem tersebut menerima beban diluar dari perhitungan. Tujuannya agar design kita tidak failed
(gagal) pada keadaan tersebut. Mengapa sistem yang sudah diperhitungan bisa mendapat beban (load) berlebih
diluar perhitungan? Ada beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi, biasanya dibagi atas faktor internal dan

Faktor Internal:
Ketidak murnian dari material. Sulit untuk menjamin bahwa setiap material memiliki kekuatan yang serupa
meskipun jenisnya sama. Akibat dari ketidakmurnian tersebut bedampak pada kekuatan pada material yang
akhirnya berdampak pada kekuatan design
Proses Manufakturing yang kurang sempurna. Proses manufakturing yang kurang sempurna mungkin dapat
mengakibatkan defect (cacat) geometri pada design yang akhirnya mengakibatkan turunnya kekuatan design

Faktor Eksternal
Lingkungan dan cuaca dapat mempengaruhi design dengan signifikan. contoh sebuah design yang
dioperasikan di pantai, faktor udara pantai yang mengandung garam dapat mengakibatkan karat pada design,
sehingga dapat terjadi penurunan kekuatan.
Kecelakaan. Kita tidak menginginkan kecelakaan, tetapi kecelakaan terkadang terjadi. Agar design kita tidak
failed ketika mengalami situasi yang tidak diperhitungkan tersebut maka harus ada safety factor. Contoh Pelat
pada pintu mobil yang dibuat lebih tebal untuk menghindari benturan keras dari samping.

Bagaimana menghitung Safety Factor?
Dalam penentuan safety factor, ada beberapa aspek yang wajib untuk kita perhatikan. Pertama, jika kita
bekerja dengan menggunakan standard tertentu, maka kita harus mengikuti besarnya safety factor yang sudah
ditentukan oleh standard. Kedua, jika kita mendesign sesuatu yang belum ada standardnya, maka besarnya
safety faktor ditentukan sendiri oleh design dengan melihat faktor-faktor yang telah disebutkan diatas.

Rumus Safety Factor:
Secara rumus, safety factor adalah perbandingan antara besarnya beban batas kekuatan material dengan beban
yang terjadi pada design.

Agar keamanan dapat tercapai, maka design load atau beban yang terjadi tidak boleh lebih besar daripada batas
beban dari material. Artinya, nilai dari safety factor ini harus lebih besar daripada 1 (satu). Berapa besarnya?
kembali yang sudah dijelaskan diatas. Tetapi satu catatan penting adalah semakin besar safety factor, akan
berdampak pada banyaknya pemakaian material. Yang akhirnya akan berdampak pada cost (biaya). sebagai
designer, kita juga harus mempertimbangkan faktor biaya selai faktor teknis lainnya.

- See more at:

Factor of safety
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
See also: Safety factor (plasma physics)
Factor of safety (FoS), also known as (and used interchangeably with) safety factor (SF), is a term
describing the structural capacity of a system beyond the expected loads or actual loads.
Essentially, how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load. Safety
factors are often calculated using detailed analysis because comprehensive testing is impractical on
many projects, such as bridges and buildings, but the structure's ability to carry load must be
determined to a reasonable accuracy.
Many systems are purposefully built much stronger than needed for normal usage to allow for
emergency situations, unexpected loads, misuse, or degradation.
There are two distinct definitions for the factor of safety: One as a ratio of absolute strength
(structural capacity) to actual applied load, this is a measure of the reliability of a particular design.
The other use of FoS is a constant value imposed
by law, standard, specification, contract or custom to which a structure must conform or exceed.
The first use (a calculated value) is generally referred to as a factor of safety or, to be explicit,
a realized factor of safety. The second use (a required value) as a design factor, design factor of
safety or required factor of safety. However, between various industries and engineering groups
usage is inconsistent and confusing, it is important to be aware of which definition(s) are being used.
The cause of much confusion is that various reference books and standards agencies use the factor
of safety definitions and terms differently. Design codes and structural andmechanical
engineering textbooks often use "Factor of Safety" to mean the fraction of total structural capability
over that needed
(first use). Many undergraduate Strength of Materials books use "Factor of
Safety" as a constant value intended as a minimum target for design
(second use).
There are several ways to compare the factor of safety for structures. All the different calculations
fundamentally measure the same thing: how much extra load beyond what is intended a structure
will actually take (or be required to withstand). The difference between the methods is the way in
which the values are calculated and compared. Safety factor values can be thought of as a
standardized way for comparing strength and reliability between systems.
The use of a factor of safety does not imply that an item, structure, or design is "safe". Many quality
assurance,engineering design, manufacturing, installation, and end-use factors may influence
whether or not something is safe in any particular situation.
Design factor and safety factor[edit]
The difference between the safety factor and design factor (design safety factor) is as follows: The
safety factor is how much the designed part actually will be able to withstand (first "use" from above).
The design factor is what the item is required to be able to withstand (second "use"). The design
factor is defined for an application (generally provided in advance and often set by regulatory code
or policy) and is not an actual calculation, the safety factor is a ratio of maximum strength to
intended load for the actual item that was designed.

Design load being the maximum load the part should ever see in service.
By this definition, a structure with a FOS of exactly 1 will support only the design load and no
more. Any additional load will cause the structure to fail. A structure with a FOS of 2 will fail at
twice the design load.

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