Anda di halaman 1dari 65

Muhammad Ridha Adhari, S.T., M.

Sc
Department of Mining Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Syiah Kuala University
Darussalam, Banda Aceh
2015

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
MINERAL DEPOSIT

JADWAL KULIAH
Genesa Bahan Galian, Teknik Pertambangan.
Kelas A, Kamis Jam 8.15 10.30 di Ruang Kuliah
Teknik Pertambangan.
Kelas B, Kamis Jam 10.30 13.00 di Ruang
Kuliah Teknik Pertambangan.
Tidak ada Praktikum maupun Kuliah Lapangan.
Dosen Pengasuh : H.Muhammad Ridha Adhari,
S.T., M.Sc dan Gartika Setiya Nugraha, S.T., M.Si
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

ASSESSMENTS
Absensi = 10%
Quiz/Tugas = 20%
Mid Test = 35%
Final Test = 35%

Setuju?

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

BOBOT NILAI AKHIR


A 85
75 B+ < 85
65 B < 75
55 C+ < 65
45 C < 55
35 D < 45
E < 35

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

RULES
Dilarang membuat keributan/kegaduhan selama kuliah
berlangsung. Hargailah mereka yang serius ingin belajar.
Dilarang makan di ruang kelas, tetapi boleh minum.
Dilarang memakai Sandal, Celana pendek, Baju Kaos
Oblong.
Kehadiran minimal 75% sebagai syarat kelulusan.
Toleransi keterlambatan 15 menit setelah Dosen memulai
kuliah.
Ketua Kelas?

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

COURSE OUTLINE
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week

1 : Kuliah Tamu dari ITB


2 : Introduction
3 : Igneous Processes
4 : Hydrothermal Processes
5 : Quiz
6 : Surficial Processes
7 : Sedimentary Processes
8 : Tectonic Processes & Mineral Deposit
9 : Mid Test
10 : 11 : 12 : 13 : 14 : 15 : 16 : Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

REFERENCES
AN INTRODUCTION
TO GEOLOGY AND
HARD ROCK
MINING
By Dr. Willard Lacy

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Apa itu Genesa Bahan Galian?


Genesa bahan galian adalah disiplin ilmu yang
mempelajari proses terbentuknya suatu deposit bahan
galian.

Manfaatnya?
Untuk mengetahui karakteristik suatu bahan galian, seperti
bentuk deposit, letak deposit, luas penyebaran, besar
cadangan, sehingga bisa ditentukan teknik eksplorasi,
metode penambangan serta cara pengolahan yang paling
efektif dan ekonomis.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Earth Resources
Mineral Resources
Coal Resources
Geothermal Resources
Oil and Gas Resources

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Do We Need Minerals ?
Batteries - cadmium, lithium, nickel and cobalt.
Computer and television screens - silicon, boron,
lead, phosphorus and indium.
Cosmetics and jewellery - gold, diamonds, iron oxide,
zinc and titanium dioxide.
Electricity - coal and uranium.
Musical instruments - copper, silver, steel, nickel,
brass, cobalt, copper, iron and aluminum.
Surgical instruments - stainless steel.
Vehicles and tires - steel, copper, zinc, barium,
graphite, sulphur and iodine.
Housing construction - gypsum, clay, limestone, sand
and gravel.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Copper

Iron

Gold

Aluminium

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Source : World mineral


production 2008-2012
Aluminium : Used
in the production of
Aluminium metal
Various minor
nonmetallurgical
uses: cements,
abrassives and
refractory
applications, paints,
etc

Jamaica
25%

Australia
31%

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Source : World mineral


production 2008-2012
Stainless steel and
other alloys: food
preparation and
medical equipment
Non-ferrous alloys:
cupro nickel in coins
and superalloys in
aerospace.

Philippine
17%

Canada
59%

Plating: medical
equipment and
construction
materials
Many minor uses:
catalysts, batteries,
etc.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Persebaran Mineral Strategis Indonesia


Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Do We Need Coal ?
Coal is used primarily as an energy source, either for
heat or electricity.
It was once heavily used to heat homes and power
locomotives and factories.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Breakdown by usage of the world coal consumption.


Source : International Energy Agency, 2009.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Coal use by sector, from 1971 to 2007, in million tons oil equivalent. The amount of
coal use for power generation has almost quadrupled over the period.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah
Source : International Energy Agency, 2009.

Persebaran Produksi Batu bara di dunia

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Source : World mineral


production 2008-2012

USSR
20%

China
46%

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Cadangan Batubara Indonesia


Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Do We Need Geothermal ?
Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean
and sustainable.
Resources of geothermal energy range from the
shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few
miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even
deeper.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Uses of Geothermal Energy.


http://www.groundzerosoftwar
e.net/Geo-energy-uses

Distribusi Wilayah Kerja Pertambangan Geothermal di Indonesia.


Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

illustration of the change in world steel consumption and population since 1700.
(Data for this plot are from United Nations (1966, 1973, 1995) population reports and
the U.S. Bureau of Mines (195393) and U.S. Geological Survey).
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Graph showing changes in copper consumption in China, Thailand, South Korea,


Taiwan, India, and Japan during the period 19702000. Data from American
Bureau of Metal Statistics (various years) and the U.S. Census Bureau.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Coal

Metal
Ore

Indonesia: Export Destinations for Major Commodities, 2011-2013


(Source : Bank Indonesia and IMF)

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Thermal Coal Prices


Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Source : London Metal Exchange

Source : London Metal Exchange

Source : London Metal Exchange

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Precious Metal Prices


Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Forces determining prices


Demand and supply. A change in technology may increase the demand
for a metal, or decrease it. Conditions of supply may also change: (a)
abnormal circumstances, such as natural disasters, war, other political
events, fire and strikes at the mines of big suppliers; (b) improved
techniques in exploitation; and (c) discovery and exploitation of large new
orebodies.
Government action. Governments can act to stabilize or change prices
(New rules, subsidy, high tax, etc).
Cartels. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), CIPEC
(Copper).
Recycling. Recycling is already having a significant effect on some product
prices. Economic and particularly environmental considerations will lead to
increased recycling of materials in the immediate future.
Substitution and new technology. the development of longer lasting car
batteries that use less lead, substitution of copper and plastic for lead
water pipes and a change to lead-free petrol; all of which have contributed
to a downturn in the demand for lead.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Classification of mineral deposit


Based on their time-relations to the rocks enclosing or
associated with them :
Syngenetic and Epigenetic.
Based on their Forming Processes :
Igneous processes, Hydrothermal processes,
Sedimentary Processes/Surficial processes.
Based on form of deposit :
Primary deposit (Hypogene) and Secondary
deposit (Supergene).
Based on their location (Depth of formation), Hydrothermal
processes :
Hypothermal, Mesothermal, Epythermal.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Some general definitions


Metallogeny: the study of the genesis of mineral
deposits.
Ore: any naturally occurring material from which a
mineral or aggregate of value can be extracted at a
profit.
Ore Deposit: A concentration of useable minerals.
Gangue minerals : minerals that form part of the ore
body, but do not contribute to the economically
extractable part of the deposit.
Syngenetic: refers to ore deposits that form at the same
time as their host rocks.
Epigenetic: refers to ore deposits that form after their
host rocks.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits: Ore deposits that form from a


hot, aqueous solution that flows through permeable units and
precipitates a localized mass of minerals from its dissolved
load.
Epithermal: Hydrothermal ore deposits formed at shallow
depths (less than 1500 meters) and fairly low temperatures
(50200 C).
Mesothermal: Hydrothermal ore deposits formed at
intermediate depths (15004500 meters) and temperatures
(200400 C).
Hypothermal: hydrothermal ore deposits formed at substantial
depths (greater than 4500 meters) and elevated temperatures
(400600 C).

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Hydrothermal alteration : Rock or mineral phase changes


that are caused by the interaction of hydrothermal liquids
and wall rock.
The fluid/rock interaction causes chemical and
mineralogical changes in the rock as well as
changes in the fluid composition.
Liquid Immiscibility: This is the segregation of 2 coexisting
liquid fractions from an originally homogeneous magma.
Diagenesis : the process by which sediments are lithified
into sedimentary rocks and represents the sum of physical
and chemical changes that occur during burial.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Menurut UU No.4/2009 tentang MINERBA,


Pertambangan Mineral dibagi 4 jenis, yaitu :
1. Bahan Galian LOGAM
a. Logam Mulia ( Au, Ag, Pt dan Hg )
b. Logam Besi ( Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Wo dan Mo )
c. Logam Bukan Besi (Sn, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Bi, Sb dan Ti )
d. Mineral Jarang (Cr, Co, Mg)
2. Bahan Galian BUKAN LOGAM
a. Mineral Industri
b. Batu Mulia
3. Bahan Galian BATUAN/Konstruksi
4. Bahan Galian RADIOAKTIF
a. Uranium
b. Rhadium, Thorium dll
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

KETERDAPATAN BAHAN GALIAN MINERAL


Dalam bentuk ASLI nya atau Native Element.
Bahan galian tersebut dapat langsung diambil
serta digunakan untuk keperluan manusia.
Dalam bentuk SENYAWA dengan unsur lain.
Untuk mendapatkan mineral yang diinginkan
bahan galian tersebut harus diolah lebih dahulu.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Beberapa mineral bijih yang dapat diekstrak sebagai komoditi logam


(Sumber ; Bateman, 1982).

Ore deposits form when a


useful commodity is
sufficiently concentrated in
an accessible part of the
Earths crust so that it can
be profitably extracted.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

There are in fact as many as 118 elements known to man, but those
with atomic numbers greater than 92 (U: uranium) either occur in
vanishingly small amounts as unstable isotopes.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Almost all the elements have some use in our modern


technologically driven societies.
Some of the elements (iron and aluminum) are required in
copious quantities, whereas others (the rare earths elements
Sc, Ce etc) are needed in very much smaller amounts.
Only three elements appear to have little or no use at all.
Astatine (At, atomic number 85),
Francium (Fr, atomic number 87),
Protactinium (Pa, atomic number 91).

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

NATURAL RESOURCES, SUSTAINABILITY, AND


ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY
The Earths natural resources are finite, the exploitation
should be done carefully.
The concept of sustainable development implies that
future social and economic practice should endeavor not
to deplete natural resources to the point where the needs
of the future cannot be met.

Is it Possible?
Seem to be an impossible:
The population growth.
Many commodities will become depleted within
the next 100 years.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

The number of humans on Earth has risen from 1 billion in 1830


to 6 billion at the end of the twentieth century.
In the next 100 years, the demand for natural resources
continues to increase and certain commodities might become
depleted.

So, What should we do?


Require a better understanding of the earth system.
Promote more efficient recycling of existing resources.
Find alternative sources for commodities that are in danger of
serious depletion.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Can we stop world population


growth?

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

http://www.bps.go.id/

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Finding new and large ore deposit? Where?


How? Is it easy?
It is difficult to find new and large ore deposits, since most of
the accessible parts of the globe have been extensively
surveyed and assessed for their mineral potential.

SO WHAT?
There are 3 options:
Search for deeper deposits.
To extract material from inaccessible parts of the globe.
To extract useful commodities from rocks that traditionally have
not been thought of as viable ores.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

The search for deeper deposits, depend on the availability


of technologies that will enable mining to take place safely
and profitably at depths in excess of 4000 meters (the
deepest mine in South African gold mines).
To extract material from inaccessible parts of the globe,
such as the ocean floor (Mn,Cu).
There are technological barriers to such
processes at present, but these can be
overcome, as demonstrated by the exploration
and extraction of oil and gas from the sea floor.
To extract useful commodities from rocks that traditionally
have not been thought of as viable ores.
Its cheaper to extract Fe from a banded iron
formation than it is from olivine or orthopyroxene
even though both rock types might contain
significant amounts of the metal.

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Global production trends for Oil, Bouxite, Copper and Gold


(After Craig et al. 1996) Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Those elements which fall above the Fe production line (notably Au, Ag,
etc) are being extracted or depleted at faster rates, than Fe.
It is these metals that are in most danger of depletion in the next 50
years or so unless production is ameliorated or the reserve base is
replaced.
Those metals that plot beneath the Fe production line (such as Ti, Mg,
and Al) are being extracted at slower rates than Fe and are in less
danger of serious depletion during this century.
Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Banded metataconite ore from


the Julienne Lake deposit,
displaying coarse-grained
specular hematite.

Hard, blue hematite-rich ore


from the Sawyer Lake deposit
(Labrador iron Mines).

Adhari, M.R., Teknik Geologi Unsyiah

Hematite, Iron ore.

Lateritic nickel ore.