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5 Materi Soal Yang Sering Diujikan Pada dalam Tes TOEFL

Satu bagian dari tes TOEFL ada structure dan written expression, pada bagian ini di ujikan berbagai
hal yang berkaitan dengan grammar yang ruang lingkupnya tidak terbatas. Namun berdasarkan
pengamatan pada tes-tes TOEFL ada, secara umum terdapat kecenderungan-kecenderungan yang
dikeluarkan berupa soal dari materi-materi tertentu. Hampir setiap diadakan tes TOEFL bentuk soal
tersebut muncul, mungkin kalimat kalimat tidak sama, tetapi pola grammarnya sama.

Berikut adalah materi-materi yang sering diujikan dalam tes TOEFL pada bagian Soal Structure Dan
Written Expression.

1. Auxiliary Verb

Auxiliary Verb adalah kata kerja tambahan yang bersamaan dengan main verb untuk menambah arti :
Be, have, do dan semua modal, (can, shall, may, dst)

2. Comparison

Comparison digunakan untuk membandingkan kata sifat (adjektif). Setidaknya ada tiga jenis
Comparision dalam bahasa inggris yaitu comparative adjective, superlative adjective, irregular
adjective, irregular adjective

Comparative Adjective :

Membandingkan dua hal, orang, binatang, benda, dll. Comparative menggunakan more (lebih) dan
less (kurang).

Artinya : Lebih

Bila adjective terdiri dari satu kata (menggunakan er), bila terdiri dua kata atau lebih (menggunakan
more- dan less). Contoh : Harder, More beautiful, less dangerous,

Contoh Kalimat : Ani is more beautiful than Yuni

Superlative Adjective :

Membandingkan lebih dari dua hal, orang, binatang, benda, dll

Memiliki Arti : Paling

Bila adjective terdiri dari satu kata (menggunakan est), bila terdiri dua kata atau lebih (menggunakan
most- dan least ). Contoh : Hardest, Most beautiful, least dangerous,

Contoh Kalimat : Ani is more beautiful than Yuni

Irregular Adjective :

Beberapa adjective tertentu tidak mengikuti kaidah diatas tidak beraturan.Di kenal sebagai Irregular
Adjective.

Beberapa adjective tidak beraturan yang sering digunakan

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Adjective Comparative Superlaive

Little Less The Least

Far Farther The Fartherst

Good Better Best

Bad Worse The Worst

Much More The Most

Many More The Most

3. Preposisi

Preposisi adalah kata atau frase yang menjelaskan sebuah hubungan

Yang Perlu dicermati dalam ujian TOEFL sebagai berikut :

-Perbedaan Between dan Among

Between digunakan untuk menjelaskan dua kata benda (noun)

Contoh : There is a discussion between a student and his teacher

Sedangkan Among digunakan untuk menjelaskan tiga atau lebih noun atau sebuah kata benda jamak
(prular noun)

Contoh :

There is a discussion among Bill, Jimmy, and John

-Perbedaan in, on, dan at untuk menunjukkan tempar

Ketiganya memiliki arti yang sama untuk menunjukkan tempat, namun penggunaannya berbeda

In : Menunjukkan tempat-tempat yang besar. contoh : Country, province, city, ocean, dll

On : Menunjukkan tempat-tempat yang berukuran menengah. Contoh : Street, coast, river, lake, train,
plane, ship, dll

At : Menunjukkan tempat-tempat yang berukuran kecil :Contoh : A corner, a room, a class, a building,
a car, a bus, dll

-Perbedaan in, on, at sebgai penunjuk waktu

In : Menunjukkan unit waktu yang besar. contoh : in 1992, in June

On : Menunjukkan unit waktu yang menengah. Contoh : On Thursday

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At : Menunjukkan unit waktu yang berukuran kecil. Contoh : At 9.30 pm

-Perbedaan instead dan instead of

Arti yang sama : Dari Pada

Instead : Tim want to buy a dress instead

Instead Of: Digunakan sebelum setelah kata benda atau kata sifat

Contoh : I want to buy a dress instead of a shirt

-Perbedaan Because dan because of

Because : Merupakan kata sambung, setelahnya Kalimat

I didnt go to school because it was rain

Because Of : Menjelaskan kata benda dan frase . Setelahnya kata benda dan frase

I didnt go to school because of the rain

4. Correlative Conjunction

Correlative Conjunction adalah dua kata sambung yang digunakan secara bersaman dalam sebuah
kalimat. Sering kali digunakan untuk menyetakan pengecualian dan cakupan : Beberapa Correlative
Conjunction :

1) Bothand

Menyatakan 2 struktur parallel

Contoh : John teach both English and Match

2) Both.andas well as

Menyatakan 3 struktur parallel

John teach both English and Match as well as physics

3) Not OnlyBut Also

Not onlybut also : Tidak hanya tapi juga

4) Neither dan Either

Kedua kunjungsi ini sebut sebagai negative agreement.

Perbedaannya

Neither : Digunakan sebelum Auxiliary Verb (+)

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Contoh :

Susi didnt go to the party, and neither did Tommy

Either : Digunakan setelah Auxiliary Verb (-)

Contoh :

Contoh :

Susi didnt go to the party, and Tommy did not neither

5. Negative Emphasis

Negative Emphasis adalah frasa yang dignakan untuk menjawab pertanyaan how often? dan
dignakan pada awal pernyataan

Yang termasuk dalam negative emphasis adalah not one, not until,never, never again, very seldom,
very rarely

Struktur

Negative Emphasis + Auxiliary + S + V

Contoh Kalimat :

Not one book has been read to prepare his thesis proposal

Materi toefl structur dan Tenses

I. Materi toefl structur


a. Basic Sentences Stucture
Secara umum, tidak ada perbedaan yang sangat mencolok antara struktur kalimat bahasa Inggris dengan bahasa
Indonesia, dimana suatu kalimat dibangun atas 4 komponen utama, yaitu
Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)
Dalam bahasa Indonesia, komponen ini kita kenal dengan Subjek + Kata Kerja + Objek + Keterangan
contoh:
We studied grammar last week
We + studied + grammar + last week
S+V+C+M
1. Subject
* agen dari suatu kalimat dalam bentuk aktif
* benda/orang/pihak yang melakukan kegiatan atau yang bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu aksi dalam suatu
kalimat
* biasanya mendahului verb, atau setelah subject biasanya terdapat verb
contoh:
I explain how to study English
She listens to my explanation

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They didnt understand that language
Subjek dapat diketahui dari pertanyaan who (siapa) atau what (apa) yang melakukan perbuatan pada suatu
kalimat.
2. Verb
* Verb is the action of a sentence (aksi atau perbuatan pada suatu kalimat)
* Verb phrase: gabungan antara auxilaries dengan main verb (kata kerja utama)
contoh:
I am learning English (am = auxilary, learning = main verb)
My brother is very clever
She has gone home (has = auxilary, gone = main verb)
I have been waiting here (have been = auxilary, waiting = main verb)
* Setiap kalimat harus mempunyai Verb
3. Complement
* Biasanya berupa noun (kata benda) atau noun phrase (frasa kata benda)
* biasanya terdapat setelah verb pada kalimat aktif
* complement menjawab pertanyaan what (apa) atau siapa (whom)
contoh:
1) Sarijon bought a cake yesterday
What did Sarijon buy yesterday? > a cake.
2) He saw Tony at the movie
Whom did he see at the movie? > Tony
3) I explain pharmacology to my students
What do I explain to my students? > pharmacology
* Catatan: Setiap kalimat tidak harus mempunyai complement.
4. Modifier
* Modifier menjelaskan time (waktu), place (tempat), atau manner (cara) dari sebuah aksi atau perbuatan
* Bentuk yang paling umum dari modifier adalah prepositional phrase (kelompok kata yang dimulai dengan
sebuah preposition dan diakhiri dengan sebuah noun
* Preposition = on, out, under, behind, etc
* Modifier menjawab pertanyaan when (kapan), where (dimana), atau how (bagaimana)

contoh:
1) John bought a book at a book fair
Where did John buy a book? > at a book fair
2) She is driving very fast
How is she driving? > very fast
3) I posted my application yesterday
When do I post my application? > yesterday
Contoh soal :
1. The Eiffel Tower _____ Paris, France
a. landmarks
b. is a landmarked in
c. is a landmark in
d. is in a landmark

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jawaban :
The Eiffel Tower is a landmark in Paris, France, karena mengikuti aturan kalimat bahasa Inggris, sebuah
kalimat harus memiliki subjek dan verb, dalam hal ini, The Eiffel Tower, adalah subjek single sehingga
memerlukan to be yang singular, yakni is. Dan kalimat tersebut membutuhkan sebuah complement untuk
kebutuhan Modifier place yakni, Paris, sehingga landmark berfungsi sebagai noun dan tidak bisa digunakan
dalam bentuk verb 2 & 3 karena peran verbs sudah digantikan oleh to be, is.
2. Young deer _______
a. are called fawns
b. be fawns
c. is fawns
d. are fawns called

jawaban :
Young deer is fawns, karena subjek adalah single sehingga membutuhkan to be singular untuk berperan menjadi
verbs bagi complements noun yakni, fawns.
b. Parallel Structure
Parallelism artinya kata-kata yang digunakan dalam rangkaian atau kelompok yang harus mempunyai bentuk
yang sama secara grammar. Ketika kita menggunakan kata-kata atau frase yang dihubungkan dengan kata
penghubung dalam sebuah rangkaian, maka bentuknya harus sama secara grammar. Perhatikan contoh berikut
ini:
* Terry likes swimming and to dive. (Salah tidak parallel)
* Terry likes swimming and diving. (Benar parallel)
* Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (Benar parallel)
* Im taking history, math, and chemical. (Salah Chemical bukan kata benda)
* Im taking history, math, and chemistry
Kadang-kadang kata-kata yang berulang-ulang seperti auxiliary verbs, dapat dihilangkan pada rangkaian
selanjutnya.
* I have been to Paris and saw the Eiffel Tower. (Salah saw seharusnya seen)
* I have been to Paris and have seen the Eiffel Tower. (Benar)
* I have been to Paris and seen the Eiffel Tower. (Benar dan lebih baik daripada contoh ke 2)
* Is she coming to the party or go to a movie? (salah)
* Is she coming to the party or going to a movie? (Benar)
Contoh soal
Identify and correct the mistakes in parallel structure in the following sentences
1. I swept the yard, weeded the garden and . the clothes.
a. was washing
b. wash
c. washed
d. washing
2. James decided to get up early, practice some yoga and . healthy foods.
a. eat
b. ate
c. eating
d. eaten

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Jawaban :
1. I swept the yard, weeded the garden and washed the clothes, karena kalimat menggunakan simple past
tense yang menggunakan verb ketiga tanpa Auxiliary, sehingga kata wash juga harus menggunakan verb ketiga
tanpa Auxiliary.
2. James decided to get up early, practice some yoga and eat healthy foods, karena kata
sebelumnya practice menggunakan verb 1 sehingga kata pasangan paralelnya harus menggunakan verb 1 satu
juga yakni eat .
c. Comparative Adjectives
Saat membicarakan dua benda, kita dapat membandingkan dan melihat persamaan juga perbedaan antara dua
benda tersebut. Mungkin saja benda itu mempunyai kesamaan di satu sisi dan perbedaan pada sisi lainnya.
Untuk membandingkan perbedaan kedua benda tersebut kita menggunakan comparative adjectives.
Perbandingan menggunakan comparative adjectives ini hanya untuk membandingkan antara dua benda saja.
Ada dua cara untuk membuat comparative adjectives:
1. Menambah akhiran -er (short adjectives)
2. Menambah awalan more (long adjectives)
Aturan penambahan akhiran untuk short adjectives:
- Umumnya adjektiva hanya ditambahkan er, misalnya: older, smaller, richer, etc.
- Jika berakhiran e, tambahkan saja r, misalnya: later, nicer, etc.
- Jika berakhiran konsonan-vokal-konsonan, maka ditambah konsonan yang terakhir, baru kemudian ditambah
er, misalnya: bigger, hotter, etc.
- Jika berakhiran y, maka y diubah menjadi i kemudian ditambah er, misalnya: happier, earlier, busier, heavier,
etc.
Untuk long adjectives, aturannya hanya menambahkan kata more saja pada adjektiva, misalnya: expensive
menjadi more expensive, beautiful menjadi more beautiful, dsb.
Beberapa adjektiva mempunyai bentuk irregular, misalnya good better, well (healthy) better, bad worse,
far farther/further, etc.
Adjektiva dengan dua suku kata yang bisa menggunakan er atau more: quiet quieter/more quiet, clever
cleverer/more clever, narrow narrower/more narrow, simple simpler/more simple.
Comparative adjectives tidak hanya digunakan untuk membandingkan dua benda yang berbeda saja, tetapi dapat
juga digunakan untuk membandingkan benda yang sama yang menunjuk pada dirinya sendiri, dan benda yang
dimaksud tidak perlu disebutkan lagi, seperti salah satu contoh kalimat di atas: I want to have a more powerful
computer.
Kata sifat dengan 1 suku kata
Untuk membuat bentuk komparatif dari sebuah kata sifat yang memiliki satu suku kata, kita menambahkan -
er di belakang kata, contoh:
slow slower
fast faster
tall taller
short shorter
Untuk membuat perbandingan dari sebuah kata sifat yang memiliki satu suku kata dan berakhiran dengan huruf
-e, kita cukup menambahkan -r. Contoh:
(nice nicer ) ( large larger )
Jika kata sifat dengan satu suku kata yang berakhiran dengan huruf vokal dan konsonan, maka kita
menggandakan huruf konsonan. Contoh:

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( big bigger ) ( hot hotter )
(thin thinner)
Kata sifat dengan 2 suku kata
Jika kata sifat memiliki dua atau lebih suku kata, kita menambahkan moresebelum kata sifat. Contoh:
This book is more expensive than that book.
This picture is more beautiful.
Akan tetapi, ada banyak pengecualian terhadap aturan satu/dua suku -kata ini.
Beberapa kata dengan 2 suku-kata memiliki sifat yang mirip dengan kata yang memiliki 1 suku-kata. Contoh:
This is easier Benar
This is more easy - Tidak benar
This is simpler Benar
This is more simple - Tidak benar
Dan beberapa kata sifat bisa menggunakan kedua bentuk komparatif. Contoh:
- clever cleverer more clever: These are all correct
- quiet quieter more quiet: These are all correct.
Pengecualian-pengecualian yang ada bisa dipelajari melalui kaidah-kaidah, cara terbaik untuk mempelajarinya
adalah dengan mempelajarinya satu demi satu.
Contoh Soal :
1. The Nile river is ____ than the Amazon.
a. longer
b. more long
c. longest
d. long
2. Im ______ than Yuri but _____ than Miko.
a. tallest, shorter
b. more tall, more short
c. taller, shortest
d. taller, shorter
Jawaban :
1. The Nile river is longer than the Amazon, karena kata sifat yang diperlukan kalimat hanya terdiri dari 1 suku
kata dan hanya membandingkan 2 benda.
2. Im taller than Yuri but shorter than Miko, karena kata sifat yang diperlukan kalimat tersebut hanya terdiri
dari 1 suku kata dan hanya membandingkan 2 benda.
d. Conditional Clauses
Conditional (Kalimat Pengandaian) menjelaskan bahwa sebuah kegiatan bertentangan dengan kegiatan yang
lain. Conditional yang paling umum adalah Real Conditonal dan Unreal Conditonal, kadang-kadang disebut
juga if-clauses. Real Conditional (sering juga disebut juga dengan Conditional Tipe I) yang menggambarkan
tentang mengandai-andai sesuai dengan fakta.
Unreal Conditional (sering juga disebut sebagai Conditional Tipe II) yang menggambarkan tentang pengandaian
yang tidak nyata atau berimajinasi. Ada juga Conditional yang ke-3 yang sering disebut dengan Conditional
Tipe III, digunakan sebagai penyesalan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan zero conditional, digunakan untuk
mengekspresikan sesuatu yang sudah pasti benar.
Catatan: Jika klausa if diletakkan di awal kalimat, kita harus menggunakan koma. Sebaliknya jika klausa
if berada di belakang, maka tidak perlu ada koma

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Conditional atau pengandaian memiliki 3 bentuk :
1. Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin terjadi pada waktu mendatang ataupun sekarang, jika
syarat / kondisi tertentu terpenuhi.
Rumus Conditional Type 1:
If + Subject + present simple + subject + modals (will, can, may, must ) V1 (simple form)
contoh : If have money I will buy a new car
If + Subject+ Simple present + subject + simple-present
contoh : If he has enough time, John usually walks to school.
If + Subject + simple present + command form
contoh : If you go to the post office, please mail this letter for me !
2. Unreal Present (Conditional Type 2)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan apa yang ada atau terjadi sekarang.
If + subject + simple past + subject + modals (would, could, might) V1 (Simple Form)
contoh : If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
( Saya tidak punya waktu sehingga saya tidak bisa pergi )
He would tell you about it if he were here
( dia akan mengatakan jika dia berada disini, artinya karena dia tidak ada disini, dia tidak mengatakannya/
because he is not here he doesnt tell you about it.)
* untuk if-clause dalam bentuk ini hanya to be were yang dipergunakan untuk semua subject.
if pada conditional type 2 ini dapat dihilangkan yaitu dengan penggunaan pola inversi :
Were + subject + Adj/Noun + subject + modal (would, could, might) + V1
contoh : Were I John I would not forgive you.
(kalau saja saya itu si john saya tak akan memaafkan kamu; kenyataannya saya
bukan john jadi saya memaafkan kamu / Im not John so I forgive you).
He could hug me, if he were here. (Dia boleh memeluk saya, jika dia di sini). Faktanya: he cant hug me,
because, he is not here.
3. Unreal Past (Conditional Type 3)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan apa yang telah terjadi (lampau).
Rumus Conditional Type 3:
If + Subject + Past Perfect subject + modals ( would, could, might) + have V3
contoh :
1. If we had known that you were there, we would have written you letter.
(kalau saja kami tahu kamu berada disana, kami sudah mengirim surat padamu;
yang bermakna bahwa kami tidak mengirim surat karena kami tidak tahu kamu berada di sana / I did not know
that you were there so I didnt write you a letter.
2. He would tell you about it if he were here.
3. If he didnt speak so quickly, you could understand him.
Bentuk inversi (tanpa IF) untuk pola ini :
Had + subject + V3subject + modals (would, could, might) + have V3
kalimat diatas bila ditulis inversinya menjadi :
Had we known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
tanpa mengubah makna maupun arti.
Contoh Soal :

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1. If it _____ so cloudy, we would plan on having the fair outside
a. was
b. was not x
c. werent
d. had not
2. If she ______ to advance her clock one hour, she wouldnt have been late for work
a. should have remembered
b. could remembered
c. remembered
d. would have remembered x
Jawaban :
1. If it was not so cloudy, we would plan on having the fair outside, karena induk kalimat menggunakan V1,
jadi kalimat pengandaian ini harus menggunakan tipe 2 sehingga membutuhkan simple past tenses.
2. If she would have remembered to advance her clock one hour, she wouldnt have been late for
work, karena induk kalimat menggunakan V3, been, maka kalimat pengandaian harus menggunakan tipe 3
sehingga membutuhkan past perfect tenses sebagai jawaban.

e. Noun Clauses
Noun clause adalah clause (i.e. subject dan verb) yang difungsikan sebagai noun. Noun clause dalam kalimat
pada umumnya digunakan sebagai subject dan object kalimat.
Noun clause dapat diawali oleh:
Question word atau relative pronoun baik berupa single question word maupun phrase:
Single question word (i.e. when, how, what, ect.).
Question word + determiner/ noun/ adjective / adverb.
Question word + infinitive.
Conjunction (i.e. whether dan if).
That atau the fact that.
Sehingga pola dari noun clause adalah:
Question word/conjunction/that + subject + verb +
A. Noun Clauses diawali dengan Question words
Dalam How to Address Questions sudah dibahas tentang penggunaan kata tanya baik dalam
membuat information questions maupun dalam membuat embedded questions. Embedded questions tersebut
adalah noun clause. Dalam section ini diberikan contoh tambahan untuk merefresh memori anda.
1. Single question words.
Contoh:
1. Where she is now is still unknown.
2. When they arrive is still uncertain.
3. I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer are two Hollywood
movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt. Perhatikan: dalam kalimat ini, noun clause what you did last
summer menjadi object dari I know dan I still know, dan setelah digabung dengan: are two Hollywood movies
starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt, menjadi subject majemuk dari kalimat.

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Noun clause dapat ditempatkan diawal kalimat (sebagai subject) atau sebagai object. Jika anda ingin merubah
posisi noun clause dari subject kalimat menjadi object kalimat, biasanya dibutuhkan pronoun it atau sedikit
modifikasi kata. Contoh di atas menjadi:
1. It is still unknown where she is now.
2. Do you know when they arrive?
3. Two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt are I know what you did last summer and I still know
what you did last summer. Karena merupakan judul movies, noun clause what you did last summer tidak perlu
diputar posisinya.
Note:
a) Clause yang diawali oleh question words tertentu (i.e. when, whenever, where) juga dapat berfungsi sebagai
adverbial clause.
Contoh:
1. I was reading a book when the phone rang.
2. I went to where I and my ex girlfriend had been last weekend.
3. I suddenly get nausea whenever I see his face. (nausea = mual/mau muntah).
b). Clause yang diawali oleh question words tertentu (i.e. who, whom, whose + noun) juga dapat berfungsi
sebagai adjective clause. Dalam hal ini, kata tanya tersebut sebenarnya adalah relative pronoun. Well, jangan
terlalu dipusingkan dengan istilah. Yang penting anda mengerti pola/struktur kalimatnya. Tapi, jika anda
penasaran, silakan baca topic adjective clauses.
Contoh:
1. I think you whom Mr. Dodi was looking for. (Saya kira kamu (orang) yang pak Dodi sedang cari-cari
tadi).
2. Mr. Dodi, who is a teacher, was looking for you at school.
3. Rommy, whose book was stolen last week, just bought another new book yesterday.
2. Question words + ever/soever
Kecuali how, diakhir question words dapat ditambahkan ever atau soever menjadi whenever = whensoever,
whatever= whatsoever, dan seterusnya. Arti ever atau soever di sini sama, yaitu saja/pun, tinggal
dikombinasikan dengan kata tanya di depannya. Sedangkan, how+ever menjadi however (i.e. adverb atau juga
disebut kata transisi yang berarti namun/walapun demikian) tidak termasuk dalam katagori ini.
Contoh:
1. We will accept whatever you want us to do. (Kami akan menerima/melakukan apa saja yang kamu
ingin kami lakukan).
2. Whoever can melt her feeling is a very lucky guy. (melt = meluluhkan). Be careful: guy (dibaca gae)=
laki-laki, sedangkan gay (dibaca gei) = fag = homo.
3. She has agreed to wherever the man would bring her. (Dia telah setuju kemanapun pria itu membawanya pergi).
Note: in speaking (informal), preposition (dalam hal ini to, etc.) biasanya diletakkan di ujung kalimat. She has
agreed wherever the man would bring her to.
3. Question words + nouns
Question words + nouns yang sering digunakan antara lain: what time (jam berapa), what day (hari apa), what
time (jam berapa), what kind (jenis apa), what type (tipe apa), whose + nouns (i.e. whose car, whose book, ect.),
dan seterusnya.
Contoh:
1. I cant remember what day we will take the exam.
2. As long as I am faithful, she doesnt care what type of family I come from. (faithful = setia).

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3. Do you know what time it is?
4. I dont know whose car is parked in front of my house.
4. Question words + adjectives
Question words + adjectives yang sering digunakan antara lain: how long (berapa panjang/lama), how far
(berapa jauh), how old (berapa tua/umur), ect.
Contoh:
1. Man! She still looks young. Do you know how old she actually is?
2. I am lost. Could you tell me how far it is from here to the post office?
3. What a jerk. He didnt even ask how long I had been waiting for him.
5. Question words + determiners
Question words + determiners yang sering digunakan adalah: how many (berapa banyak) dan how much
(berapa banyak). Remember: how many diikuti oleh plural nouns, sedangkan how much diikuti oleh
uncountable nouns.
Contoh:
1. Is there any correlation between how good he or she is in English and how many books he or she has?
2 .How much your English skill will improve is determined by how hard you practice.
6. Question words + adverbs.
Question words + adverbs yang sering digunakan adalah: how often (berapa sering), how many times (berapa
kali) ect.
Contoh:
1. No matter how often I practice, my English still sucks. (Tidak memandang berapa kali saya latihan,
bahasa Inggris saya masih jelek). Suck (informal verb) = jelek/tidak baik; arti suck yang lain: mengisap.
2. I dont want my parents to know how many times I have left school early. (leave school early = bolos).
7. Question words + infinitives.
Jika question words langsung diikuti oleh infinitives, invinitives tersebut mengandung
makna shouldatau can/could. Perhatikan bahwa subject setelah question words dihilangkan.
Contoh:
1. She didnt know what to do = She didnt know what she should do. (Dia tidak tahu apa yang
seharusnya dia lakukan).
2. Please tell me how to get the train station from here = Please tell me how I can get the train station
from here.
3. We havent decided when to go to the beach = We havent decided when we should go to the beach.
4. Marry told us where to find her = Marry told us where we could find her.
5.
B. Noun clauses diawali dengan whether/if
Whether bisa diikuti oleh OR/NOT bisa juga tidak; makna kalimat biasanya sama walaupun OR/NOT tidak
disebutkan (ini tergantung konteks kalimat).
Contoh:
I am not sure whether she is coming or not = I am not sure whether or not she is coming = I am not sure whether
she is coming. (Saya tidak yakin apakah dia akan datang atau tidak).
We cant decide whether we should go out or stay home. = We cant decide whether to go or (to) stay home.
Perhatikan, infinitives juga dapat digunakan setelah whether.
C. Noun clauses diawali dengan that/the fact that

12
Di sini that berarti bahwa, sedangkan the fact that berarti fakta bahwa. Sedangkan, that dalam adjective clauses
berarti yang.
Contoh:
That she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20 surprises a lot of people = It surprises a lot of people that she has
had a PhD degree at the age of 20.
It is the fact that the world is round = the fact that the world is round is well known.
It was obvious that she was very sick = The fact that she was very sick was obvious.
It seems that it is going to rain soon.
Contoh Soal :
1. The teacher heard who answered the question. (C)
Analisa:
Kalimat pertama The teacher heard benar karena The teacher subject and heard verbnya. Kalimat kedua
Who answered the phoned juga benar karena who berfungsi sebagai subject and answered sebagai verbnya.
Pada saat yang bersamaan Who juga berfungsi sebagai connetor.
Jadi kalimat di atas sudah benar.
2. I do not understand it went wrong. (I)
Analysis:
Kalimat pertama I do not understand sudah benar karena I subject dan do not understand verb. Kalimat kedua
it went wrong salah karena tidak ada connector sekaligus subject.
Kalimat yang benar seharusnya: I do not understand what went wrong.What berfungsi sebagai subject dan juga
connector, sementara went nya sebagai verb,
II . Tenses
1. Simple Present Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk:
Menyataka/mengungkapkan kegiatan yang sering dilakukan atau rutinitas. Misalnya, dilakukan tiap hari, setiap
minggu, setiap bulan, setiap tahun, dst.
Menyatakan keadaan, sifat dari benda/binatang/orang yang tetap, artinya dari dulu hingga sekarang( tidak dapat
dibantah) dan mungkin nantinya tidak akan berubah. Misalnya, darah merah, bumi bulat, dst.
Example:
Kalimat Positif(+)
I/we/they/you + INFINITIF
He/she/it + INFINITIF + S
Formula
a. We go to campus everyday.
b. She always helps her mother.
c. Beckham plays football everyweek.
Kalimat Negatif (-)
I/we/they/you + Do not + INFINITIF
He/she/it + Does not + INFINITIF
Formula
a. We dont go to campus everyday.
b. She doesnt always help her mother.
c. Beckham doesnt play football everyweek.
Kalimat Pertanyaan (?)

13
Do + I/we/they/you + INFINITIF
Does + He/she/it + INFINITIF
Formula
a. Do we go to campus everyday ?
b. Does she always help her mother ?
c. Does Beckham play football everyday ?
WH Questions
a. What do we do everyday ?
b. Who does she always help ?
c. What dose Beckham play everyday ?
2. Present Progressive Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk:
Menerangkan suatu perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu sekarang.
Example:
Kalimat Positif (+)
Subject + To be (am, are, is) + Present participle
Formula
a. They are studying English now.
b. He is playing soccer .
c. We are doing the task
Kalimat Negatif (-)
subject + to be (am, are, is)+ not + present participle

Formula
a. They are not studying English Now
b. He is not playing soccer.
c. We arent doing the task.
Kalimat Pertanyaan(?)
To be (am, are, is) + Subject + Present Participle
Formula
a. Are They studying English Now ?
b. Is he playing soccer ?
c. Are you doing the task ?
WH Questions
a. What are they studying now ?
b. What is he doing ?
c. What are you doing ?
3. Present Perfect Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk:
Menerangkan suatu kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau yang masih ada hubungannya dengan waktu
sekarang namun waktu terjadinya tidak jelas diketahui.
Menunjukan suatu perbuatan uklangan pada waktu yan tidak tertentu sebelum sekarang. Dalam hal ini sering
dipakai kata-kata separti before, already, ever, never, yet.
Example:

14
Kalimat Positif (+)
I/ we/ you/ they + HAVE + Past Participle
He/ she/ it + HAS + Past Participle
Formula
a. I have ever been there.
b. He has taught English since seven years ago.
c. She has lived in England since ten years ago.
Kalimat Negatif (-)
I/ we/ you/ they + HAVE Not + Past Participle
He/ she/ it + HAS Not + Past Participle
Formula
a. I have not ever been there.
b. He has not taught English since seven years ago.
c. She has not lived in England since ten years ago.
Kalimat Pertanyaan(?)
HAVE + I/ we/ you/ they + Past Participle
HAS + He/ she/ it + Past Participle
Formula
a. Have you ever been there ?
b. Has he taught English since seven years ago ?
c. Has she lived in England since ten years ago ?
WH Questions
a. Where place have you ever been ?
b. How log has he taught Engllish ?
c. Where has she live since ten years ago ?
4. Present Perfect Progressive tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk : Menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung
hingga sekarang.
Example:
Kalimat Positif (+)
I/ we/ you/they + HAVE + BEEN + Present Participle
He/ she/ it + HAS +BEEN + Present Participle
Formula
a. We have been waiting for you since seven oclock.
b. She has been studying English for three years.
c. They have been touring since yesterday.
Kalimat Negatif (-)
I/ we/ you/they + HAVE Not + BEEN + Present Participle
He/ she/ it + HAS Not + BEEN + Present Participle
Formula
a. We have not been waiting for you since seven oclock.
b. She has not been studying English for three years.
c. They have been touring since yesterday.
Kalimat Pertanyaan(?)

15
HAVE + I/ we/ you/they + BEEN + Present Participle
HAS + He/ she/ it + BEEN + Present Participle
Formula
a. Have You been waiting for me since seven oclock ?
b. Has She been studying English for three years ?
c. Have they been touring since yesterday ?
WH Questions
a. Who have You been waiting since seven oclock ?
b. What has She been studying for three years ?
c. What have they been doing since yesterday ?
5. Simple Past Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk:
Menyatakan kegiatan yang selesai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan diketahui pula waktu terjadinya.
Example:
Kalimat Positif(+)
Subject + Past Tense(V2)
Formula
a. They went to Yogyakarta last week.
b. She came here yesterday.
c. I watched the movie last night.
Kalimat Negatif (-)
Subject + did not+ INFINITIF(V1)
Formula
a. They didnt go to Yogyakarta last week.
b. She didnt come here yesterday.
c. I didnt watched the movie last night.
Kalimat Pertanyaan(?)
Did + Subject + INFINITIF(V1)
Formula
a. Did they go to Yogyakarta last week ?
b. Did she come here yesterday ?
c. Did you watch the movie last night ?
WH Questions
a. Where did they go last week ?
b. When did she come here ?
c. When did you watch the movie ?
6. Past ProgressiveTense.
Tenses ini digunakan untuk:
Menyatakan kegiatan yang sudah dimulai dan masih berlangsung pada waktu lampau pada saat peristiwa lain
terjadi atau kegiatan yang lain dilakukan.
Menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau
Example:
Kalimat Positif (+)
I/ we/ you/they + WERE + Present Participle

16
He/ she/ it + WAS + Present Participle
Formula
a. I was watching Tv, when you played the game.
b. I was sleeping, while you was calling me.
c. She was reading a book, when you listened the rock music.
Kalimat Negatif (-)
I/ we/ you/they + WERE Not + Present Participle
He/ she/ it + WAS Not + Present Participle
Formula
a. I was not watching Tv, when you played the game.
b. I was not sleeping, while you was calling me.
c. She was not reading a book, when you listened the rock music.
Kalimat Pertanyaan(?)
WERE + I/ we/ you/they + Present Participle
WAS + He/ she/ it + Present Participle
Formula
a. Were you watching Tv, when I played the game ?
b. Were you sleeping, while I was calling you ?
c. Was she reading a English book, when you listened the rock music?
WH Questions.
a. What were you doing, when I played the game ?
b. What were you doing, while I was calling you ?
c. What book was she reading, when you listened the rock music ?
7. Simple Future Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk:
Menyatakan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan pada waktu yang akan datang.
Example:
Kalimat Positif (+)
Subject + Will + INFINITIF(V1)
Formula
a. He will meet you in Campus tomorrow morning.
b. She will visit her grandma next week .
c. I will meet mary this evening
Kalimat Negatif (-)
Subject + Will not + INFINITIF(V1)
Formula
a. He will not meet you in Campus tomorrow morning.
b. She will not visit her grandma next week .
c. I will not meet Mary this night.
Kalimat Pertanyaan(?)
Will + Subject + INFINITIF(V1)
Formula
a. Will he meet you in Campus tomorrow morning ?
b. Will she visit her grandma next week ?

17
c. Will you meet Mary this night ?
WH Questions.
a. When Will he meet you in Campus ?
b. When Will she visit her grandma ?
c. Who Will you meet this night ?

Directions : Question 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see
for words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C) and (D). You are to choose one word or phrase
that best complete the sentence.

Example I
The swimming instructor came... if the apartment was still available.
A. to see
B. seeing
C. saw
D. for seeing

The sentence should be read "The swimming instructor came to see if the apartment
was still available." Therefore, you should choose A.

Now begin work on the questions.

1. The committee has met twice and ....


A. they reached a final decision
B. a final decision was reached
C. its decision was reached
D. it has reached a final decision

2. The manager won't be able to attend the shareholders' meeting tomorrow because....
A. he must to give a lecture
B. he will be giving a lecture
C. of he will give lecture
D. he will have giving a lecture

3. Brenda's score on the test is the highest in class.


A. She should study hard last night.
B. She should have studied hard last night.
C. She must have studied hard last night.
D. She had to study hard last night

4. To answer accurately is more important than...


A. to finish quickly
B. a quick finish
C. you finish it quickly
D. quick finish

5. Having been served lunch,....


A. the problems were discussed by the participants.
B. the participants discuss the problems.
C. it was discussed by the participants.
D. A discussion of the problems were made by the participants.

6. East Kalimantan relies heavily on income from oil and natural gas, and....
A. Aceh province also.
B. Aceh province too.
C. Aceh province is as well.

18
D. so does Aceh province.

7. The participants have had some problems deciding....


A. when they should announce the result of the meeting.
B. when are they sgoing to announce the result of the meeting.
C. when should they announce the result of the meeting.
D. the time when the result of the meeting to announce.

8. This year will be more difficult for our organization because....


A. we have less money and volunteers than last year.
B. there is a little money and volunteers than last year.
C. it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year.
D. it has fewer money and less volunteers than it had last year.

9. Professor Baker told his students that...


A. they can turn over their reports on Mondays.
B. the reports can turn over on Monday.
C. they could hand in their reports on Monday.
D. the reports they can hand in on Monday.

10. The adder is a venomous snake ... bite may prove fatal to humans.
A. its
B. whom its
C. that
D. whose

11. .... a bee colony gets, the more the queen's egglaying capability diminishers.
A. It is more overcrowded.
B. The more overcrowded.
C. More overcrowded than.
D. More than overcrowded.

12. The chairwoman requested that ....


A. the participants studied more careful the problem.
B. the participants study the problem more carefully.
C. the participants studied the problem with more careful.
D. the problem be studied more carefully.

13. Unlike the earth, which rotates once every twenty-four hours ... once every ten hours.
A. the rotation of Jupiter
B. Jupiter rotates
C. Jupiter rotation
D. Jupiter rotate

14. Jackson,... capital of Mississippi, is the largest city in the state.


A. the
B. it is the
C. is the
D. where the

15. The various types of bacteria are classified according to...shapes.


A. whose
B. how they are
C. have
D. their

KUNCI JAWABAN

1. D 11. B

19
2. B 12. B
3. C 13. B
4. A 14. A
5. B 15. D
6. D
7. C
8. C
9. C
10.D

Read more: http://www.kursusmudahbahasainggris.com/2013/10/contoh-soal-toefl-


structure-lengkap.html#ixzz4N1WsIUnc

Questions 1 through 10 are based on the following passage.

Lichens, of which more than twenty thousand


species have been named, are complex associations
between certain algae. The lichen itself is not
an organism: rather it is the morphological and biochemical
product of the association. Neither a fungus
nor an alga alone can produce lichen.

The intimate relationship between these two


living components of lichen was once erroneously
though to represent mutualism. In mutual relationships,
both participants benefit. With lichens, however,
it appears the fungus actually parasitizes the algae.
This is one of the conclusions drawn from experiments
in which the two components of lichens were separated
and grown apart.

In nature, lichen fungi may encounter and


grow around saveral kinds of algae. Some types of
algae the fungi may kill; other types it may reject.
Lichen algae are autotrophic, meaning they make their
own food through photosynthesis. Lichen fungi are
heterotrophic, meaning they depend upon the algae
within the lichen to supply their food. Up to ninety
percent of than food made by the green alga cell is
transferred to the fungus. What, if anything, the fungus
contributes to the association is not well understood.

Lichens are hardly. The grow in many habitats


and are often pioneers in hostile environments
where few other organisms can flourish.

They have been known to grow


endolithically, having been discovered thriving inside
of rocks in Antartica. Lichen help reduce erosion by
stabilizing soil. Saveral kinds of insects glue lichens to
their exoskeletons for camouflage.

Many species of birds use lichens as building


materials for nests. Human have used lichens for
dyes and antibiotics.

1. Which of the following best describes lichen association?

20
A. Simple plants made of two different autotrophic organims.
B. A mutual association between a fungus and an alga
C. A parasitic association between two fungi, one autotrophic, the second autotrophic
D. A union between a parasitic fungus and an autotrophic alga

2. The word "hardly" in line 26 is clossest in meaning to


A. Tender
B. Durable
C. Armed
D. Beneficial

3. In Biology, mutualism occurs when two different organism live close together and
A. One organism parasitizes the other
B. Both organism benefit from the association
C. Both organism are harmed by the association
D. One organism benefits while the other does not or is harmed by the association

4. In line 7, the word "intimate" is nearest in meaning to


A. living
B. Extraordinary
C. Biological
D. Close

5. Lichen serves as camouflage for which of the following?


A. Insects
B. Birds
C. Reptiles
D. Mammals

6. The true nature of the relationship between the lichen components was clarified by
A. Examining lichens with a microscope
B. Observing lichens palced in the dark
C. Observing the lichen component when grown apart
D. Decreasing the amount of nutrients available to the lichens

7. In line 27, the word "hostile" is clossestnin the meaning to


A. Unusual
B. Cool
C. Untraveled
D. Inhospitable

8. An endolithic lichen is one that


A. Grows in the canopies of trees
B. Grows inside rocks
C. Grows at very high altitudes
D. Grows inside other organism, including other lichens

9. Many lichens contribute at the communities they in habits by


A. Removing pollutants from the air
B. Controlling wood-rotting fungi
C. Slowing the spread of viruses
D. Reducing soil erosion

Question 11 through 20 are based on the following passage.

When buying a house, you must be sure to


have it checked for termites. A termite is much like an
ant in its communal habits, although physically the
two insects are distinct.

21
Like those ants, termite colonies consist of
different classes, each with its own particular job. The
most perfectly formed termites, both male and
female, make up the productive class. They have eyes,
hard body walls and fully developed wings. A pair of
reproductive termites founds the colony. When new
reproductive termites develop, they leave to form
another colony. They use their wings only this on time
and then break them off.
The worker termites are small, blind and
wingless, with soft bodies. They make up the majority
of the colony and do all the work. Soldiers are
eyeless and wingless but are larger than the workers
and have hard heads and strong jaws and legs. They
defend the colony and are cared for by the workers.
The male and female of the reproductive
class remain inside a closed-in cell when the female
lays thousands of eggs. The workers place the eggs
in cell and care for them. Even if one colony is treated
with poison, if a male and female of the reproductive
class escape, they can form a new colony.
Pest control companies can inspect a house
for infestation of termites. Often, of lay person can not
spot the evidence, so it is critical to have the opinion
of a proffesional. Treatments vary depending upon
the type of termite.

10. How are termites like ants?


A. They live in communities, and each class has a specific duty
B. Their bodies are the same shape
C. The king and queen are imprisoned
D. The females' reproductive capacities are the same

11. The word "communal" in line 3 is closest in meaning to


A. Eating
B. Reproducing
C. Organizational
D. Social

12. Which of the following is not true?


A. All termites have eyes
B. Some termites cannot fly
C. Workers are smaller than soldiers
D. Termites do not fly often

13. In line 4, the word "distinct" is closest in meaning to


A. Similar
B. Different
C. Genetically related
D. Strong

14. In line 6, "classes" is closest in meaning to


A. Sexes
B. Colonies
C. Courses
D. Categories

15. Which of the following statements is probably true?


A. Thousands of termites may move together to develop a new colony

22
B. The male and female reproductions do not venture outdoors except
to form a new colony.
C. There are more soldiers than workers
D. A worker could easily kill a soldier

16. The word "founds" in line 10 is nearest in meaning to


A. Establishes
B. Destroys
C. Control
D. Guards

17. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?
A. Termites Destroy Houses
B. Termites Work Well Together
C. The Habits and Physical Characteristics of Termites
D. The relationship of Soldier and Worker Termites

18. The word "each" in line 6 refers to


A. Ants
B. Colonies
C. Jobs
D. Classes

KUNCI JAWABAN :
1. B 10. A
2. B 11. D
3. B 12. B
4. D 13. B
5. A 14. D
6. C 15. B
7. A 16. A
8. C 17. C
9. D 18. B

Read more: http://www.kursusmudahbahasainggris.com/2013/10/contoh-soal-tes-toefl-


reading.html#ixzz4N1X4iun4

Example I
The swimming instructor came... if the apartment was still available.
A. to see
B. seeing
C. saw
D. for seeing

The sentence should be read "The swimming instructor came to see if the apartment was still
available." Therefore, you should choose A.

Now begin work on the questions.

1. The committee has met twice and ....


A. they reached a final decision
B. a final decision was reached
C. its decision was reached
D. it has reached a final decision

23
2. The manager won't be able to attend the shareholders' meeting tomorrow because....
A. he must to give a lecture
B. he will be giving a lecture
C. of he will give lecture
D. he will have giving a lecture

3. Brenda's score on the test is the highest in class.


A. She should study hard last night.
B. She should have studied hard last night.
C. She must have studied hard last night.
D. She had to study hard last night

4. To answer accurately is more important than...


A. to finish quickly
B. a quick finish
C. you finish it quickly
D. quick finish

5. Having been served lunch,....


A. the problems were discussed by the participants.
B. the participants discuss the problems.
C. it was discussed by the participants.
D. A discussion of the problems were made by the participants.

6. East Kalimantan relies heavily on income from oil and natural gas, and....
A. Aceh province also.
B. Aceh province too.
C. Aceh province is as well.
D. so does Aceh province.

7. The participants have had some problems deciding....


A. when they should announce the result of the meeting.
B. when are they sgoing to announce the result of the meeting.
C. when should they announce the result of the meeting.
D. the time when the result of the meeting to announce.

8. This year will be more difficult for our organization because....


A. we have less money and volunteers than last year.
B. there is a little money and volunteers than last year.
C. it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year.
D. it has fewer money and less volunteers than it had last year.

9. Professor Baker told his students that...


A. they can turn over their reports on Mondays.
B. the reports can turn over on Monday.
C. they could hand in their reports on Monday.
D. the reports they can hand in on Monday.

10. The adder is a venomous snake ... bite may prove fatal to humans.
A. its
B. whom its
C. that

24
D. whose

Sepuluh Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban di atas bisa dijadikan pemanasan. Kalau sudah, silahkan
lanjutkan dengan 5 soal berikutnya di bawah ini.

11. .... a bee colony gets, the more the queen's egglaying capability diminishers.
A. It is more overcrowded.
B. The more overcrowded.
C. More overcrowded than.
D. More than overcrowded.

12. The chairwoman requested that ....


A. the participants studied more careful the problem.
B. the participants study the problem more carefully.
C. the participants studied the problem with more careful.
D. the problem be studied more carefully.

13. Unlike the earth, which rotates once every twenty-four hours ... once every ten hours.
A. the rotation of Jupiter
B. Jupiter rotates
C. Jupiter rotation
D. Jupiter rotate

14. Jackson,... capital of Mississippi, is the largest city in the state.


A. the
B. it is the
C. is the
D. where the

15. The various types of bacteria are classified according to...shapes.


A. whose
B. how they are
C. have
D. their

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL

1. D 11. B
2. B 12. B
3. B 13. B
4. B 14. A
5. B 15. B
6. D
7. A
8. C
9. C
10.D

Supaya tidak terlalu lama silahkan langsung coba kerjakan Soal Toefl Tes Beasiswa dan Ujian
Komprehensif berikut ini.

25
1. The increase in the sales of new cars ....... Expected to make traffic jams worse
A. Is
B. Are
C. Be
D. Being
JAWAB: A

2. Little children are usually afraid of........ by their mother.


A. Lett
B. To leave
C. Leaving
D. Been left
JAWAB: C

3. " When did you realize you had lost your purse"" When I... ,one to pay the conductor"
A. Was needing
B. Had needed
C. Have needing
D. Am needing
JAWAB: B

4. Why didn't Did! wan to go home?'' His mother...... him for causing the car accident'
A. would blame
B. has blamed
C. is blaming
D. had blamed
JAWAB: D

5. The way professor Mattis teaches English not only keeps the student' interest.......
A. And also increases their motivation
B. But also increasing their motivation
C. And he also increases their motivation
D. But also increases their motivation
JAWAB: D

6. The thief......... into the room through this window because there are footprint near the door.
A. Was to get
B. My get
C. Would rather get
D. Must have got
JAWAB: D

7. He told me a lot about the Philippines. He ..... there for a long time.
A. Must have lived
B. Might be living
C. Ought to have lived
D. Should be living
JAWAB: A

8. Your son will be operated on tomorrow morning. He ... have a good rest tonight' the doctor said.
A. Might
B. May
C. Can
D. Must
JAWAB: D

9. Having given the prescription to the patient...


A. The medicine was taken regularly by the patient
B. The doctor told the patient to take the medicine regularly
C. The medicine had to be taken regularly by the patient

26
D. The patient was told to take the medicine regularly
JAWAB: B

10. .......... A few million rupiahs, he went on a four to Europe.


A. Saved
B. Has saved
C. He has saved
D. Having saved

Contoh Toefl Grammar


Untuk lebih jelas silahkan lihat beberapa contoh soal untuk test toefl grammar pada pembahasan
Soal berikut ini:

1. From 1949 onward, the artist Georgia OKeeffe made New Mexico ______.
(A) her permanent residence was
(B) where her permanent residence
(C) permanent residence for her
(D) her permanent residence

2. Just as remote-controlled satellites can be employed to explore outer space, _______employed to


investigate the deep sea.
(A) can be robots
(B) robots can be
(C) can robots
(D) can robots that are

3. In ______ people, the areas of the brain that control speech are located in the left hemisphere.
(A) mostly of
(B) most
(C) almost the
(D) the most of

4. Stars shine because of _______ produced by the nuclear reactions taking place within them.
(A) the amount of light and heat is
(B) which the amount of light and heat
(C) the amount of light and heat that it is
(D) the amount of light and heat

5. ________ is not clear to researchers.


(A) Why dinosaurs having become extinct
(B) Why dinosaurs became extinct
(C) Did dinosaurs become extinct
(D) Dinosaurs became extinct

6. Although many people use the word milk to refer cows milk, _______ to milk from any animal,
including human milk and goats milk.
(A) applying it also

27
(B) applies also
(C) it also applies
(D) but it also applies

7. The first transatlantic telephone cable system was not established _______ 1956.
(A) while
(B) until
(C) on
(D) when

8. _______ no two people think exactly alike, there will always be disagreement, but disagreement
should not always be avoided; it can be healthy if handled creatively.
(A) There are
(B) Why
(C) That
(D) Because

9. Drinking water ________ excessive amounts of fluorides may leave a stained or mottled effect on
the enamel of teeth.

(A) containing
(B) in which containing
(C) contains
(D) that contain
(Kumpulan Soal dan Pembahasan)
10. In the 1820s physical education became _______ of the curriculum of Harvard and Yale
Universities.
(A) to be part
(B) which was part
(C) was part
(D) part

11. Pewter, _______ for eating and drinking utensils in colonial America, is about ninety percent
tin, which copper or bismuth added for hardness.
(A) was widely used
(B) widely used it
(C) widely used
(D) which widely used

12. A moth possesses two pairs of wings _________as a single pair and are covered with dustlike
scales.
(A) function
(B) are functioning
(C) that function
(D) but functions

13. Soap operas, a type of television drama series, are so called because at first, they were
________.

28
(A) often which soap manufacturers sponsored
(B) sponsored often soap manufacturers
(C) often sponsored by soap manufacturers
(D) soap manufacturers often sponsored them

14. The Woolworth Building in New York was the highest in America when _______ in 1943 and was
famous for its use of Gothic decorative detail.
(A) built
(B) it built
(C) was built
(D) built it

15. Humans, ________, interact through communicative behavior by means


of signs or symbols used conventionally.
(A) like other animals
(B) how other animals
(C) other animals that
(D) do other animals

Read the following passage:

The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity on

society, or to draw attention to the importance of precise

timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at

Line daybreak and communal festivities have been celebrated, people

(5) have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of

day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever.

Were it not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of time,

social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily transfers

of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and

(10) starts; the very fabric of modern society would begin to unravel.

Example I

What is the main idea of the passage?

A. In modern society we must make more time for our neighbors.


B. The traditions of society are timeless.
C. An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of
society.
D. Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.

29
The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is measured
in order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose answer C.

Example II

In line 6, the phrase "this tradition" refers to

A. the practice of starting the business day at dawn


B. friendly relations between neighbors
C. the railroad's reliance on time schedules
D. people's agreement on the measurement of time
The phrase "this tradition" refers to the preceding clause, "people have been in rough
agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day." Therefore, you should choose
answer D.

Now begin work on the questions.

PRACTICE PASSAGE

The Alaska pipeline starts at the frozen edge of the Arctic Ocean.

It stretches southward across the largest and northernmost state in

the United States, ending at a remote ice-free seaport village nearly

Line 800 miles from where it begins. It is massive in size and extremely

(5) complicated to operate.

The steel pipe crosses windswept plains and endless miles of

delicate tundra that tops the frozen ground. It weaves through

crooked canyons, climbs sheer mountains, plunges over rocky

crags, makes its way through thick forests, and passes over or

(10) under hundreds of rivers and streams. The pipe is 4 feet in diameter,

and up to 2 million barrels (or 84 million gallons) of crude oil can

be pumped through it daily.

Resting on H-shaped steel racks called "bents," long sections of

the pipeline follow a zigzag course high above the frozen earth.

(15) Other long sections drop out of sight beneath spongy or rocky

ground and return to the surface later on. The pattern of the

30
pipeline's up-and-down route is determined by the often harsh

demands of the arctic and subarctic climate, the tortuous lay of the

land, and the varied compositions of soil, rock, or permafrost

(20) (permanently frozen ground). A little more than half of the pipeline

is elevated above the ground. The remainder is buried anywhere

from 3 to 12 feet, depending largely upon the type of terrain and

the properties of the soil.

One of the largest in the world, the pipeline cost approximately

(25) $8 billion and is by far the biggest and most expensive construction

project ever undertaken by private industry. In fact, no single

business could raise that much money, so 8 major oil companies

formed a consortium in order to share the costs. Each company

controlled oil rights to particular shares of land in the oil fields and

(30) paid into the pipeline-construction fund according to the size of its

holdings. Today, despite enormous problems of climate, supply

shortages, equipment breakdowns, labor disagreements, treacherous

terrain, a certain amount of mismanagement, and even theft, the

Alaska pipeline has been completed and is operating.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS (Soal Toefl Reading Practice dan Jawaban)

1. The passage primarily discusses the pipeline's


1. operating costs
2. employees
3. consumers
4. construction
2. The word "it" in line 4 refers to
1. pipeline
2. ocean
3. state
4. village
2 According to the passage, 84 million gallons of oil can travel through the pipeline each
1. day
2. week
3. month
4. year
2 The phrase "Resting on" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
1. Consisting of
2. Supported by

31
3. Passing under
4. Protected with
2 The author mentions all of the following as important in determining the pipeline's
route EXCEPT the
1. climate
2. lay of the land itself
3. local vegetation
4. kind of soil and rock
2 The word "undertaken" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
1. removed
2. selected
3. transported
4. attempted
2 How many companies shared the costs of constructing the pipeline?
1. 3
2. 4
3. 8
4. 12
2 The word "particular" in line 29 is closest in meaning to
1. peculiar
2. specific
3. exceptional
4. equal
2 Which of the following determined what percentage of the construction costs each
member of the consortium would pay?
1. How much oil field land each company owned
2. How long each company had owned land in the oil fields
3. How many people worked for each company
4. How many oil wells were located on the company's land
2 Where in the passage does the author provide a term for an earth covering that
always remains frozen?
1. Line 3
2. Line 13
3. Line 19
4. Line 32
(Sumber: ets.org)

Jawaban Soal Toefl Reading Practice


Penasaran dengan kemampuan anda, setelah mengerjakan soal di atas silahkan cek
menggunakan kunci jawaban yang sudah disediakan di bawah ini. Answer Key for
Reading Comprehension ini bisa anda gunakan untuk mengukur seberapa jauh
kemampuan anda dalam reading.

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

1. D
2. A
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. D
7. C
8. B

32
9. A
10. C

There are three parts to this section, with special directions for each part. Answer all
questions based on what is stated or implied by the speakers you hear.

Do not:

take notes or write in your test book at any time


turn the pages until you are told to do so.
Part A

Directions: In Part A, you will hear short conversations between two people. After each
conversation, you will hear a question about the conversation. The conversations and
questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers
in your test book and choose the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the
number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer
you have chosen.

Here is an example.

On the recording, you will hear:

(woman) I don't like this painting very much.

(man) Neither do I.

(narrator) What does the man mean?

In your test book, you will read:

A. He doesn't like the painting either.

B. He doesn't know how to paint.

C. He doesn't have any paintings.

D. He doesn't know what to do.

You learn from the conversation that neither the man nor the woman likes the painting.
The best answer to the question, "What does the man mean?" is A, "He doesn't like the
painting either." Therefore, the correct choice is A.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

33
1. You will hear:

(man) Shall I lock up the computer lab now before I go home?

Don't bother. I'm not leaving for a while, I can check it on my way
(woman) out.

(narrator) What will the woman probably do?

You will read: A. Lock the computer lab later.

B. Leave with the man.

C. Buy a new lock for the computer lab.

D. Show the man where the lab is.

2. You will hear:

(man) Do you mind if I turn the television off?

(woman) Well, I'm in the middle of watching a program.

(narrator) What does the woman imply?

You will read: A. The man should watch the program too.

B. The man should leave the television on.

C. The program will be over soon.

D. She'll watch television later.

3. You will hear:

(woman) I heard the math requirements for graduation are being changed.

(man) Yes. And I may be short one course.

(narrator) What does the man mean?

34
You will read: A. He isn't sure what course to take.

B. The math course is too short.

C. He may not meet the graduation requirements.

D. The graduation date has been changed.

Jika anda masih kuat untuk melanjutkan belajar dengan Contoh Soal Toefl Listening ini
sekarang anda bisa langsung mengerjakan soal pada bagian kedua yaitu part b. Baca petunjuknya
baik-baik dan ikuti arahan yang ada, usahakan anda mengerjakan soal ini seolah-olah sedang
mengikuti test toefl jadi diakhir nanti anda bisa dengan mudah mengukur sejauh mana kemampuan
anda saat ini.

Part B

Directions: In this part of the test you will hear longer conversations. After each
conversation you will hear several questions. The conversations and questions will not be
repeated.
After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose
the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in
the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Remember, you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.

SAMPLE CONVERSATION AND PRACTICE QUESTIONS

(narrator) Questions 4 through 7. Listen to a conversation about a trip.

(man) Are you ready for "The Big Apple"?

(woman) Excuse me?

You know, New York City. You are going to New York with us, aren't
(man) you? I wanted to show everybody around my old neighborhood.

Oh...sure! I wouldn't miss it especially when the tour guide is a native


(woman) New Yorker.

(man) I thought we could start at the Museum of Modern Art. Right now

35
there's an exhibit on twentieth-century American painters.

(woman) Fine with me...but what were you saying about...a big apple?

"The Big Apple." It's a nickname for New York. I think I heard once
(man) that it started with jazz musicians in the 20's.

(woman) Oh.

Whenever they played a concert in a city, they called that city an


"apple." In those days, New York was the biggest city in the country,
(man) so they called it "The Big Apple."

(woman) Hey, I have an idea! Let's go to a jazz club while we're there.

(man) Sounds good.

Questions:

4. You will hear:

(narrator) What is the man planning to see?

You will read: A. An art exhibit.

B. A Broadway play.

C. A modern dance production.

D. An opera.

5. You will hear:

(narrator) What can be inferred about the man?

You will read: A. He is a jazz musician.

B. He wants to join the woman's club.

36
C. He is in his twenties.

D. He was born in New York.

6. You will hear:

(narrator) What does the word "Apple" in the phrase "The Big Apple" refer to?

You will read: A. An instrument.

B. A city.

C. A theater.

D. A concert.

7. You will hear:

(narrator) Who gave New York its nickname?

You will read: A. Painters.

B. Tour guides.

C. Musicians.

D. Grocers.

Part C

Directions: In this part of the test you will hear several talks. After each talk, you will
hear some questions. The talks and questions will not be repeated.

After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose
the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in
the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Here is an example.

On the recording, you will hear:

37
(narrator) Listen to an instructor talk to his class about a television program.

I'd like to tell you about an interesting TV program that'll be shown


this coming Thursday. It'll be on from 9 to 10 p.m. on Channel 4. It's
part of a series called "Mysteries of Human Biology." The subject of
the program is the human brain how it functions and how it can
malfunction. Topics that will be covered are dreams, memory, and
depression. These topics are illustrated with outstanding computer
animation that makes the explanations easy to follow. Make an effort
to see this show. Since we've been studying the nervous system in
(man) class, I know you'll find it very helpful.

Here is an example.

You will hear:

(narrator) What is the main purpose of the program?

In your test book, you will read:

A. To demonstrate the latest use of computer graphics.

B. To discuss the possibility of an economic depression.

C. To explain the workings of the brain.

D. To dramatize a famous mystery story.

The best answer to the question, "What is the main purpose of the program?" is C, "To
explain the workings of the brain." Therefore, the correct choice is C.

Here is another example.

You will hear:

38
(narrator) Why does the speaker recommend watching the program?

In your test book, you will read:

A. It is required of all science majors.

B. It will never be shown again.

C. It can help viewers improve their memory skills.

D. It will help with course work.

The best answer to the question, "Why does the speaker recommend watching the
program?" is D, "It will help with course work." Therefore, the correct choice is D.

Remember, you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.

PRACTICE TALK AND PRACTICE QUESTIONS

(narrator) Questions 8 through 10. Listen to a talk about animal behavior.

Today's discussion is about a common animal reaction the yawn.


The dictionary defines a yawn as "an involuntary reaction to fatigue
or boredom." That's certainly true for human yawns, but not
necessarily for animal yawns. The same action can have quite
different meanings in different species.

For example, some animals yawn to intimidate intruders on their


territory. Fish and lizards are examples of this. Hippos use yawns
when they want to settle a quarrel. Observers have seen two hippos
yawn at each other for as long as two hours before they stop
quarreling.

As for social animals like baboons or lions they yawn to establish


the pecking order within social groups, and lions often yawn to calm
social tensions. Sometimes these animals yawn for a strictly
physiological reason that is, to increase oxygen levels. And
curiously enough, when they yawn for a physical reason like that,
they do what humans do they try to stifle the yawn by looking
(woman) away or by covering their mouths.

39
Questions:

8. You will hear:

(narrator) What is the speaker's main point?

You will read: A. Animals yawn for a number of reasons.

B. Yawning results only from fatigue or boredom.

C. Human yawns are the same as those of other animals.

D. Only social animals yawn.

9. You will hear:

(narrator) According to the speaker, when are hippos likely to yawn?

You will read: A. When they are swimming.

B. When they are quarreling.

C. When they are socializing.

D. When they are eating.

10. You will hear:

(narrator) What physiological reason for yawning is mentioned?

You will read: A. To exercise the jaw muscles.

B. To eliminate fatigue.

C. To get greater strength for attacking.

D. To gain more oxygen.

(Sumber: ets.org)

40
Answer Key: Listening Comprehension, Parts A, B and C
Sudah selesai, sekarang apakah anda sudah siap mengetahui hasil anda mengerjakan
soal di atas? Jika anda sudah dengan sungguh-sungguh mengerjakan soal di atas
layaknya anda sedang mengikuti test toefl maka anda sekarang bisa mengukur hasilnya
dengan melihat kunci jawaban yang ada. Kunci jawaban untuk Soal Toefl Listening di atas
adalah sebagai berikut:

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. D
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. B
10. D

Example I
The swimming instructor came... if the apartment was still available.
A. to see
B. seeing
C. saw
D. for seeing

The sentence should be read "The swimming instructor came to see if the apartment was still
available." Therefore, you should choose A.

Now begin work on the questions.

1. The committee has met twice and ....


A. they reached a final decision
B. a final decision was reached
C. its decision was reached
D. it has reached a final decision

2. The manager won't be able to attend the shareholders' meeting tomorrow because....
A. he must to give a lecture
B. he will be giving a lecture
C. of he will give lecture
D. he will have giving a lecture

3. Brenda's score on the test is the highest in class.


A. She should study hard last night.
B. She should have studied hard last night.
C. She must have studied hard last night.
D. She had to study hard last night

4. To answer accurately is more important than...


A. to finish quickly
B. a quick finish

41
C. you finish it quickly
D. quick finish

5. Having been served lunch,....


A. the problems were discussed by the participants.
B. the participants discuss the problems.
C. it was discussed by the participants.
D. A discussion of the problems were made by the participants.

6. East Kalimantan relies heavily on income from oil and natural gas, and....
A. Aceh province also.
B. Aceh province too.
C. Aceh province is as well.
D. so does Aceh province.

7. The participants have had some problems deciding....


A. when they should announce the result of the meeting.
B. when are they sgoing to announce the result of the meeting.
C. when should they announce the result of the meeting.
D. the time when the result of the meeting to announce.

8. This year will be more difficult for our organization because....


A. we have less money and volunteers than last year.
B. there is a little money and volunteers than last year.
C. it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year.
D. it has fewer money and less volunteers than it had last year.

9. Professor Baker told his students that...


A. they can turn over their reports on Mondays.
B. the reports can turn over on Monday.
C. they could hand in their reports on Monday.
D. the reports they can hand in on Monday.

10. The adder is a venomous snake ... bite may prove fatal to humans.
A. its
B. whom its
C. that
D. whose

Sepuluh Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban di atas bisa dijadikan pemanasan. Kalau sudah, silahkan
lanjutkan dengan 5 soal berikutnya di bawah ini.

11. .... a bee colony gets, the more the queen's egglaying capability diminishers.
A. It is more overcrowded.
B. The more overcrowded.
C. More overcrowded than.
D. More than overcrowded.

12. The chairwoman requested that ....


A. the participants studied more careful the problem.
B. the participants study the problem more carefully.
C. the participants studied the problem with more careful.
D. the problem be studied more carefully.

42
13. Unlike the earth, which rotates once every twenty-four hours ... once every ten hours.
A. the rotation of Jupiter
B. Jupiter rotates
C. Jupiter rotation
D. Jupiter rotate

14. Jackson,... capital of Mississippi, is the largest city in the state.


A. the
B. it is the
C. is the
D. where the

15. The various types of bacteria are classified according to...shapes.


A. whose
B. how they are
C. have
D. their

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL

1. D 11. B
2. B 12. B
3. B 13. B
4. B 14. A
5. B 15. B
6. D
7. A
8. C
9. C
10.D

CONTOH SOAL TOEFL

Di bawah ini adalah contoh soal yang mengharuskan Anda untuk mengisi titik-titik yang masih
kosong.

received law degrees as today.

Never so many women have

Never have so many women

The women arent ever

Women who have never

CARA PENYELESAIAN:

43
received law degrees as today.

Mari kita coba strategi umum untuk mendapatkan jawaban yang benar

Pilihan 1 dan 2 terlihat menyerupai, untuk itu kita dapat menyingkirkan pilihan ini dan melihat
pilihan lainnya terlebih dahulu.

Untuk pilihan 3, kita dapat melihat bentuk kata kerja pada kalimat ini tidaklah benar:

The women arent ever received law degrees as today.

Bentuk tata bahasa yang salah pada kalimat ini adalah penggunaan kata the women, sebagai
subyek dari kalimat ini dikatakan bahwa wanita tidak pernah menerima gelar hukum.
Berdasarkan pengetahuan umum kalimat ini tentu saja tidak benar.

Selanjutnya adalah pilihan 4 yang mengatakan:

Women who have never received law degrees as today

CARA PENYELESAIAN SOAL TEST TOEFL

Ini bukanlah kalimat yang lengkap. Kita hanya memiliki Subyek (yaitu women) + klausa yang
dimulai dengan kata who (yang menjelaskan subyek). Untuk itu, kita dapat mengatakan kalau
pilihan ini salah.

Sekarang kita dapat kembali ke pilihan 1 dan 2:

Never so many women have received law degrees as today

Never have so many women received law degrees as today

Pada kalimat Present Perfect dengan menggunakan never urutan yang benar adalah sebagai
berikut:

SUBJECT + HAS/HAVE + NEVER + VERB IN PAST PARTICIPLE FORM

(untuk kata kerja receive, bentuknya berubah menjadi received).

Jika melihat urutan ini maka kita tidak dapat menemukan jawaban yang tepat. Tapi, untuk
menekankan sesuatu maka kata never dapat ditempatkan di awal kalimat. Dengan begitu
urutannya akan menjadi:

NEVER + HAS/HAVE + SUBJECT + VERB IN PAST PARTICIPLE FORM

44
Berdasarkan urutan ini maka kita berhasil menemukan jawaban yang tepat, yaitu pilihan ke dua:

Never have so many women received law degrees as today.

Soal Tes TOEFL


1. Captain Henry,_____________ crept slowly through the underbrush.
A. being remote from the enemy,
B. attempting to not encounter the enemy,
C. trying to avoid the enemy,
D. not involving himself in the enemy,

2. Tommy was one ____________________


A. of the happy childs of his class
B. of the happiest child in the class
C. child who was the happiest of all the class
D. of the happiest children in the class

3._____________ he began to make friends more easily.


A. Having entered school in the new city, it was found that
B. After entering the new school,
C. When he had been entering the new school,
D. Upon entering into the new school,

4. It is very difficult to stop the cultivation of marijuana because _____________


A. it grows very carelessly
B. or it`s growth without attention
C. it grows well with little care
D. it doesn`t care much to grow

5. The fact that space exploration has increased dramatically in the past thirty ___________
A. is an evidence of us wanting to know more of our solar system
B. indicates that we are very eager to learn all we can about our solar system
C. how we want to learn more about the solar system
D. is pointing to evidence of our intention to know a lot more about what is called our solar system

6. Many of the current international problems we are now facing _______________


A. linguistic incompetencies
B. are the result of misunderstandings
C. are because of not understanding themselves
D. lacks of the intelligent capabilities of understanding each other

7. Mr.Roberts is a noted chemist_____________


A. as well as an effective teacher
B. and too a very efficient teacher
C. but he teaches very good in addition
D. however he teaches very good also

8. Public television stations are different from commercial stations __________________


A. because they receive money differently and different types of shows

45
B. for money and program types
C. in the areas of funding and programming
D. because the former receives money and has programs differently from the latter

9. Manufacturers often sacrifice quality _______________________ -


A. for a larger profit margin
B. in place of to earn more money
C. to gain more quantities of money
D. and instead earn a bigger amount of profit

10. Automobile production in the United States ____________


A. have taken slumps and rises in recent years
B. has been rather erratic recently
C. has been erratically lately
D. are going up and down all the time

11. A major problem in the construction of new buildings _______________


A. is that windows have been eliminates while air conditioning systems have not been perfected
B. is they have eliminated windows and still don't have good air conditioning
C. is because windows are eliminated but air conditioners don't work good
D. is dependent on the fact that while they have eliminated windows, they are not capable to produce
efficient air conditioning systems

12.John said that no other car could go ______________


A. so fast like his car
B. as fast like his car
C. as fast like the car of him
D. as fast as his car

13. Her grades have improved, but only ________________


A. in a small amount
B. very slightly
C. minimum
D. some

14. While attempting to reach his home before the storm,_______________


A. the bicycle of John broke down
B. it happened that John's bike broke down
C. the storm caught John
D. John had an accident on his bicycle

15. The changes in this city have occurred _________________


A. with swiftness
B. rapidly
C. fastly
D. in rapid ways

Kunci dan Pembahasan Jawaban


1. C
Pembahasan Jawaban: sangat mudah dipahami dari pendekatan makna

46
2. D
Pembahasan Jawaban: one of the + plural nouns (children)

3. B

Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. Having entered school in the new city, it was found that --> it mengarah ke mana?
B. After entering the new school,
C. When he had been entering the new school, --> penggunaan tense yg tidak tepat
D. Upon entering into the new school, --> enter + noun

4. C

Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. it grows very carelessly --> carelessly hanya digunakan untuk animal dan people
B. or it`s growth without attention --> it's ---> its
C. it grows well with little care
D. it doesn`t care much to grow --> kata care megacu ke 'perasaan' yang seharusnya tidak ditujukan
ke tumbuhan marijuana

5. B

Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. is an evidence of us wanting to know more of our solar system --> our wanting (masuk di materi
gerund)
B. indicates that we are very eager to learn all we can about our solar system
C. how we want to learn more about the solar system --> jika ini digunakan maka kalimat tidak
lengkap / tanpa verb utama
D. is pointing to evidence of our intention to know a lot more about what is called our solar system -->
terlalu bertele-tele

6. B
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. linguistic incompetencies --> kalimat yg fragmen
B. are the result of misunderstandings
C. are because of not understanding themselves --> themselves mengarah ke mana?
D. lacks of the intelligent capabilities of understanding each other --> makna tidak sesuai

7. A
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. as well as an effective teacher
B. and too a very efficient teacher --> too mestinya also
C. but he teaches very good in addition --> teaches well
D. however he teaches very good also --> teaches well

8. C
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. because they receive money differently and different types of shows --> salah pemilihan kata
B. for money and program types ---> salah pemilihan kata
C. in the areas of funding and programming
D. because the former receives money and has programs differently from the latter --> different from

9. A
Pembahasan Jawaban:

47
A. for a larger profit margin
B. in place of to earn more money --> of + noun
C. to gain more quantities of money --> salah makna / kalimat tidak membahas quantities of money
D. and instead earn a bigger amount of profit --> bigger umum digunakan dalam situasi informal

10. B
Pembahasan Jawaban:
10. Automobile production in the United States ____________
A. have taken slumps and rises in recent years --> have (plural)
B. has been rather erratic recently
C. has been erratically lately --> been verb (linking verb) + adverb
D. are going up and down all the time --> are (plural)

11. A
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. is that windows have been eliminates while air conditioning systems have not been perfected
B. is they have eliminated windows and still don't have good air conditioning --> they mengarah ke?
C. is because windows are eliminated but air conditioners don't work good --> work well
D. is dependent on the fact that while they have eliminated windows, they are not capable to
produce efficient air conditioning systems --> capable + of + verb-ing

12. D
Pembahasan Jawaban: equal comparison --> as ... as

13. B
Pembahasan Jawaban: improved + adverb (very slightly)

14. D
Pembahasan Jawaban: Reduction in adverbial clause --> while John was attempting to reach his
home before the storm, John had an accident on his bicycle
Prinsip: clause yang bisa di reduksi hanyalah klausa yang mempunyai subjek sama

15. B
Pembahasan Jawaban: have occurred + adverb (rapidly)

1. The hard palate forms a partition ____ and nasal passages.


(A) the mouth
(B) between the mouth
(C) is between the mouth
(D) it is between the mouth
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan verb sudah lengkap sehingga kita tidak butuh lagi verb atau pun
subject lainnya jika tidak terdapat connector. Pilihan C dan D terdapat verb tanpa connector, jadi
otomatis sudah salah. Jawaban yang paling tepat ialah B.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb). Jika
terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1 connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector. begitupun
seterusnya.

2. Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon and Rick Blaine in Casablanca ____ of Humphrey Bogart's
more famous roles.
(A) they are two
(B) two of them are
(C) two of them
(D) are two

48
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat subject tapi kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb. Jawaban yang terdapat verb
ialah A, B, dan D; pilihan C sudah jelas salah. Pilihan A dan B kemudian salah karena terdapat lagi
subject. Jadi jawaban paling tepat ialah D.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb). Jika
terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1 connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector. begitupun
seterusnya.

3. ____, the outermost layer of skin, is about as thick as a sheet of paper over most of the skin.
(A) It is the epidermis
(B) In the epidermis
(C) The epidermis
(D) The epidermis is
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat verb (is) tapi kehilangan subject jadi kita butuh subject. Jawaban yang
terdapat subject ialah A, C, dan D; pilihan B sudah jelas salah karena terdapat preposition (in) yang
menandakan the epedermis bukanlah subject. Pilihan A dan D kemudian salah karena terdapat lagi
verb di dalamnya. Jadi jawaban paling tepat ialah C.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb). Jika
terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1 connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector. begitupun
seterusnya.
--> "the outermost layer of skin" bukanlah subject kalimat melainkan penjelas dari suject sebelumnya.
Penjelas semacam ini biasa disebut dg nama "appositive"

4. During the Precambrian period, the Earth's crust formed, and life ____ in the seas.
(A) first appeared
(B) first to appear
(C) is first appearing
(D) appearing
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai adanya connector (and): clause 1 (the Earth's crust
formed), dan clause ke dua kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (life). Olehnya kita butuh verb
untuk melengkapi clause 2. Secara structure, yang memungkinkan ialah pilihan A dan C. Hanya
dilihat dari tense (waktu) dan makna maka yang sangat sesuai ialah pilihan A.

5. When fluid accumulates against the eardrum, a second more insidious type of ____
(A) otitis media may develop
(B) developing otitis media
(C) the development of otitis media
(D) to develop otitis media
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai adanya connector (when): clause 1 (fluid accumulates),
dan clause ke dua kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (a second more insidious type). Olehnya
kita butuh verb untuk melengkapi clause 2. Hanya pilihan A yang memenuhi syarat.

6. Before the Statue of Liberty arrived in the United States, newspapers invited the public to help
determine where ____ placed after its arrival.
(A) should the statue be
(B) the statue being
(C) it should be the statue
(D) the statue should be
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat 3 clause yang ditandai adanya 2 connector (before) dan connector (where): clause
1 (the Statue of Liberty arrived), clause 2 (newspapers invited), dan clause ke 3 kehilangan subject
dan helping verb, hanya terlihat past participle (placed). Olehnya kita butuh subject dan helping verb
untuk melengkapi clause 3. Hanya pilihan A yang memenuhi syarat.
Helping verb: be (is, are, am, be, been), modals (can, could, must, dll), have (have, has, had), do (do,
does, did)

7. A stock ____ at an inflated price is called a watered stock.

49
(A) issued
(B) is issued
(C) it is issued
(D) which issued
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat kalimat diatas terdapat 1 clause yang lengkap: subject (A stock) dan verb (is called). Jadi
kita tidak membutuhkan lagi subject atau pun verb lainnya kecuali jika terdapat connector. Pilihan B
dan C terdapat verb namun tidak disertai dengan connector sehingga salah. Pilihan D terdapat
connector tapi tidak terdapat verb, hanya terlihat past participle (issued) yang butuh helping verb.
Sehingga pilihan yang tepat ialah pilihan A.

8. Acidic lava flows readily and tends to cover much larger areas, while basic lava ____.
(A) viscous
(B) is more viscous
(C) more viscous
(D) it is more vicious
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai adanya connector (while): clause 1 (Acidic lava flows
readily and tends), dan clause ke dua kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (basic lava ). Olehnya
kita butuh verb untuk melengkapi clause 2. Pilihan A dan C sudah jelas salah karena tidak terdapat
verb. Pilihan D salah karena terdapat subject lagi (double subject). Jadi pilihan paling tepat ialah
pilihan B.

9. Seismic reflections profiling has ____ the ocean floor is underlain by a thin layer of nearly
transparent sediments.
(A) reveal that
(B) revealed that
(C) the revelation of
(D) revealed about
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Present Perfect: has + verb III
Jawaban D salah karena terdapat preposition (about). Object dari preposition mesti berbentuk noun
sementara kalimat di atas terdiri dari clause (the ocean floor is underlain).

10. ____ and terrifying, coral snakes can grow to 4 feet (1.2 meters) in length.
(A) They are extremely poisonous
(B) The poison is extreme
(C) Extremely Poisonous
(D) An extreme amount of poison
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Parallel structure: Extremely poisonous (adjective) + terrifying (adjective)

11. The leaves of the white mulberry provide food for silkworms, ____ silk fabrics are woven.
(A) whose cocoons
(B) from cocoons
(C) whose cocoons are from
(D) from whose cocoons
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas terdapat dua clause tanpa connector: clause 1 (The leaves
of the white mulberry provide) dan clause 2 (silk fabrics are woven). Jadi yang kita butuhkan ialah
connector untuk menghubungkan dua clause. Jawaban yg paling sesuai ialah piliha D.

12. As ____ in Greek and Roman mythology, harpies were frightful monsters that were half woman
and half bird.
(A) described
(B) to describe
(C) description
(D) describing
Pembahasan Jawaban: As described in Greek and Roman mythology (sebagaimana digambarkan
dalam mitos Roman dan Yunani)

50
13. Not only ____ generate energy, but it also produces fuel for other fission reactors.
(A) a nuclear breeder reactor
(B) it is a nuclear breeder reactor
(C) does a nuclear breeder reactor
(D) is a nuclear breeder reactor
Pembahasan Jawaban: Parallel structure in paired conjunction (not only ... but also) : Not only
(clause) + but also (clause)
Kita lihat di bagian but also sudah terdapat clause, maka kita perlu clause untuk bagian not only. Di
clause bagian not only sudah terdapat verb (generate) makanya kita perlu subject. Otomatis jawabn B
dan C salah karena terdapat verb lagi. Pilihan yang tepat ialah pilihan C. Kita menggunakan does
karena kalimat ini berbentuk inversion in (pembalikan: V + Subject). Perhatikan bentuk inversiaon
pada kalimat pertanyaan (question).

14. D.W. Griffith pioneered many of the stylistic features and filmmaking techniques ____ as the
Hollywood standard.
(A) that established
(B) that became established
(C) what established
(D) what became established
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Adjective clause: yang digunakan dalam menggambarkan benda ialah "that" bukan what. Pilihan A
salah karena that langsung ketemu established (kehilangan helping verb). Pilihan A benar jika
berbentuk "that was established".

15. _____ be needed, the water basin would need to be dammed.


(A) Hydroelectric power should
(B) When hydroelectric power
(C) Hydroelectric power
(D) Should hydroelectric power
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Inversion in conditional sentence. Kalimat aslinya ialah "If hydroelectric power should be needed, the
water basin would need to be dammed".

1. Andy Warhol was in the Pop Art movement who was known for his multi-image silk-
screen paintings.
(A) that one of a leading figure
(B) a leading figure
(C) leading figures
(D) who leads figures
Pembahasan Jawaban: Andy Warhol merupakan seorang figur terkenal (a leading figure).
Tips: Di soal kita bisa identifikasi ada 2 clause:
1. Andy Warhol was in the Pop Art movement
2. who was known for his multi-image silk-screen paintings.
Clauseke dua kita lihat sudah lengkap (terdiri dari subjek dan kata kerja) jadi sudah tidak ada
masalah.
Clause pertama kita lihat terdapat subjek dan kata kerja yang belum lengkap. Dari pilihan
yang ada ada dua kemungkinan jawaban yang benar sesuai structure: jawaban B dan
jawaban C. Leading berfungsi sebagai kata sifat bukan kata kerja jadi sangat jelas
jawabannya ialah B. Soal ini juga mudah dijawab dengan menggunakan sistem pemaknaan.

2. Even with vast research, there is still a great deal that is known about the workings of
the human brain.
(A) neither
(B) none
(C) no
(D) not

51
Pembahasan Jawaban: not + verb.

3. the United States consists of many different immigrant groups, many sociologists
believe there is a distinct national character.
(A) In spite of
(B) Despite
(C) Even though
(D) Whether
Pembahasan Jawaban: yang kita butuhkan ialah connector kalimat (pilihan jawaban C).
Tips: Di soal terdapat dua clause:
1. ___ the United States consists of many different immigrant groups,
2. many sociologists believe there is a distinct national character.
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang lengkap (terdiri dari subject dan verb). Jadi yang kita
butuhkan hanyalah konektor untuk menghubungkan ke dua clause di ata.
Prinsip: Jika dua clause maka kita butuh 1 connector untuk menghubungkannya: jika 3
clause maka kita butuh 2 connector dan begitu seterusnya.
Dari pilihan jawaban hanya pilihan D dan C yang merupakan connector. Sementara pilhan A
dan B merupakan preposition. Dari segi makna sangat jelas pilihan jawabannya ialah C.

4. Typically in meadows or damp woods and bloom in the spring.


(A) wild violets grow
(B) wild violets growth
(C) growing wild violets
(D) the growth of wild violets
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat mesti mempunyai minimal 1 kombinasi subject danverb.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di soal di atas tidak terdapata subject dan verb. Jadi kita butuhkan
subject dan verb. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya pilihan jawaban A yang
mempunyai subject (wild violets) dan verb (grows).

5. The art works of Madlyn-Ann Woolwich are characterized by strong, dark colors and fine
attention to patterns of light the viewers eye.
(A) that attract
(B) when attracted
(C) which attraction
(D) attract to
Pembahasan Jawaban: Adjective Clause

6. A grass-eating, river-dwelling mammal, the hippopotamus to the pig.


(A) being related
(B) is related
(C) relate
(D) relating
Pembahasan Jawaban: Soal di atas kehilangan verb. Jadi kita butuh verb untuk melengkapi
kalimat. Hanya pilihan jawaban B dan C yang berisikan verb.Relate + to (relate merupakan
transitive verb yang membutuhkan object jadi tidak boleh ada to menghalangi). Yang cocok
ialah related + to (related tomerupakan phrase yang sangat umum digunakan).

7. Woodrow Wilson as governor of New Jersey before he was elected President of the
United States in 1912.
(A) to have served
(B) who has served
(C) serving
(D) served

52
Pembahasan Jawaban: Dari soal di atas kita bisa identifikasi terdapat dua clause dan 1
connector (before).
1. Woodrow Wilson as governor of New Jersey
2. he was elected President of the United States in 1912.
Kita lihat bahwa clause 1 kehilangan verb, jadi kita butuh verb dan di pilihan jawaban hanya
pilihan D yang menyediakan verb (utama).

8. fish in Great Salt Lake, but its waters do contain small brine shrimp.
(A) Why no
(B) No
(C) Not only
(D) There are no
Prinsip: Jika dua clause maka kita butuh 1 connector untuk menghubungkannya: jika 3
clause maka kita butuh 2 connector dan begitu seterusnya

9. An etude is a short musical composition written especially a particular technique.


(A) enable students practicing
(B) enables students practicing
(C) enable students to practice
(D) to enable students to practice
Pembahasa Jawaban: subject dan verb sudah terdapat pada soal jadi kita hanya butuh
pelengkap (complement) tidak butuh lagi verb (utama). Di pilihan A, B, dan C terdapat verb
(utama). To infinitive (to enable) merupakan contoh sebuah complement.

10. Seldom games been of practical use in playing real games.


(A) theories of mathematics
(B) theorized as mathematics
(C) has the mathematical theory of
(D) the mathematical theory has
Pembahasan Jawaban: Inversion (pembalikan). Subject + Verb ---> Verb + Subject. Seldom
(negative expression) merupakan sala satu karakteristik dari bentuk inversion.

11. The city of Kalamazoo, Michigan, derives its name from a Native American word
bubbling springs.
(A) meant
(B) meaning
(C) that it meant
(D) whose meaning
Pembahasan Jawaban: present participle

12. Jet propulsion involves of air and fuel, which forms a powerful exhaust.
(A) a mixture of ignited
(B) to ignite a mixture
(C) a mixture of igniting
(D) the ignition of a mixture
Pembahasan Jawaban: involves + object (noun). Untuk lebih mudah perhatikan kata of <--
noun + of.

13. Salt is manufactured in quantities that exceed those of most other commercial
chemicals.
(A) of all not
(B) not if all are
(C) are not all

53
(D) if not all
Pembahasan Jawaban: Soal ini mempunyai dua klausa yang telah dilebur menjadi 1.
1. Salt is manufactured in quantities that exceed those of most other commercial chemicals.
2. Salt is manufactured in quantities that exceed all of most other commercial chemicals.
Soal ini juga dengan mudah bisa dijawab dengan menggunakan pendekatan makna /
translation.

14. The United States consists of fifty states, - has its own government.
(A) each of which
(B) each they
(C) they each
(D) each of
Pembahasan Jawban: Adjetive clause --> each of which yang menjelaskan states.

15. Though smaller than our solar system, a quasar, which looks like an ordinary star, emits
more light galaxy.
(A) than an entire
(B) entirely as
(C) that the entire
(D) entirely than
Pembahasan Jawaban: comparison degree ----> dapat diketahui dari frasa more light.
2. 1. The ancestors of the horse lived ..... and were about half a meter tall.
(A) years ago 60 million
(B) 60 million years ago
(C) ago 60 million years
(D) million years ago 60
2. The museum on Ellis Island, a former immigration station, contains documents and
artifacts......to four centuries of United States immigration.
(A) related them
(B) related
(C) related that
(D) be related
3. _________, particularly the oxides of sulfur, greatly increases the rate at which rust forms.
(A) The presence of air pollutants
(B) Air pollutants are present
(C) Because the presence of air pollutants
(D) Air pollutants whose presence
4. The Sun, the Moon, and Earth have magnetic fields, and _________ evidence that the
stellar that extend through vast regions galaxies have fields of space.
(A) which is
(B) is
(C) because
(D) There is
5. The confederation school poets of nineteenth-century Canada were primarily nature
poets, _________ a wealth of eulogies to Canadian rural life.
(A) and producing
(B) who they produced
(C) producing
(D) whose production of
6. Since prehistoric people first applied natural pigments to cave walls, ______ have painted
to express themselves.
(A) when artists
(B) artists

54
(C) artists who
(D) that artists
7. About 42 million bushels of oats are used annually ______ manufacture of breakfast foods
in the United States.
(A) the
(B) is the
(C) in the
(D) to
8. Any acid can, in principle, neutralize any base, although ______ between some of the more
reactive compounds.
(A) side reactions can occur
(B) the occurrence of side reactions can
(C) can side reactions occur
(D) side reactions that can occur
9. Just over two-thirds of Earths surface is covered by water, ...... more than 98 percent of
this water is contained in the oceans.
(A) with
(B) which
(C) and
(D) resulting
10. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in shapes, colors, and materials .......to handle
and to sort them.
(A) that almost compel one
(B) one compels
(C) that compel almost
(D) one is almost compelled
11. In 1978 the united States National Air and Space Administration selected Sally
Ride.......the first woman astronaut.
(A) who being
(B) to be
(C) and being
(D) was
12. Adhesions are ....... formed within the body in response to inflammation or injury.
(A) that thin bands of scar tissue
(B) they thin bands of scar tissue when
(C) thin bands of scar tissue
(D) thin bands of scar tissue able to
13. The planet Neptune is about 30 times ...... from the Sun as Earth is.
(A) far
(B) as far
(C) more far
(D) far that
14. Not until the 1850's ...... a few public-spirited citizens and state legislatures seek to rescue
historic buildings in the United States from destruction or alteration.
(A) both
(B) came
(C) did
(D) when
15. ...... 200 bones forming the framework, or skeleton, of the human body.
(A) Being over
(B) There are over
(C) Where over

55
(D) Over

3. Pembahasan Jawaban
4. Number 1: (B) 60 million years ago
-----------> the simple one: 3 years ago.
5.
Number 2: (B) related
-----------> artifacts related to four centuries of United States immigration.
-----------> REDUCTION IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: artifacts (THAT ARE) related to four
centuries of United States immigration.
6. Number 3: (A) The presence of air pollutants
------------> MISSING SUBJECT

Number 4: (D) there is


------------> 3 CLAUSES
The Sun, the Moon, and Earth have magnetic fields.
There is evidence that the stellar have fields of space.
The stellar that extend through vast regions galaxies (Dependent clause: adjective clause).

Number 5: (C) producing


------------> REDUCTION IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
------------> nature poets, producing a wealth of eulogies to Canadian rural life.
------------> nature poets, who produced a wealth of eulogies to Canadian rural life

6. (B) artists
---> The sentence needs A SUBJECT

7. (C) in the
--> SUBJECT: About 42 million bushels of oats
--> VERB: are used
--> ADVERB: annually
--> ADVERB: in the manufacture of breakfast foods in the United States.

8. (A) side reactions can occur


--> The sentence requires a SUBJECT + VERB

Number 9: (C) and


----------> 2 clauses NEEDS a connector.

Number 10: (A) that almost compel one


----------> ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

Number 11: (B) to be


----------> INFINITIVE VS Gerund

Number 12: (C) thin bands of scar tissue


-----------> MISSING COMPLEMENT

Number 13: (B) as far


------------> as + adjective/adverb + as

Number 14: (C) did

56
------------> Inversion

Number 15: (B) There are over


------------> The sentence requires a SUBJECT + VERB
7. Soal TOEFL Structure dan Pembahasan Jawaban
1.The musical comedy Oklahoma did much to expand the potential of the musical stage, and
it encouraged others to attempt......
(a)original themes
(b)to original themes
(c)that were original themes
(d)how original themes
Pembahasan Jawaban: attempt (T) + Noun
--> Attempt (transitive verb)
--> Attempt + to infinitive
pilihan B salah karena to original themes bukan to infinitive.

2.Despite its fishlike form, the whale is......and will drown if submerged too long.
(a)an animal breathes air that
(b)an animal that breathes air
(c)an animal breathes air
(d)that an animal breathes air
Pembahasan Jawaban: Adjective Clause

3.The saguaro ,found in desert regions in the southwestern United States ,......cactus in the
world.
(a)is the largest
(b)the largest
(c)that is the largest
(d)the largest that is a
Pembahasan Jawaban: Superlative Degree

4. It is said that United Stales literature ____________ individuality and identity in the
twentieth century, after long imitation of European models.
(a)was achieved
(b)achieved
(c)to achieve
(d)achieving
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject + Verb (Sentences with Multiple Clause -Noun Clause)

5. Lucy Stone, ____________ first feminists in the United States, helped organize the
American Woman Suffrage Association in 1869.
(a)the one
(b)who was the
(c)another
(d)one of the
Pembahasan Jawaban: one of the + plural nouns / Appositive

6. _______, including climate, mineral content, and the permanency of surface water,
wetlands may be mossy ,grassy , scrubby, or wooded.
(a)Depending on many factors
(b)Many factors depending on
(c)Factors depending on many
(d)On many factors depending
Pembahasan Jawaban: Sentences with one clause -Subject + Verb
Yang menjadi subject adalah gerund dan verb adalah may be

(7) Duke Ellington's orchestra, _______ his own often complex compositions, made many
innovations in jazz.
(a)he played
(b)playing

57
(c)that it played
(d)was playing
Pembahasan Jawaban: Present Participle (Adjective) / Reduction in Adjective Clause

(8) The term "ice age" refers to any of several periods of time when glaciers covered
considerably more of Earth's surface _______.
(a)as is today
(b)than today is
(c)than they do today
8. (d)that today
9. Pembahasan Jawaban: Comparative degree

(9)From colonial times ,United States property owners agreed to tax themselves on the
theory......directly from services that the government could provide.
(a)property owners benefited so that
(b)why property owners benefited
(c)that if property owners benefited
(d)that property owners benefited
Pembahasan Jawaban: Adjective Clause

(10)Helium is not flammable and, next to hydrogen, is......


(a)known the lightest gas
(b)lightest the known gas
(c)the lightest gas known
(d)the known gas lightest
Pembahasan Jawaban: Superlative & Past participle

(11)Wild eagles that survive to adulthood are believed......from 20 to 30 years.


(a)live
(b)to live
(c)they live
(d)their living
Pembahasan Jawaban: Sentences with multiple clause / verb + to invinitive

(12)Portland, ......, is located primarily on two hilly peninsulas overlooking Casco Bay and its
many island.
(a)which Maine's largest city
(b)Maine's largest city where
(c)is Maine's largest city
(d)Maine's largest city
Pembahasan Jawaban: Appositive

13.......widely used in the chemical industry, sodium carbonate is principally consumed by the
glass industry.
(a)Despite
(b)Whether
(c)Though
(d)Except for
Pembahasan Jawaban: Reduction in adverbial clause

14.Cells, first identified by the early microscopists, began to be considered ...... in the
nineteenth century.
(a)them as microcosm of living organisms
(b)the microcosm of living organisms

58
(c)the microcosm of living organisms to be
(d)as which ,the microcosm of living organisms
Pembahasan Jawaban: Consider + noun + noun/adjective
Contoh lain:
I consider you an excellent student. --> an excellent student (noun)
I consider you intelligent. --> intelligent (adjective)

15.Like Jupiter, Saturn is a large, gaseous planet composed......of hydrogen and helium.
(a)it is mostly
(b)mostly
(c)almost
(d)both are almost
Pembahasan Jawaban: composed + mostly of
1. Over the centuries, ____ that try to explain the origins of the university.
(A) although many theories
(B) many theories
(C) have many theories been
(D) there have been many theories
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Langkah 1: 'that try to explain the origins of the university' merupakan adjective clause.
Adjective clause menjelaskan noun yang letaknya sebelum adjective clause itu sendiri. Jadi
sebelum adjective clause di atas mesti ada noun yang dijelaskan. Pilihan C sudah jelas salah
karena bukan noun yang sebelum adjective clause tapi 'been'.
Langkah 2: Kalimat di atas terdapat 1 clause 'that try to explain the origins of the university'
yang terdapat connector 'that' yang juga berfungsi sebagai subject dari verb 'try'. Adanya 1
connector menandakan dalam kalimat tersebut terdapat dua clause. Olehnya yang kita
butuhkan dari pilihan jawaban ialah 1 clause. Clause ialah kumpulan kata yang didalamnya
terdapat subject dan verb. Pilihan A dan B bukanlah clause. Jadi pilihan yang tepat ialah
pilihan D.

2. The planet Venus is almost exactly the same size and mass _____ Earth, with a similar
interior, including a nickel-iron core.
(A) to
(B) as
(C) is
(D) than
Pembahasan Jawaban: the same + as

3. George Washington Carver ____ international fame for revolutionizing agriculture research
in the southern United States during the early twentieth century.
(A) won
(B) winning
(C) who has won
(D) the winner of
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb.

4. Constituting one of the earliest engineering techniques, ______ in Paleolithic time was
done in order to extend natural caves.
(A) tunnels were built
(B) which built tunnels
(C) the building of tunnels
(D) tunnels whose building
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas buuth subject. Verb dari kalimat di atas ialah 'was

59
done'.

5. The tulip tree is native to the eastern United States, _____ the tallest and largest broadleaf
tree.
(A) where
(B) where it is
(C) it is where
(D) is where
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'where it is the tallest and largest broadleaf tree' merupakan
adjective clause yang menjelaskan noun sebelumnya 'the eastern United States'.

6. Elementary schools in the United states provide formal education ______ arithmetic,
science, social science, and communication skills that including reading, writing, spelling, and
speaking.
(A) such subjects as basic in
(B) as basic subjects in such
(C) in such basic subjects as
(D) as in such basic subjects
Pembahasan Jawaban: pasangan kata yang benar ialah such as bukan as such. Jadi pilihan
B dan D sudah jelas salah. Ingat pola noun phrase (adjective + noun). Kita lihat dipilihan
jawaban ada kata basic (adjective) dan subjects (noun). Antara A dan C hanya C yang
memnuhi syarat pola noun phrase (adj. + noun).

7. ______ land and money enabled construction of the Union Pacific railroad to begin from
Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1865.
(A) By the government granting of
(B) Government grants of
(C) For the government to grant
(D) Government grants so that
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan dari kalimat di atas ialah subject. Verb nya ialah
'enabled'.

8. Appointments to the United States Supreme Court and all lower federal courts ____ by the
President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
(A) making
(B) to make
(C) are made
(D) have made
Pembahasan Jawaban: Terdapat 'by' jawabannya mesti passive 'are made'.

9. The name squirrel is commonly used for those forms of the family Sciuridae that live in
trees, _____ it is equally accurate for ground dwelling types.
(A) whether
(B) that
(C) although
(D) in spite of
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada dua clause. Clause 1 = 'The name squirrel is commonly used';
Clause 2 = 'it is equally accurate'. Untuk menghubungkan ke dua clause di atas kita butuh
connector. Connector yang tepat ialah 'although' (pilihan C)

10. Green plants combine _____ with water and carbon dioxide to make food.
(A) energy derived from light
(B) energy, derived it from light

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(C) energy is derived from light
(D) from light, and energy derived
Pembahasan Jawaban: kalimat di atas sudah terdapat subject dan verb jadi kita tinggal
butuh object. Pilihan C sudah salah karen terdapat clause tanpa connector (tidak bisa jadi
object). Pilihan D salah karena terdapat 'from' --> combine + noun tanpa 'from'. Pilihan B
salah karen 'derived' menjelaskan 'energy' jadi tidak lagi butuh it.
Materi ini masuk dalam topik Adjective Clause (Reduction) atau juga Past Participle

11. From the archeologists perspective, understanding the past is vitally important and
requires ______ of earlier cultures.
(A) the ruins examined
(B) examining the ruins
(C) of the ruins to be examined
(D) that the examined ruins

12. The Texas Legislature selected Vassar Miller _____ in 1982, and again in 1988.
(A) was the states poet laureate
(B) as the states poet laureate
(C) the states poet laureate
(D) become the states poet laureate
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Langkah 1: Kalimat di atas sudah lengkap Subject dan Verb. Jadi kita tidak lagi butuh verb
lainnya. Pilihan A dan D olehnya sudah jelas salah.
Langkah 2: Ketika kita menggunakan kata 'selected' tidak lagi perlu menggunakan kata 'as'
tapi langsung saja noun setelahnya.
Contoh lain: I selected you the president of the meeting club. Kata kerja yang lain masuk
dalam kategori kata kerja semacam ini ialah: consider, find, believe, think, prove call, name,
elect, appoint, nominate, make, paint, suppose, turn (mengubah), dan build.

13. The distinguishing feature of a fluid, in contrast to a solid, is the ease _____ .
(A) that a deformed fluid
(B) to deform a fluid
(C) when a fluid that is deformed
(D) with which a fluid may be deformed

14. Oxygen and nutrients reach the bodys tissues ____ from the blood through the capillary
wall.
(A) pass
(B) by passing
(C) to be passing
(D) have passed
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas sudah lengkap subject dan verb jadi tidak butuh lagi
verb. Pilihan A dan D sudah jelas salah. Pilihan C tidak sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.

15. _____ important development of the Neolithic age was not in the manufacture of stone
tools but in the production of food.
(A) The most
(B) Most
(C) Most of
(D) Of the most
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada beberapa aturan dalam menggunakan most / most of
1. Most of digunakan sebelum plural noun yang mempunyai determiner atau pronoun di
depannya.

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Contoh: Most of the students live with host families.
Most of students live with host families. (Salah karena tanpa determiner)
2. Most digunakan sebelum plural noun yang tidak mempunyai determiner atau pronoun di
depannya
Contoh: Most students live with host families.
Most of students live with host families.
Before a plural noun that does not have a determiner or pronoun in front of it, don't say 'most
of', just say most :

Dari penjelasan di atas sudah jelas bahwa pilihan B dan C tidak sesuai pada kalimat.
Pilihan D salah karena jika menggunakan bentuk of the most itu bearti akan ada beberapa
benda / hal yang di-list dan biasanya ditandai dengan koma. Di atas tidak ada tanda-tanda
adanya yang di-list.
Contoh; Of the seven students, Anto is the best one at speaking English.
2. 1. Among the 450 artworks in the White House art collection __
(A) as is Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two Children
(B) is Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two Children
(C) which is Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two Children
(D) Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two Children
Pembahasan Jawaban: Materi ini masuk dalam Inversion (pembalikan) ditandai dengan
adanya 'place expression' di depan kalimat. Subject dari kalimat ialah 'Mary Cassatts Young
Mother and Two Children'
Inversion --> Verb + Subject

2. An unconsolidated aggregate of silt particles is also termed silt, __ a consolidated


aggregate is called siltstone.
(A) which
(B) why
(C) whereas
(D) whether
Pembahasan Jawaban: Dalam kalimat atas, terdapat dua clause. Clause 1 = 'An
unconsolidated aggregate of silt particles is also termed silt'. Clause 2 'a consolidated
aggregate is called siltstone'. Olehnya kita butuh 1 connector untuk mengubungkan dua
clause. Pilihan B sudah jelas salah karena why bukanlah connector. Pilihan A salah karena
'which' merupakan connector yang digunakan dalam 'adjective clause' yang menjelaskan
noun. Jadi posisi 'which' ketika digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua clause berada setelah
noun yang dijelaskan. Pilihan D salah karena 'whether' masuk dalam 'noun clause' yang
berposisi sebagai 'subject' atau 'object'.
2 Clause butuh 1 Connector; 3 Clause butuh 2 Connector

3. In 1864 the American Shakespearean actor Edwin Booth gained critical acclaim when he
__ Hamlet at the Winter Garden Theater in New York City.
(A) perform
(B) performed
(C) had been performing
(D) having performed
Pembahasan Jawaban: Dalam kalimat atas, terdapat dua clause dan 1 connector 'when'.
Clause 1 = 'the American Shakespearean actor Edwin Booth gained critical acclaim'. Clause
2 'he __ Hamlet at the Winter Garden Theater in New York City'. Clause 2 kehilangan verb
olehnya kita butuh verb untuk melengkapinya. Pilihan yang benar ialah B karena waktu nya
berbentuk past (in 1864).

4. -- are chiefly derived from petroleum.


(A) Plastics today
(B) There are plastics today
(C) Because today plastics today
(D) Due to plastics today
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah subject kalimat

62
5. Most tangerine trees and their flowers and fruits resemble __ the orange, although
tangerines are generally smaller.
(A) of those
(B) which of those
(C) those of
(D) which are of
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'resemble' ialah intransitive verb (kata kerja butuh object).
Jadi resemble langsung ketemu 'those' sebagai object.

6. Ohio, the center of __ the Hopewen culture, has the greatest concentration of ancient burial
mounds in the United States.
(A) called
(B) what is called
(C) that is called
(D) is called
Pembahasan Jawaban: setelah 'of' mesti noun. 'what is called' meruapakan noun clause.

7. __, such as jazz, are often played from memory rather than from a written score.
(A) Of some types music
(B) Music some of types
(C) Some types of music
(D) Types of music some
Pembahasan Jawaban: yang dibutuhkan ialah subject kalimat

8. During the 1850, reform movements __ temperance and the abolition of slavery gained
strength in the United States.
(A) advocating
(B) they had advocated
(C) to advocating
(D) to advocate when
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'advocating temperance and the abolition of slavery' merupaka
adjective yang menjelaskan / memberi informasi tambahan terkait 'reform movements'.

9. Many meteorites are thought to have originated from __ that once existed between the
orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
(A) where a planet or planets
(B) a planet or planets so
(C) which a planet or planets
(D) a planet or planets
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'that once existed between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter'
merupakan adjective clause yang menandakan adanya noun yang dijelaskan sebelumnya.

10.The modem automobile is a __ composed of more than 14,000 parts.


(A) complex technical system
(B) system of complex technical
(C) complex technical system that
(D) system is technically complex
Pembahasan Jawaban: article 'a' menandakan adanya noun setelahnya. Selain itu
'composed of more than 14,000 parts' merupakan adjective yang menandakan adanya noun
debelumnya.

11. __ over 100 years since the invention of the square-bottomed paper bag.
(A) Now is
(B) Now it has
(C) There is now
(D) It is now
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah subject dan verb. dari pilihan jawaban yang
paling sesuai dg kalimat ialaha 'It is now'.

63
12.The novelist John Dos Passos developed a style of fiction incorporating several
documentary devices __ to his works.
(A) lent realism
(B) that lending realism
(C) to lend realism
(D) of whose realism lent
Pembahasan Jawaban: developed + to lend
Verb + to + verb
Verb + gerund (verb ing)

13. In Earths infancy, its surface was warm enough for life __ the young Sun was fainter than
it is today.
(A) in spite of
(B) whether
(C) neither of which
(D) even though
Pembahasan Jawaban: yang dibutuhkan ialah connector untuk menghuungkan dua clause
di atas. Pilihan A sudah jelas salah karena 'in spite of' merupakan preposition bukan
connector. Pilihan B salah karena 'whether' berposisi sebagain noun: subject dan object.
Pilihan C salah karena 'neither of which' masuk dalam kategori adjective clause yaitu
menjelaskan noun setelahnya. Seteah neither of which pun langsung ketemu verb yg berarti
tida sesuai dnegan kalimat.
Pilihan D benar. Materi ini masuk dalam kategori 'Adverb Clause'.

14. The invention of the compound microscope (which allowed much higher magnification
through multiple lenses) made __ the great strides in life sciences.
(A) it possible
(B) possibly
(C) possible
(D) it was possible
Pembahasan Jawaban: Make + possible + sth (noun)

15. Hares generally have longer ears and hind legs than rabbits and move by jumping __
running
(A) rather to be
(B) rather than
(C) are rather
(D) as rather

Pembahasan Jawaban: rather than = (dibanding). Digunakan untuk perbandingan

1. Many scientists believe _____ as a result of a collision between the newly formed Earth and a large
asteroid.
A. that the Moon was formed
B. in that the Moon was formed
C. that the Moon formed was
D. when the Moon was formed
Kunci Jawaban: A. that the Moon was formed

2. The organ-pipe cactus is _____ in the United States.


A. Rare that
B. It rare
C. so that rare
D. rare
Kunci Jawaban: D. rare

3. Willa Cather,_____, gained recognition for her books concerning the American frontier.
A. a novelist and Pulitzer prizewinning

64
B.a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist
C.a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist who
D.was a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist
Kunci Jawaban: B. a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist

4. The average wavelength of visible light is 2,000 times _____ the diameter of an atom.
A. much as
B. as great
C. greater than
D. more than that
Kunci Jawaban: C. greater than

5. _____ ants live in nests, which may be located in the ground, under a rock, or built above ground
and may be made of twigs, sand, or gravel.
A. Most
B. The most of
C. Most of
D. Of the most
Kunci Jawaban: A. Most

6. The banking systems of the world have many similarities, _____ they also differ, sometimes in quite
material respects.
A. of which
B. in spite of
C. but
D. how
Kunci Jawaban: C. but

7. Learning that takes place in infancy provides the____ for the eventual transformation of a child into
an adult.
A. foundation is necessary
B. necessary foundation is
C. necessary in the foundation
D. foundation necessary
Kunci Jawaban: D. foundation necessary

8. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Jacob Lawrence created many paintings _____ the lives of
famous African American activists.
A. portayed
B. portrayed them
C. that they portrayed
D. that portrayed
Kunci Jawaban: D. that portrayed

9. The Centennial Exposition, _____ in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1876, celebrated the one-
hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
A. was held
B. to be held
C. held
D. by holding
Kunci Jawaban: C. held

10. In the dark abyss of the deep sea _____ is produced by luminescent fish.
A. because the only light
B. the only light
C. the only light that
D. is the only light
Kunci Jawaban: B. the only light

65
11. The classic American novel Moby Dick____ an account of the conflict between human beings and
their fate.
A. may be regarded as
B. as may be regarded
C. regarded as may be
D.regarded may as be
Kunci Jawaban: A. may be regarded as

12. In the metals industry, hydrogen is used to prevent metals from tarnishing while undergoing
_____.
A. treated by heat
B. heat treatments
C. by heat treatments
D. heat-treated
Kunci Jawaban: B. heat treatments

1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the United States developed the reusable space shuttle
________to space cheaper and easier.
A. to make access
B. and making access
C. which made accessible
D. and made accessible.
Pembahasan: to Infinitive
2. Genetically, the chimpanzee is more similar to humans _______.
A. are than any other animal
B. than is any other animal
C. any other animal is
D. and any other animal is
Pembahasan: Comparative Degree
3._______more than 65,000 described species of protozoa, of which more than half are
fossils.
A. Being that there are
B. There being
C. Are there
D. There are
Pembahasan: There are (Subject di belakang verb)
4.The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 ___ nearly unanimously through the United States
Congress.
A. passed
B. in passage
C. having passed
D. passing
Pembahasan: Kehilangan verb
5.Modern skyscrapers have a steel skeleton of beams and columns ___a three-dimensional
grid.
A. forms
B. from which forming
C. and forming
D. that forms
Pembahasan: Adjective Clause
6.The average level of United States prices grew very little from 1953 until the mid-1960s
when ____________.
A. did inflation begin
B. inflation began

66
C. the beginning of inflation
D. did the beginning of inflation
Pembahasan: Adverb clause --> kehilangan subject & verb
7.The basis premise behind all agricultural production is _____available the riches of the soil
for human consumption.
A. to be made
B. the making
C. making is
D. to make
Pembahasan: to infinitive --> be (is, are, am, was, were) + to inf.
8.___to the United States House of Representatives in 1791, Nathaniel Macon remained in
office until 1815.
A. Election
B. Why he was elected
C. Elected
D. Who was elected
Pembahasan: Past Participle / Reduction in Adjective Clause
9.________ of classical ballet in the United States began around 1830.
A. To teach
B. Is teaching
C. It was taught
D. The teaching
Pembahasan: Kehilangan Subject. Ingat Noun + of + Noun
10.The universe is estimated ___between 10 billion and 20 billion years old.
A. being
B. to be
C. which is
D. is
Pembahasan: to infintive
11. A situation in which an economic market is dominated by a ____ is known as a monopoly.
A. single of a product seller
B. product single of a seller
C. seller of a product single
D. single seller of a product
Pembahasan: Adjective (single) + Noun (seller) ---> Noun + of + Noun
12.____ freshwater species of fish build nests of sticks, stones, or scooped-out sand..
A. As the many
B. Of the many
C. Many
D. Many of them are
Pembahasan: Butuh pelengkap subject.
13.Newspaper publishers in the united states have estimated ___________reads a
newspaper every day.
A. nearly 80 percent of the adult population who
B. it is nearly 80 percent of the adult population
C. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population who
D. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population
Pembahasan: Noun Clause kehilangan subject
14. The foundation of all other branches of mathematics is arithmetic, _ science of calculating
with numbers.
A. is the
B. the
C. which the

67
D. because the
Pembahasan: Appositive
15.Nylon was ___the human-made fibers.
A. the first of which
B. what the first of
C. it the first of
D. the first of
Pembahasan: butuh complement ... B dan C sudah pasti salah karena kalimat di atas telah
memiliki Subject dan Verb (lengkap u/ 1 clause).

Soal Tes TOEFL


1. Captain Henry,_____________ crept slowly through the underbrush.
A. being remote from the enemy,
B. attempting to not encounter the enemy,
C. trying to avoid the enemy,
D. not involving himself in the enemy,

2. Tommy was one ____________________


A. of the happy childs of his class
B. of the happiest child in the class
C. child who was the happiest of all the class
D. of the happiest children in the class

3._____________ he began to make friends more easily.


A. Having entered school in the new city, it was found that
B. After entering the new school,
C. When he had been entering the new school,
D. Upon entering into the new school,

4. It is very difficult to stop the cultivation of marijuana because _____________


A. it grows very carelessly
B. or it`s growth without attention
C. it grows well with little care
D. it doesn`t care much to grow

5. The fact that space exploration has increased dramatically in the past thirty ___________
A. is an evidence of us wanting to know more of our solar system
B. indicates that we are very eager to learn all we can about our solar system
C. how we want to learn more about the solar system
D. is pointing to evidence of our intention to know a lot more about what is called our solar system

6. Many of the current international problems we are now facing _______________


A. linguistic incompetencies
B. are the result of misunderstandings
C. are because of not understanding themselves
D. lacks of the intelligent capabilities of understanding each other

7. Mr.Roberts is a noted chemist_____________


A. as well as an effective teacher
B. and too a very efficient teacher
C. but he teaches very good in addition
D. however he teaches very good also

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8. Public television stations are different from commercial stations __________________
A. because they receive money differently and different types of shows
B. for money and program types
C. in the areas of funding and programming
D. because the former receives money and has programs differently from the latter

9. Manufacturers often sacrifice quality _______________________ -


A. for a larger profit margin
B. in place of to earn more money
C. to gain more quantities of money
D. and instead earn a bigger amount of profit

10. Automobile production in the United States ____________


A. have taken slumps and rises in recent years
B. has been rather erratic recently
C. has been erratically lately
D. are going up and down all the time

11. A major problem in the construction of new buildings _______________


A. is that windows have been eliminates while air conditioning systems have not been perfected
B. is they have eliminated windows and still don't have good air conditioning
C. is because windows are eliminated but air conditioners don't work good
D. is dependent on the fact that while they have eliminated windows, they are not capable to produce
efficient air conditioning systems

12.John said that no other car could go ______________


A. so fast like his car
B. as fast like his car
C. as fast like the car of him
D. as fast as his car

13. Her grades have improved, but only ________________


A. in a small amount
B. very slightly
C. minimum
D. some

14. While attempting to reach his home before the storm,_______________


A. the bicycle of John broke down
B. it happened that John's bike broke down
C. the storm caught John
D. John had an accident on his bicycle

15. The changes in this city have occurred _________________


A. with swiftness
B. rapidly
C. fastly
D. in rapid ways

69
Kunci dan Pembahasan Jawaban
1. C
Pembahasan Jawaban: sangat mudah dipahami dari pendekatan makna

2. D
Pembahasan Jawaban: one of the + plural nouns (children)

3. B

Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. Having entered school in the new city, it was found that --> it mengarah ke mana?
B. After entering the new school,
C. When he had been entering the new school, --> penggunaan tense yg tidak tepat
D. Upon entering into the new school, --> enter + noun

4. C

Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. it grows very carelessly --> carelessly hanya digunakan untuk animal dan people
B. or it`s growth without attention --> it's ---> its
C. it grows well with little care
D. it doesn`t care much to grow --> kata care megacu ke 'perasaan' yang seharusnya tidak ditujukan
ke tumbuhan marijuana

5. B

Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. is an evidence of us wanting to know more of our solar system --> our wanting (masuk di materi
gerund)
B. indicates that we are very eager to learn all we can about our solar system
C. how we want to learn more about the solar system --> jika ini digunakan maka kalimat tidak
lengkap / tanpa verb utama
D. is pointing to evidence of our intention to know a lot more about what is called our solar system -->
terlalu bertele-tele

6. B
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. linguistic incompetencies --> kalimat yg fragmen
B. are the result of misunderstandings
C. are because of not understanding themselves --> themselves mengarah ke mana?
D. lacks of the intelligent capabilities of understanding each other --> makna tidak sesuai

7. A
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. as well as an effective teacher
B. and too a very efficient teacher --> too mestinya also
C. but he teaches very good in addition --> teaches well
D. however he teaches very good also --> teaches well

8. C
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. because they receive money differently and different types of shows --> salah pemilihan kata
B. for money and program types ---> salah pemilihan kata

70
C. in the areas of funding and programming
D. because the former receives money and has programs differently from the latter --> different from

9. A
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. for a larger profit margin
B. in place of to earn more money --> of + noun
C. to gain more quantities of money --> salah makna / kalimat tidak membahas quantities of money
D. and instead earn a bigger amount of profit --> bigger umum digunakan dalam situasi informal

10. B
Pembahasan Jawaban:
10. Automobile production in the United States ____________
A. have taken slumps and rises in recent years --> have (plural)
B. has been rather erratic recently
C. has been erratically lately --> been verb (linking verb) + adverb
D. are going up and down all the time --> are (plural)

11. A
Pembahasan Jawaban:
A. is that windows have been eliminates while air conditioning systems have not been perfected
B. is they have eliminated windows and still don't have good air conditioning --> they mengarah ke?
C. is because windows are eliminated but air conditioners don't work good --> work well
D. is dependent on the fact that while they have eliminated windows, they are not capable to
produce efficient air conditioning systems --> capable + of + verb-ing

12. D
Pembahasan Jawaban: equal comparison --> as ... as

13. B
Pembahasan Jawaban: improved + adverb (very slightly)

14. D
Pembahasan Jawaban: Reduction in adverbial clause --> while John was attempting to reach his
home before the storm, John had an accident on his bicycle
Prinsip: clause yang bisa di reduksi hanyalah klausa yang mempunyai subjek sama

15. B
Pembahasan Jawaban: have occurred + adverb (rapidly)

Soal Tes TOEFL


1. The attorney told his client that _________________________
A. They had little chance of winning the case.
B. The case was of a small chance to win
C. It was nearly impossible to win him the case.
D. The case had a minimum chance to be won by him.

2. One of the professors greatest attributes is _______________


A. when he gives lectures
B. how in the manner that he lectures
C. the way to give lectures
D. his ability to lecture

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3. The bank sent a notice to its customers which contained _______________
A. a remembrance that interest rate were to raise the following month
B. a reminder that a raise in interest rates was the month following
C. to remember that interest rates were going up next month
D. a reminder that interest rates would rise the following month.

4. ______________ was the day before yesterday.


A. The Frances Independence Day
B. The day of the French independence
C. Frenchs Independence Day
D. Frances Independence Day

5. It was not until she had arrived home ______________ remembered her appointment with the
doctor.
A. when she
B. that she
C. and she
D. she

6. George would certainly have attended the proceedings ________________


A. if he didnt get a flat tire
B. if the flat tire hadnt happended.
C. had he not had a flat tire
D. had the tire not flattened itself.

7. _______________ received law degrees as today.


A. Never so many women have
B. Never have so many women
C. The women arent ever
D. Women who have never

8. The students liked that professors course because _____________________


A. there was few if any homework
B. not a lot of homework
C. of there wasnt a great amount of homework
D. there was little or no homework.

9. George ______________ he could improve his test scores, but he didnt have enough time to
study.
A. knew to
B. knew how
C. knew how that
D. knew how to

10. _________________ he would have come to class.


A. If Mike is able to finish his homework
B. Would Mike be able to finish his homework
C. If Mike could finish his homework
D. If Mike had been able to finish his homework.

11. Lee contributed fifty dollars, but he wishes he could contribute _______________
A. one other fifty dollars

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B. the same amount also
C. another fifty
D. more fifty dollars

12. The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware _____________
she had gone.
A. where that
B. of where
C. of the place where
D. the place

13. Freds yearly income since he changed professions has _________________


A. nearly tripled
B. got almost three times bigger
C. almost grown by three times
D. just about gone up three times

14. Nancy hasnt begun working on her Ph.D, ________________ working on her masters.
A. still because she is yet
B. yet as a result she is still
C. yet because she is still
D. still while she is already

15. The director of this organization must know _____________________


A. money management, selling, and able to satisfy the stockholders
B. how to manage money, selling his product, and be able to satisfy the stockholders
C. how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders
D. money management, selling, the idea of being able to satisfy the stockholders.

Kunci Jawaban
1. A

2. D

3. D

4. D

5. B

6. C

7. B

8. D

9. B

10. D

11. C

12. B

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13. A

14. C

15. C

Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 3)


1. After the funeral, the residents of the apartment building __________.
(a) sent faithfully flowers all weeks to the cemetery.
(b) sent to the cemetery each week flowers faithfully.
(c) sent flowers faithfully to the cemetery each week.
(d) sent each week faithfully to the cemetery flowers.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Verb + Object. Di antara subject dan object tidak boleh ada yang
menghalangi. Sent (verb) + flowers (object)

2. Because the first pair of pants did not fit properly, he asked for __________.
(a) another pants (c) the others one
(b) other pants (d) another pair.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'another pair' ---> the first pair of pants
Pronoun Preference

3. The committee has met and __________.


(a) they have reached a decision.
(b) it has formulated themselves some opinions.
(c) its decision was reached at.
(d) it has reached a decision.
Pembahasan Jawaban: it --> the commitee
Pronoun Preference

4. Alfred adams has not __________.


(a) lived lonelynessly in times previous.
(b) never before lived sole.
(c) ever lived alone before.
(d) before lived without the company of his friends.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Sangat jelas

5. Johns score on the test is the highest in the class; __________.


(a) he should study last night.
(b) he should have studied last night.
(c) he must have studied last night.
(d) he must had to study last night.
Pembahasan Jawaban: (c) he must have studied last night (Dia pasti sudah belajar tadi
malam)

6. Henry will not be able to attend the meeting tonight because __________.
(a) he must to teach a class. (c) of he will teach a class.
(b) he will be teaching a class. (d) he will have teaching a class.
Pembahasan Jawaban: (b) he will be teaching a class (dia akan sedang mengajar)
Pilihan A salah karena modal tidak boleh ketemu to
Pilihan C salah karena 'because of' merupakan prepoisition yang butuh object 'phrase' bukan
clause.

74
Pilihan D salah karena yang dia maksud ialah 'he will have taught a class'

7. Having been served lunch, __________.


(a) the problem was discussed by the members of the committee.
(b) the committee members discussed the problem.
(c) it was discussed by the committee members the problem.
(d) a discussion of the problem was made by the members of the committee.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Having been served lunch (seusai dihidangkan makan malam)
Yang dihidangkan ialah 'the committee'

8. Florida has not yet ratified the equal rights amendment, and __________.
(a) several other states hasnt either.
(b) neither has some of the others states.
(c) some other states also have not either.
(d) neither have several other states
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Pola sederhana: neither have I; neither has he.

9. The chairman request that __________.


(a) the member studied more carefully the problem.
(b) the problem was more carefulnessly studied.
(c) with more carefulness the problem could be studied.
(d) the members study the problem more carefully.
Pembahasan Jawaban: requested that + subject + Verb 1 murni
Subjunctive

10. California relies heavily on income from fruit crops, and __________.
(a) Florida also. (c) Florida is as well
(b) Florida too. (d) so does Florida
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Pola sederhana: so do I; so does he

11. The professor said that __________.


(a) the student can turn over their report on the Monday.
(b) the report on Monday could be received form the students by him.
(c) the students could hand in their reports on Monday.
(d) the student will on Monday the reports turn in.
Pembahasan Jawaban: said (past) --> could (past)

12. This year will be difficult for this organization because __________.
(a)they have less money and volunteers than they had last year.
(b) it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year.
(c) the last year it did not have as few and little volunteers and money.
(d) there are fewer money and volunteers that in the last year there were.
Pembahasan Jawaban: it --> this organization

13. The teachers have had some problem deciding __________.


(a)when to the students they shall return the final papers.
(b) when are they going to return to the students the final papers.
(c) when they should return to the final papers to the students.
(d) the time when the final papers they should return for the students.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Verb + object: deciding (verb) + when they should return to the final
papers to the students (object)

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14. She wanted to serve some coffee to her guests; however, __________.
(a) she hadnt many sugar.
(b) there was not great amount of the sugar.
(c) she did not have much sugar.
(d) she was lacking in amount of the sugar.
Pembahasan Jawaban:

15. There has not been a great response to the sale, __________?
(a) does there (b) hasnt there (c) hasnt it (d) has there
Pembahasan Jawaban: There has not been a great response to the sale (Positive) + has
there (negative)
Jika pernyataan positif (+) maka pertanyaan negatif (-)
Jika pernyataan positif (-) maka pertanyaan negatif (+)

Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 4)


Directions: Question 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words
or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the
sentences. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that
corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the
oval cannot be seen.

1. The Cyclist _______ he crossed the main street


(A) Looked with caution after.
(B) Had looked cautiously before.
(C) Was looked cautions when.
(D) looks cautious when.

2. Here_______ notebook and report that I promised you last week


(A) Is the.
(B) Are the.
(C) Was the.
(D) Has been a.

3. Neither Jane nor her brothers _______ a consent from for tomorrow's field Trip
(A) Need.
(B) Needs.
(C) Is needing.
(D) Has need.
4. Cuba is _______ sugar-growing areas in the world
(A) One of the larger.
(B) One of largest.
(C) One of the largest.
(D) Largest.

5. The skiers would rather _______ through the mountains than go by bus
(A) To travel on train.
(B) Traveled by train.
(C) Travel by train.
(D) Travelling by the train.

6. That magnificent _______ temple was constructed by the Chinese


(A) eight-centuries-old.

76
(B) Eight-centuriess-old.
(C) Old-eight centuries.
(D) eight-century-old.

7. There were two small rooms in the beach house, _______ served as as a kitchen.
(A) The smaller of which
(B) The Smallest of which.
(C) The Smaller of them.
(D) Smallest of that.

8. Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and _______


(A) So do their children.
(B) Neither did the children.
(C) Also the Childs.
(D) Had he studied more.

9. Mr. Duncan _______ his brother, who has a better position.


(A) Twice as much as.
(B) Twice more than.
(C) Twice as many as.
(D) Twice as more as.

10. _______, he would have been able to pass the exam.


(A) If he studied more.
(B) If he were studying to a greater degree.
(C) Studying more
(D) He had studied more.

11. Mr. Duncan does not know _______ the lawn mower after they had finished using it.
(A) When did they put.
(B) When they did put.
(C) Where they put.
(D) Where to put.

12. The facilities of the older hospital _______


(A) is as good of better than the new hospital.
(B) Are as good or better than the new hospital.
(C) Are as good as or better than the new hospital.
(D) Are as good as or better than those of the new hospital.

13. Our flight from Amsterdam to London was delayed _______.


(A) Write a composition on their.
(B) To write composition about the.
(C) wrote some composition of his or her.
(D) Had written any composition for his.

14. The teacher suggested that her students _______ experiences with ESP.
(A) Write a composition on their.
(B) To write composition about the.
(C) wrote some composition of his or her.
(D) Had written any composition for his.

15. Of the two new teachers, one is experienced and _______

77
(A) The others are not.
(B) Another is inexperienced.
(C) The other is not.
(D) Other lacks experience.

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL (Structure 4)


1. B
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. D
7. A
8. D
9. A
10. D
11. C
12. D
13. A
14. A
15. C

Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 5)


DIRECTIONS
Questions 1 15 are incomplete sentence. Beneath each sentence you will see four words of
phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the
sentence. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that
corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the
oval cannot be seen.

1. I understand that the governor is considering a new proposal ______________


a. What would eliminate unnecessary writing in government
b. Who wants to cut down on the amount of writing in government
c. That would eliminate unnecessary paperwork in government
d. To cause that the amount of papers written in government offices will be reduced

2. The doctor told his receptionist that he would return ________________


a. As early as it would be possible
b. At the earliest that it could be possible
c. As soon as possible
d. At the nearest early possibility

3. George belongs to the _____________________


a. Class of the upper middle
b. Upper middle class
c. Class from the center up
d. High medium class

4. A good student must know ___________________________


a. To study hard
b. To be a good student

78
c. How to student effectively
d. The way of efficiency in study

5. Jane changed her major from French to business,_________________


a. With hopes to be able easier to locate employment
b. Hoping she can easier get a job
c. With the hope for being able to find better a job
d. Hoping to find a job more easily

6. He has received several scholarships _____________________


a. Not only because of his artistic but his academic ability
b. For both his academic ability as well as his artistic
c. Because of his academic and artistic ability
d. As resulting of his ability in the art and the academic

7. Harvey will wash the clothes, ________________


a. Iron the shirt, prepare the meal dusting the furniture
b. Running the shirt preparing the meal, and dusting the furniture
c. Iron the shirt, prepare the meal, and dusting the furniture
d. To iron the shirt, prepare the meal, and dust the furniture

8. _________________ that new information to anyone else but the sergeant.


a. They asked him not to give
b. They asked him to dont give
c. They asked him no give
d. They asked him to no give

9. _________________ he would have signed his name in the corner.


a. If he painted that picture
b. If he paints that picture
c. If he had painted that picture
d. If he would have painted that picture

10. The doctor insisted that his patient ______________


a. That he not work too hard for three months
b. Take it easy for three months
c. Taking it easy inside of the three months
d. To take some vacations for three months

11. The manager was angry because somebody ______________


a. Had allowed the photographers to enter the building
b. Had let photographers to enter into the building
c. Permitting the photographers enter the building
d. The photographers let into the building without the proper documentations

12. Richard was asked to withdraw from graduate school because ____________
a. They believed he was not really able to complete research
b. He was deemed incapable of completing his research
c. It was decided that he was not capable to complete the research
d. His ability to finish the research was not believed or trusted

13. The committee members resented __________


a. The president that he did not tell them about the meeting

79
b. The president not to inform them of the meeting
c. The presidents not informing them of the meeting
d. That the president had failed informing themselves that there was going to be a meeting

14. _____________ did Arthur realize that there was danger.


a. Upon entering the store
b. When he entered the store
c. After he had entered the store
d. Only after entering the store

15. The rabbit scurried away in fright __________________


a. When it heard the movement in the bushes
b. The movement among the bushes having been heard
c. After it was hearing moving inside of the bushes
d. When he has heard that something moved in the bush

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL (Structure 5)


1. C
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. B
11. A
12. B
13. C
14. D
15. A

Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 6)


DIRECTIONS
Questions 1 15 are incomplete sentence. Beneath each sentence you will see four words of
phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the
sentence. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that
corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the
oval cannot be seen.

1. George did not do well in the class because _______________


A. he studied bad
B. he was not good studywise
C. he was a badly student
D. he failed to study properly

2. This university's programs __________________ those of Harvard.


A. come second after
B. are second only to
C. are first except for

80
D. are in second place from

3. The more she worked _____________________


A. the less she achieved
B. she achieved not enough
C. she did not achieve enough
D. she was achieving less

4. _____________ the best car to buy is a Mercedes Benz.


A. Because of its durability and economy,
B. Because it lasts a long time, a it is very economical.,
C. Because of its durability and it is economical,
D. Because durably and economywise it is better than all the others,

5. When Henry arrived home after a hard day at work, ______________


A. his wife was sleeping
B. his wife slept
C. his wife has slept
D. his wife has been sleeping

6. He gave ________________________
A. to the class s a tough assignment
B. the class a tough assignments
C. a tough assignment for the class
D. an assignment very tough to the class

7. People all over the world are starving __________________________


A. greater in numbers
B. in most numbers
C. more numerously
D. in greater numbers

8. It was not until she arrived in class__________ realized she had forgotten her book
A. when she
B. and she
C. that she
D. She

9. John has not been able to recall where ____________________


A. does she live
B. she lives
C. did she live
D. lived the girl

10. Ben would have studied medicine if he___________to a medical school.


A. could be able to enter
B. had been admitted
C. was admitted
D. were admitted

11. He entered a university_________________


A. when he had sixteen years
B. when sixteen years were his age

81
C. at the age of sixteen
D. at age sixteen years old

12. The jurors were told to _________________________


A. talk all they wanted
B. make lots of expressions
C. speak freely
D. talk with their minds open

13. Those students do not like to read novels_________test books.


A. in any case
B. forgetting about
C. leaving out of the question
D. much less

14. He____________looked forward to the new venture.


A. eagerly
B. with great eagernes
C. eagernessly
D. in a state of increasing eagerness

15. The families were told to evacuate their houses immediately _____.
A. at the time when the water began to go up to
B. when the water began to rise
C. when up was going the water
D. in the time when the water raised

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL (Structure 6)


1. D
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. A
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. B
11. C
12. C
13. D
14. A
15. B
2. 1. The Eiffel Tower ___________ Paris, France.
a. landmarks
b. is landmarked in
c. is a landmark in
d. is in a landmark

2. Young deer _________.


a. are called fawns
b. be fawns

82
c. is fawns
d. are fawns called

3. Not until a dog is several months old does it begin to exhibit signs of independence
___________.
a. its mother from
b. from mother
c. to mother
d. from its mother

4. The Treasury Department (a.is take) a new look at regulations limiting the (b.number) of
interest that bank and (c.savings), and loan associations (d.can) pay on deposits.

5. (a.Him) should (b.be careful) with that vase because (c.it is very) old (d.and extremely
fragile).

6. The repair shop (a.keep) my cassette player for six weeks before (b.returning it),
(c.nevertheless), (d.it still) does not work properly.

7. To score a goal in soccer you ________.


a. must kick the ball
b. must kicks the ball
c. may kick them ball
d. must kick them balls

8. The observation deck at the Sears Tower _________ in Chicago.


a. is highest than any other one
b. is highest than any other one
c. is higher than any other one
d. is higher that any other one

9. If it _________ so cloudy, we would plan on having the fair outside.


a. was
b. was not
c. werent
d. had not

10. At the 1984 Democratic National Convention in San Francisco, Geraldine Ferraro became
the first woman _________ for the vice presidency.
a. to being nominated
b. to has been nominated
c. to have been nominated
d. to will be nominated

11. Pearl Buck, (a.a recipient) of the Nobel Peace Prize (b.for Literature) in 1938 (c.strove to
bring) understanding and peace (d.on everyone).

12. In most circumstances (a.the person that owns) the property (b.can claim) the rights (c.as
money) made (d.from drilling oil) on their property.

13. _______ chocolate will give you a tummy ache.


a. Eat too much
b. Eating to much

83
c. Eating too much
d. Eating too many

14. If she ____________ to advance her clock one hour, she wouldnt have been late for
work.
a. should have remembered
b. could remembered
c. remembered
d. would have remembered

15. It (a.was) obvious from his response in the press conference (b.that) the candidate
(c.prepare) his answers (d.well).

16. A dream about falling _________.


a. scary is
b. is scary
c. are scary
d. very scary is

17. George Washington _________first U.S. President.


a. was the
b. became
c. were the
d. are the

18. Amelia Earhart was _______________ to pilot her plane across the Atlantic Ocean.
a. the first and a woman
b. the first woman
c. who the first woman
d. the woman who first

19. (a.Crawfish) farming (b.have been practiced) in south Louisiana (c.for) many (d.years).

20. The main purpose (a.of this class) is to (b.help you) better understand the (c.history of
there) country, and how (d.it came to be).

21. ____________ a tree can be grown from a seedling.


a. That is generally believed
b. Believed generally is
c. Generally believed it is
d. It is generally believed that

22. The White Rose Bridge, (a.which close) today, for (b.resurfacing will not) be (c.open for)
(d.two months).

23. (a.When) I joined the staff (b.of the) newspaper, I (c.were taught) to write short, powerful
(d.headlines).

24. (a.Since the) official school colors (b.are red) and white, (c.all of) us (d.has worn) red and
white to the championship game.

25. The poverty level in the United State is currently set __________________.
a. at 12,000 dollars or less.

84
b. as 12,000 dollars or less.
c. at 12,000 dollars as less
d. at 12,000 dollar or less.

3. Kunci Jawaban
4. CADAA AACBC DCCDC BABBC DACDA
1. Fort Niagara was built by the French in 1726 on land .the Seneca Indians.
a. They buy from
b. bought from
c. buying from
d. was bought from

2. Soil texture depends on the proportions of clay and sand particles, soil porosity.
a. both alter
b. which alter
c. where altered
d. although altered.

3. The writers of the realist movement embraced the notion that art should depict life..
a. accurately and objectively
b. accuracy and objectivity
c. accurate and objective
d. accurate objectivity

4. A ratio is a comparison of .whole or a part to another part.


a. part to the
b. a part to
c. a part to the
d. the part to the

5. The bones of the elderly are more prone to fractures and splintering ..of young people.
a. than that
b. than those
c. those than
d. that than

6. English and Scottish settlers..Belfast as a trading post in 1613.


a. they established
b. established themselves
c. established
d. establishing

7. The formulation of economic policies necessitates meticulous consideration..large


segments of the population.
a. because they affect
b. they are affected because
c. affect them because
d. because affecting them

8. Only..feathered creatures inhabit the Arctic region year around.


a. fewer

85
b. fewer than
c. as few as
d. a few

9. Before Richard Bennet accepted the appointment as the prime minister of Canada in 1930,
he..as a lawyer.
a. had achieved a successful
b. had been achieved successfully
c. has achieved success
d. had achieved success

10. Gardeners transplant bushes and flowers by moving them from one place to ..
a. other
b. others
c. another
d. each other

11. Museums of natural history are ordinarily by special interest groups created for that
purpose.
a. owned and operated
b. they own and operate
c. owning and operating
d. the owner operates

12. A surge in the level of stress.the recurrence of nightmares.


a. apparent increase
b. apparently increase
c. apparently increases
d. apparent increase

13. Each bowler ..in each frame, unless a strike is bowled.


a. rolling the ball twice
b. the ball is rolled twice
c. rolls the ball twice
d. the ball rolls twice

14. William Hearst had five sons,eventually became executives in the Hearts
newspaper conglomerate.
a. all of them
b. of them all
c. all of whom
d. who of all

15. An axiomatic assumption in physics holds that all matter has kinetic energy.motion
and mass.
a. because its
b. because of its
c. because it is
d. because of it

DIRECTIONS: Questions 1-15 are partial sentences. Below each sentence you will see four words or
phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Select the one word or phrase that best completes the
sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question you have selected. Blacken

86
the space so that the letter inside the circle does not show.

EXAMPLE I

A Drying flowers is the best way them.

(A) to preserve
(B) by preserving
(C) preserve
(D) preserved

The sentence should state, "Drying flowers is the best way to preserve them." Therefore, the correct
answer is (A).

EXAMPLE II

Many American universities as small, private colleges.


(A) begun
(B) beginning
(C) began
(D) for the beginning

The sentence should state, "Many American universities began as small, private colleges." Therefore,
the correct answer is (C).

After you read the directions, begin work on the questions.

l. The upper branches of the tallest trees produce more leaves -------other branches.
(A) than do
(B) than does
(C) than they do
(D) than it does

2. No one -----------projections of demographic shifts are reliable and will prove to be valid in the
future.
(A) know how
(B) knows whether
(C) knows even
(D) know who

3. Senior executives often receive bonuses when their profit targets are reached or---------
(A) surpass
(B) surpasses
(C) surpassed
(D) surpassing

4. Since the 1970s, riding bicycles......... in the United States.


(A) becomes increasingly widespread
(B) become increasingly widely spread
(C) has become increasingly widespread
(D) has increased and becomes spread widely

5. Horseradish has extended stems and a large root that is grated ......... a spicy food sauce.

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(A) to making
(B) to make
(C) to be made
(D) to the making

6. Vitamin A maintains the sharpness of human vision .........and promotes healthy bones.
(A) at night
(B) of the night
(C) for the night
(D) nighttime
7. ........., often used in children's poetry and rhymes, are a result of words used in ambiguous
contexts.
(A) Humorous and misunderstood
(B) Misunderstand humorously
(C) Humorous misunderstandings
(D) Misunderstanding its humor
8. Modern scanning technology enables physicians to identify brain disorder earlier ......... than in the
past.
(A) and more accurate
(B) and more accurately
(C) accurate and more
(D) accurately and more
9. Educational toys and games give children an opportunity to enjoy themselves--------------.
(A) while their learning
(B) while learning
(C) are they learning
(D) and they are learning
10. William Hazlitt's essays, written in ----------- style, appeared between 1821 and 1822.
(A) vigorously and informally
(B) vigorous and informally
(C) vigor and informality
(D) vigorous and informal
11. Wild hogs inhabited Europe and other parts of the world .........6 million years ago.
(A) as long
(B) as long as
(C) then it was
(D) than it was
12. Electrically charged particles exert a magnetic force on one another even -------- not in physical
contact.
(A) if there are
(B) they are
(C) if they are
(D) are they
13. F. Scott Fitzgerald's early literary success led to extravagant living and ---------- a large income.
(A) a need for
(B) to need for
(C) needed for
(D) for he needed
14. Water fire extinguishers must never be used for fires that involve---------
(A) electrically equipped
(B) equipment, electrically
(C) electricity equipped
(D) electrical equipment

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15. By the 1300s, the Spanish had learned that gunpowder could -------- propel an object with
incredible force.
(A) use to (B) be used to (C) been used to (D) using it to

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