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Kunci TOEFL Structure: Perhatikan Elemen Pembentuk

Kalimat dan Hubungan antar Kalimat


Pada dasarnya, di semua cabang ilmu pengetahuan pasti mengenal konsep dan istilah
structure (struktur). Sebuah struktur biasanya memiliki tiga hal pokok yang utama yaitu
elemen pembentuk kalimat, keterkaitan/hubungan antar elemen kalimat, dan pola yang
mengikat semua elemen tersebut. Begitu pula yang terjadi pada soal TOEFL structure dimana
Anda harus mengenali satuan terkecil yang diujikan dalam sebuah kalimat.

Untuk penjelasan lebih detil, berikut disampaikan beragam soal TOEFL structure dan
pembahasannya:

1. I wish you would tell me .


(A) Who is being lived next door
(B) Who does live in the next door
(C) Who lives next door
(D) Who next door was living

Urutan kalimat yang benar adalah subject + verb + (complement) + (modifier). Jadi kalimat
(D) sudah pasti salah karena tidak sesuai aturan baku. Sedangkan pada kalimat (A), is being
lived tidak mungkin pada model struktur verbal. Kemudian kalimat (B) dapat diabaikan
karena kata does dan in the tidak penting berada dalam kalimat model ini. Jadi jawaban yang
benar adalah (C).

During the Daytona, the lead car .., leaving the others far behind.
(A) Forwarded rapidly
(B) Advanced rapidly
(C) Advanced forward rapidly
(D) Advanced in a rapidly manner

Setelah subject the lead car tentunya Anda akan membutuhkan verb untuk melengkapi
kalimat tersebut. Kata forward bukan merupakan verb, jadi jawaban (A) salah. Lalu jawaban
(B) adalah benar verb + adverb rapidly. Jawaban (C) berlebihan karena advanced artinya
move forward, sedangkan jawaban (D) tidak tepat karena rapidly harusnya digunakan sebagai
bentuk adjective.

In the(A) United States, there(B) are much(C) holidays throughout the(D) year.

Dalam kalimat ini tampak bahwa kata much dapat dikategorikan sebagai non-count
nouns sedangkan kata holidays merupakan count noun.
Jadi kata yang salah adalah (C) yang harusnya diganti dengan kata many.

Tomatoes(A) grows(B) all(C) year long in(D) Florida.

Melihat keseluruhan konteks dalam kalimat tersebut, maka jelaslah bahwa yang
dimaksud disini adalah tomatoes dalam bentuk plural. Maka dari itu, pasangan yang
sesuai setelah bentuk plural adalah singular. Jadi jawaban (B) salah dan harusnya
diganti dengan kata singular grow.
Perhatikan Kosakata dan Tata Bahasa yang Benar
Seperti yang telah diuraikan di atas bahwa TOEFL structure merupakan bagian yang paling
sulit dari keseluruhan pembelajaran tes TOEFL. Oleh karena itu, Anda tidak akan dapat
mengerti serta memahami apa itu structure dan bagaimana metode yang benar untuk
mengerjakannya hanya dengan sekilas pandang atau mempelajarinya dalam waktu yang
pendek. Misalnya, Anda tidak mungkin bisa menguasai soal-soal structure jika Anda baru
mulai belajar pada hari Sabtu sementara Anda akan mengikuti tes TOEFL pada hari Senin.
Sebagai tambahan, komponen utama dalam tata Bahasa Inggris adalah adanya subject dan
verb.

Kehadiran subject dan verb ini sangatlah penting sebagai komponen dasar kalimat. Sementara
itu, tata Bahasa Inggris juga mengenal perbedaan waktu pengucapan, apakah itu terjadi pada
masa sekarang, masa lampau, atau masa mendatang. Perbedaan waktu ini akan turut
mempengaruhi bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan serta rumus yang digunakan. Jadi,
pemahaman akan bentuk atau pola rumus (Simple Present atau Simple Past atau Simple
Future Tense) merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam pembahasan TOEFL structure.

Tips Mengerjakan soal Structure and Written Expression


Agar Anda bisa dengan mudah mengerjakan soal-soal pada sesi ini, alangkah baiknya jika
Anda mengetahui Tips atau saran dalam mengerjakannya agar Anda mampu mendapatkan
nilai yang terbaik. Berikut adalah beberapa Tips pada saat mengerjakan soal pada sesi
structure and written expression:

1. Relax dan jangan tegang dalam mengerjakan setiap soal.

2. Tetap teliti walaupun Anda diharuskan menjawab secara cepat. Hal ini
dikarenakan banyak sekali jebakan dalam soal-soal structure anda wrutten
expression ini.

3. Jangan terpaku pada satu soal. Ingat, waktu Anda sangat terbatas.

4. Lebih Khusus kenali:

o Penggunaan part of speech (noun, adjective, dll) dalam kalimat

o Agreement of person (misalnya: She is bukan she are); Agreement


of number (misalnya: Many moons bukan many moon); dan
Agreement of tense (misalnya: I saw it yesterday bukan I see it
yesterday)

o Word order (susuna kata), misalnya: beautiful girl bukan girl


beautiful.

5. Sering-seringlah berlatih menjawab soal-soal yang berkualitas TOEFL. Hal


ini dikarenakan semakin Anda mengenal model-model soal TOEFL,
semakin mudah Anda menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang ada.

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression


This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for
standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special
directions for each type.

Structure

Directions: Questions 14 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four
words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes
the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space
that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Look at the following examples:


Example I

Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes _______ they both emit hot liquids from
below the Earths surface.

A. due to
B. because
C. in spite of
D. regardless of
The sentence should read, Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes because they
both emit hot liquids from below the Earths surface. Therefore, you should choose answer
B.

Example II

During the early period of ocean navigation, ________ any need for sophisticated
instruments and techniques.

A. so that hardly
B. where there hardly was
C. hardly was
D. there was hardly
The sentence should read, During the early period of ocean navigation, there was hardly any
need for sophisticated instruments and techniques. Therefore, you should choose answer D.

Now begin work on the questions.

1. The North Pole___________ a latitude of 90 degrees north.

which is having

is having
it has

has

2. The city of Beverly Hills is surrounded on ________ the city of Los Angeles.

the sides are

its sides

it is the side of

all sides by

3. ________ greyhound, can achieve speeds up to thirty-six miles per hour.

The fastest dog

The fastest

The fastest dog, the

The

4. Marmots spend their time foraging among meadow plants and flowers or ________ on
rocky cliffs.
the sun

gets sun

sunning

sunny

5. The greenhouse effect occurs ________ heat radiated from the Sun.

the Earths atmosphere traps

does the Earths atmosphere trap

when does the Earths atmosphere trap

when the Earths atmosphere traps

6. The Rose Bowl, ________ place on New Years Day, is the oldest postseason collegiate
football game in the United States.

which takes

takes
it takes

took

7. Experiments ________ represent a giant step into the medicine of the future.

they use

using gene therapy

use gene therapy

gene therapy uses

8. ________ off the Hawaiian coastline are living, others are dead.

Some types of coral reefs

While some types of coral reefs

There are many types of coral reefs

Coral reefs

9. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark gray clouds ________ forecast rain.
which they

which

what they

what

10. Some economists now suggest that home equity loans are merely a new trap to push
consumers beyond ________.

what is affordable

able to afford

they can afford it

they can afford

11. People who reverse the letters of words ________ to read suffer from dyslexia.

when trying

if he tries
if they tried

when tried

12. Featured at the Henry Ford Museum ________ of antique cars dating from 1865.

an exhibit is

which is an exhibit

is an exhibit

an exhibit

13. Rubber ________ from vulcanized silicones with a high molecular weight is difficult
to distinguish from natural rubber.

producing

is produced

produced

that produces

14. ________ appears considerably larger at the horizon than it does overhead is merely
an optical illusion.
The Moon which

The Moon

That the Moon

When the Moon

15. According to the World Health Organization, ________ there to be an outbreak of any
of the six most dangerous diseases, it could be cause for quarantine.

there were

were they

they were

were

Written Expression
Directions: In questions 510, each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four
underlined parts of the sentence are marked A, B, C and D. Identify the one underlined word
or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer
sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the
answer you have chosen.

Look at the following examples:

Example I
Guppies are sometimes call rainbow fish because of the males bright colors
A call
B fish
C because
D bright

The sentence should read, Guppies are sometimes called rainbow fish because of the males
bright colors. Therefore, you should choose answer A.

Example II
Serving several term in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United States
politician.
A. Serving
B. term
C. important
D. politician

The sentence should read, Serving several terms in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an
important United States politician. Therefore, you should choose answer B.

Now begin work on the questions.

16. On the floor of the Pacific Ocean is hundreds of flat-topped mountains more than a mile

the floor of

is

flat-topped

more than

17. Because of the flourish with which John Hancock signed the Declaration of
Independence,
his name become synonymous with signature.

become

his
synonymous

which

18. Segregation in public schools was declare unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in
1954.

unconstitutional

public

in 1954

was declare

19. Sirius, the Dog Star, is the most brightest star in the sky with an absolute magnitude
about twenty-three times that of the Sun.

an absolute

the most brightest star

twenty-three times

that

Killer whales tend to wander in family clusters that hunt, play, and resting together.
tend

together

to wander

resting

21. Some of the most useful resistor material are carbon, metals, and metallic alloys.

metallic

material

most useful resistor

Some of

22. The community of Bethesda, Maryland, was previous known as Darcys Store.

The community

as

previous
known

23. Alloys of gold and copper have been widely using in various types of coins.

have

widely

various types

using

24. J. H. Pratt used group therapy early in this century when he brought tuberculosis
patients together to discuss its disease.

its

early

group

when he

25. The United States has import all carpet wools in recent years because domestic wools
are too fine and soft for carpets.

because
too fine

import

all

26. Irving Berlin wrote Oh How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning while serving in a
U.S. Army during World War 1.

during

while serving

wrote

27. Banks are rushing to merge because consolidations enable them to slash theirs
costs and expand.

expand

enable them

are rushing
theirs

28. That water has a very high specific heat means that without a large temperature
change water can add or lose a large number of heat.

That

means

add or lose

number

29. Benny Goodman was equally talented as both a jazz performer as well as a
classical musician.

as well as

equally

performer

classical

30. The state seal still used in Massachusetts designed by Paul Revere, who also
designed the first Continental currency.

the first
designed by

still used

who

31.Quarter horses were developed in eighteenth-century- Virginia to race on courses short


of about a quarter of a mile in length.

of a mile

to race

courses short

in length.

32. No longer satisfied with the emphasis of the Denishawn School, Martha Graham has
moved to the staff of the Eastman School in 1925.

No longer

satisfied

the emphasis
has moved

33. William Hart was an act best known for his roles as western heroes in silent films.

his

as

act

best known

34. Prior to an extermination program earlier this century, alive wolves roamed across
nearly all of North America.

Prior to

alive

earlier

across nearly

35. During the 1960s the Berkeley campus of the University of California came to
national attention as a result its radical political activity.

During
result

political

came to

36. Artist Gutzon Borglum designed the Mount Rushmore Memorial and worked on
project from 1925 until his death in 1941.

until

Artist

his

project

37. It is proving less costly and more profitably for drug makers to market directly to
patients.

directly

to market

costly
profitably

38. Sapphires weighing as much as two pounds have on occasion mined.

as

mined.

weighing

two pounds

39. Like snakes, lizards can be found on all others continents except Antarctica.

Like

be found

others

except

40. Banks, savings and loans, and finance companies have recently been doing home
equity loans with greater frequency than ever before.

ever before
greater frequency

have recently

doing

MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION


READING COMPREHENSION
Section 3 dalam ujian TOEFL adalah Reading comprehension. Ini digunakan untuk
mengukur kemempuan peserta ujian dalam memahami teks tertulis dalam bahasa
inggris. Bagian ini mengujikan setidaknya 5 bacaan, dimana masing-masing bacaan
biasanya terdiri dari sepuluh pertanyaan. Sehingga pertanyaan pada bagian ini
berjumlah limapuluh pertanyaan. Anda harus menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan dalam
waktu limapuluh menit. Bagian ini hanya mengujikan teks bacaan saja, tanpa gambar,
diagram, atau alat Bantu visual lainnya.
Tema bacaan yang diujikan dalam bagian ini cukup bervariasi, namun secara umum
berkaitan dengan materi perkuliahan yang diajarkan oleh universitas-universitas di
Amerika Serikat. Misalnya, sejarah, sastra, seni, arsitektur, geologi, biologi,
kesehatan, astronomi, geografi, dan seterusnya. Adapun pertanyaan pada section 3
bisa dikategorikan ke dalam dua bentuk pertanyaan sebagai berikut:
1. Reading comprehension
Pada section 3 ini anda akan diminta untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang
berkaitan dengan informasi yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Mulai dari main idea,
bagian bacaan yang lebih rinci, sampai inferasi atau penyimpulan atas informasi yang
terdapat pada bacaan.
2. Vocabulary
Section 3 juga meminta anda untuk menjawab arti dari kata-kata tertentu yang
terdapat pada teks bacaan. Namun apabila anda sama sekali tidak tahu arti kata-kata
tertentu, anda masih tetap bias mengetahui arti kata-kata tersebut dengan memahami
konteks bacaan. Dengan demikian anda bias memperkirakan arti dari kata-kata yang
ditanyakan dalam soal.
Permasalahan yang biasa dihadapi oleh peserta tes TOEFL dalam ujian Reading
Comprehension adalah batasan waktu yang singkat. Banyak peserta tes yang tidak
bias menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan ketika waktu yang disediakan telah habis.
Untuk itu
Berbagai kemampuan yang dibutuhkan dalam reading harus anda kuasai sebelum
benar-benar menjalankan ujian TOEFL. Sekalipun demikian, Anda masih berpeluang
untuk mendapatkan skor TOEFL yang lebih tinggi apabila menguasai trik-trik taktis.
Berikut disajikan beberapa kunci yang bisa membantu anda berkompetisi dengan
waktu yang ketat sekaligus untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.
1. Kunci umum
Kunci 1: Jangan terlalu lama membaca teks bacaan.
Harus diingat bahwa anda tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk membaca teks bacaan
secara mendalam. Pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes reading ini umumnya dpat
dijawab secara tepat dengan tanpa langsung membaca bacaan secara rinci. Anda dapat
mengalokasikan satu atau dua menit untuk membaca main idea pada masing-masing
paragraph dari sebuah bacaan sebelum mulai membaca pertanyaan. Dengan demikian
anda sudah mendapatkan gambaran sekilas tentang informasi yang disampaikan oleh
bacaan.
Kunci 2 : Perhatikan semua pertanyaan yang terdapat pada sebuah bacaaan dan ingat-
ingat kata kuncinya.
Setelah membaca sekilas main idea masing-masing paragraph, selanjutnya anda harus
segera membaca pertanyaan pada soal-soal yang terdapat pada bacaan tersebut.
Rekamlah kata-kata kunci pada masing-masing pertanyaan pada pikiran anda
sehingga anda dapat mencari jawabannya pada bacaan dengan sekali tempo untuk
beberapa pertanyaan. Anda juga dapat memeberi tanda pada kata kunci di lembar soal,
karena anda tidak dilarang memberikan coretan. Cara ini sangat efektif untuk
menghemat waktu, sehingga pandangan anda tidak bolak-balik antara teks bacaan
dengan pertanyaaan.
Kunci 3 : Jangan panic apabila tema bacaan bukan merupakan disiplin yang anda
kuasai..
Ujian TOEFL sudah didisai sedemikian rupa sehingga peserta ujian tidak
dipersyaratkan untuk menguasai tema-tema dari disiplin ilmu tertentu. Semua
informasi yang ditanyakan dalam soal section 3 sudah tersedia dalam teks bacaan.
Sehingga apapun latar belakang keilmuan yang anda kuasai anda akan tetap dapat
menjawab soal-soal pada bacaan yang sama sekali berbeda dari disiplin anda.
KUNCI KHUSUS
Materi yang diujikan dalam tes reading biasanya memiliki pola-pola dan standar
tertentu. Biasanya anda diminta untuk mengetahui tema bacaaan, menentukan main
idea, mengetahui arti dari kosakata tertentu, mengetahui informasi tertentu,
melakukan penyimpulan, melakukan identifikasi ats pengecualian-pengecualian dan
mengetahui rujukan dari pronoun tertentu.
Untuk membekali diri anda dalam mengahadapi are apersoalan yang diujikan dalam
reading tes, perhatikan kunci-kunci berikut ini :
Kunci 4 : Lakukan previewing untuk mengetahui topic bacaan..
Topik merupakan salah satu item yang hampir dapat dipastikan keluar pada setiap tes
TOEFL. Untuk mengetahui topic sebuah bacaan, anda tidak perlu membaca secara
detail dan mendalam. Anda cukup membaca kalimat pertama dan terakhir pada tiap-
tiap paragraph bacaan. Anda tidak dituntut untuk memahami bacaan secara rinci
melainkan hanya untuk menentukan topic, oleh karena nya anda harus membaca
secepat mungkin.
Kunci 5 : Perhatikan kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph untuk mengetahui main
idea.
Tes reading sering kali mengujikan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan
main idea. Main idea biasanya terdapat pada kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph.
Dengan mengetahuinya, anda dapat memahami pesan apa yang ingin disampaikan
oleh penulis. Main Idea dari sebuah bacaan biasanya terdapat pada dua kalimat
pertama.
Kunci 6 : Pahamilah konteks yang terdapat pada bacaan untuk mengetahui arti kata
tertentu.
Konteks dalam bacaan bahasa Inggris adalah kombinasi dari kosakata dan grammar
yang digunakan pada sebuah kata. Ia dapat berupa sebuah kalimat, paragraph, atau
bacaan. Dengan memahami sebuah konteks anda akan dapat memperkirakan arti
sebuah kata. Karena dengan mengetahui arti secara umum dari sebuah kalimat berarti
anda juga memahami arti kata-kata yang terdapt pada kalimat tersebut.
Kunci 7 : Lakukan scanning untuk menemukan informasi tertentu yang berkaitan
dengan permintaan soal.
Sebuah teks bacaan dalam ujian TOEFL biasanya diikuti dengan sepuluh pertanyaan,
karena batasan waktu yang sangat mendesak sebaiknya anada membaca kesepuluh
pertanyaan tersebut. Ketika membaca semua pertanyaan anda harus menemukan kata
kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan dan merekamnya dalam pikiran. Bacalah secara cepat
dengan cara scanning untuk menemukan kata-kata tertentu yang menjadi kata kunci
dari sebuah pertanyaan. Hal ini sngat berguna dalam melakukan klarifikasi pada teks
bacaan untuk menemukan informasi yang ditanyakan. Dengan mengingat semua kata
kunci pertanyaan, pandangan, dan focus anda tidak perlu terpecah untuk
mencocokkan pertanyaan dengan teks. Karena biasanya urutan nomor soal tidak
menanyakan kalimat atau bagian dari teks secara berurutan. Sehingga bila anda hnaya
membaca satu pertanyaan kemudian mencarinya di teks bacaan akan menghabiskan
banyak waktu karena anda perlu melakukan hal yang sama berkali-kali.
Kunci 8 : Kumpulkan fakta dan data dalam bacaan untuk melakukan inferasi atau
penyimpulan
Tidak semua jawaban dari sebuah pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL dapat ditemukan
secara langsung dalam teks bacaan. Hal ini karena informasi yang dimaksud tidak
secara eksklusif disebutkan dalam sebuah pernyataan langsung. Sering kali dlam ujian
reading anda diminta untuk membuat kesimpulan mengenai informasi tertentu. Untuk
itu ketika membaca teks sebaiknya anda memberikan perhatian khusus terhada data
atau fakta tertentu yang mengarah pada sebuah kesimpulan yang informative. Lagi-
lagi dalam hal ini mengetahui kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan terlebih dahulu
merupakan sebuah keuntungan tersendiri. Dengan berbekal kata kunci anda akan
menentukan data dan fakta apa yang patut and apilih dan kump[ulkan untuk membuat
sebuah kesimpulan.
Kunci 9: Berkonsentrasi selama membaca teks bacaan.
Konsentrasi sangat diperlukan dan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan yang
paling menentukan dalam readng test. Sering kali peserta ujian lupa dengan apa yang
telah disampaikan oleh kalimat atau paragraph sebelumnya ketika ia mula membaca
kalimat atau paragraph baru. Akhirnya ia membaca ulang lagi kalimat tersebut.
Apabila ini juga terjadi pada anda, langlah berikut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk
meminimalisasi kek\salahan tersebut.
Ketika anada membaca sebuah kalimat, latihlah didri anda untuk menerka atau
memperkirakan apa isi atau informasi yang akan disampaikan oleh kalimat
selanjutnya.
Perhatikan kesesuaian sebuah teks dengan judul atau main idea yang sudah anda
ketahui sebelumnya, dengan cara ini anda tetap dapat menangkap pesan untama yang
diasampaikan oleh masing-masing kalimat sekalipun anda sudah beranjak pada
kalimat-kalimat berikutnya.
Kunci 10 : Tingkatkan kecepatan membaca anda.
Dengan keterbatasan waktu ujian yang singkat, maka kemampuan anda untuk
membaca secara cepat dan singkat sangat penting dalam ujian TOEFL. Memang
kecepatan membaca ini tidaklah sesuatu yang instant. Melainkan ia harus dilatih
secara terus menerus apalagi membaca teks yang bukan bahasa asli kita. Salah satu
caranya adalah dengan memilih kata-kata yang paling penting dalam sebuah kalimat,
yang mana hal ini akan memberikan anda ringkasan atas arti sebuah bacaan.
2. RECOGNIZE THE ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS
Dalam tes reading seringkali akn ada pertanyaan tentang pengorganisasioan ide-ide
dalam teks pada jenis pertanyaan ini anda akan diminta untuk menentukan bagaimana
ide-ide dalam paragraph berhubungan dengan ide-ide lain dalam paragraph lain.
Example
The passage :
f asked who invented the game of baseball, most Americans would probably reply that
it was Abher Doubleday. At the beginning of this century, there was some
disagreement over how the game of baseball had actually originated, so sporting-
goods manufacturer Spaulding inaugurated a commission to research the question. In
1908 a report was published by the commission in which Abner Doubleday, a U.S
Army officer from Cooperstown, New York, was given credit for the invention of the
game. The National Baseball Hall of Fame was established in Cooperstown in honor
of Doubleday., most sports historians are in agreement that Doubleday really did not
have much to do with the development of baseball. Instead, baseball seems to be a
close relation to the English game of rounders and probably has English rather than
American roots.
The question
The second paragraph
(A) provides examples to support the ideas in the first paragraph
(B) precedes the ideas in the first paragraph
(C) outlines the effects of ideas in the first paragraph
D) refuses the ideas in the first paragraph
TOEFL EXERCISE
PASSAGE ONE (QUESTIONS 1-2)
Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesirable, various managers
have widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have.
According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization.
Managers with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organization to
rid the organization of any possible sources of conflict.
The interactionist view of conflict on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an
important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and
causing positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of
conflict may actually take steps to stimulate within the organization.
1. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) The origin of ideas about conflict is presented.
(B) Contrasting views of conflicts are presented.
C) Two theorists discuss the strength and weaknesses of their views on conflict.
(D) Examples of conflict within organizations are presented
2. What type of information is included in the third paragraph?
(A) A comparison of the interactionist and traditional views of conflict
(B) A discussion of the weaknesses of the interactionist view of conflict
(C) An outline of the type of manager who prefers the interactionist view of conflict
(D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict
PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)
IQ, or intelligence Quotient as the radio of a patrons mental age to chronological age,
with the radio multiplied by 100 remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily
determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not
so simple to define.
In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individuals ability to perform
intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual
operations are considered to represent intelligence.
In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus at to which types of
intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible
to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed
have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test makers from that
culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different
culture with equal intelligence.
3. What type of information is included in the first paragraph
(A) An argument
(B) A definition
(C) An opinion
(D) A theory
4. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second
paragraph?
(A) It presents a contrasting point of view.
(B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph.
(C) It presents real information rather than a premise.
(D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph
PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)
The largest lake in the western United sates in the Great Salt Lake, an island saltwater
lake in northwestern Utah, is just outside the state capital of Salt Lake City. Rivers
and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it, this has a major
influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake.
Although the Great Lake was fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the
oceans of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of minerals
that flow into the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it. Sodium and
chloride-the components of salt- comprise the large majority of the lakes mineral
content.
The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square
miles, depending on long term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains, the
size of the lake can swell tremendously from the huge amount of water flowing into
the lake from its Feeder Rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a size of
2,400 square miles. During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake decreases,
sometimes drastically, due to evaporation.
5. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Lake are discussed.
(B) Contrasting theories about the Great Salt Lakes salt levels are presented.
(C) The process by which the Great Salt Lake gets its salt is outlined.
(D) The reasons for the variation in the Great Salt Lakes size are given.
6. The third paragraph contains information on
(A) how the size of the lake affects weather conditions
(B) the effects of contrasting weather conditions on the size of the lake
(C) the effects of changes in the size of the lake
(D) the causes of the varied weather conditions in the area of the lake
Common types of calendars can be based on the Sun or on the Moon. The solar
calendar is based on the solar year. Since the solar year is 362.2422 days long, solar
calendars consist of regular years of 365 days and have an extra day every fourth year,
or leap year, to make up for the additional fractional amount. In a solar calendar, the
waxing and waning of the moon can take place at various stages of each month.
lunar calendar is synchronized to the lunar month rather than the solar year. Since the
lunar month is twenty-nine and thirty days. A twelve-month lunar year thus has 354
days, 11 days shorter than a solar year.
Solar eclipse
Lunar eclipse
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) All calendars are the same.
(B) The solar calendar is based on the sun.
(C) Different calendars have dissimilar bases.
(D) The lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days long.
2. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) Characteristics of the solar calendar are outlined.
(B) Two types of calendars are described.
(C) The strengths and weakness of the lunar calendar are described.
(D) The length of each existing calendar is contrasted.
Vaccines are prepared from harmful viruses or bacteria and administered to patients to
provide immunity to specific diseases. The various types of vaccines are classified
according to the method by which they are derived.
The most basic class of vaccines actually contains disease-causing microorganisms
that have been killed with a solution containing formaldehyde. In this type of vaccine,
the microorganisms are dead and therefore cannot cause disease; however, the
antigens found in and on the microorganisms can still stimulate the formation of
antibodies. Examples of this type of vaccine are the ones that fight influenza, typhoid
fever, and cholera.
A second type of vaccine contains the toxins produced by the microorganisms rather
than the microorganisms themselves. This type of vaccine is prepared when the
microorganism itself does little damage but the toxin within microorganism is
extremely harmful. For example, the bacteria that cause diphtheria can thrive without
much harm, but when toxins are released from the bacteria, muscles can become
paralyzed and death can ensue.
A final type of toxin contains living microorganisms that have been rendered
harmless. With this type of vaccine, a large number of antigen molecules are produced
and the immunity that results is generally longer lasting than the immunity from other
types of vaccines. The Sabin oral antipolio vaccine and BCG vaccine against
tuberculosis are examples of this type of vaccine.
3. Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Vaccines provide immunity to specific diseases.
(B) Vaccines contain disease-causing microorganisms.
(C) Vaccines are derived in different ways.
(D) New approaches in administering vaccines are being developed.
4. How many types of vaccines are presented in the passage?
(A) two
(B) three
(C) four
(D) five
3. FIND UNSTATED DETAILS
Dalam tes reading anda seringkali akan diminta untuk menentukan jawaban yang
tidak disebutkan atau tidak benar dalam teks. Jenis pertanyaan ini berarti bahwa ada
tiga pilihan yang disebutkan atau benar dalam teks, sementara satu pilihan tidak. Jadi
tugas anda adlah menemukan tiga pilihan yang benar kemudian memilih satu pilihan
yang tersisa yang menjadi jawaban pada soal.
Anda harus memperhatikan bahwa ada dua macam pilihan atas pertanyaan ini :
1. Tiga pilihan benar dan satu tidak dibahas dalam teks.
2. tiga jawaban benar dan satu salah menurut teks.
The passage:
In English there are many different kinds of expressions that people use to give a
name to anything whose name is unknown or momentarily forgotten. The word
gadget is one such word. It was first used by British sailors in the 1850s and probably
came from the French word gachette, which was a small hook. In everyday use, the
word has a more general meaning. Other words are also used to give a name to
something, unnamed or unknown and these words tend to be somewhat imaginative.
Some of the more commonly used expressions are a what-dye-call-it, a whatsis, a
thingamabob, a thingamajig, a doodad, or a doohickey.
1. Which of the following is NOT true about the word gadget ?
(A) It is used to name something when the name is not known
(B) It was used at the beginning of the nineteenth century
(C) It most likely came from a word in the French language.
(D) Its first known use was by British sailors.
1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an expression for
something that is not known?
2. (A) a thingamabob
3. (B) gadget
4. (C) A doohickey
5. (D) A what-is-it
6. Passage one (question 1-2)
7. Blood plasma is a clear, almost colorless liquid. It consists of blood from which the
red and white blood cells have been removed. It is often used in transfusions because
a patient generally needs the plasma portion of the blood more than the other
components.
8. Plasma differs in several important ways from whole blood. First of all, plasma can
be mixed for all donors and does not have to be from the right blood group, as whole
blood does. In addition, plasma can be dried and stored, while whole blood cannot.
.
1. All of the following are true about blood plasma EXCEPT
2. (A). it is a deeply colored liquid
3. (B). blood cells have taken out of it
4. (C). patients are often transfused with it
5. (D). it is generally more important to the patient than other part of whole blood
6. 2. Which of the following is NOT stated about whole blood?
7. (A). it is different from plasma
8. (B). it cannot be dried
9. (C). it is impossible to keep in storage for a long time.
10. (D). it is a clear, colorless liquid.
11. Passage two (question 3-4)
12. Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman was an American journalist at the turn of the century
who wrote for the newspaper New York World under the pen name Nellie Bly, a name
which was taken from the Stephen, Foster song Nellie Bly. She achieved fame for her
exposes and in particular for the bold and adventuresome way that she obtained her
stories.
13. She felt that the best way to get the real story was from the inside rather than as an
outside observer who could be treated to a prettified version of reality. On one
occasion she pretended to be a thief so that she would get a nested and see for herself
how female prisoners were really treated. On another occasion she faked mental
illness in order to be admitted to a mental hospital to get the real picture on the
treatment of mental patients.
14. 3. Which of the following is NOT true about Nellie Bly?
15. (A). Nelly Blys real name was Elizabeth Cochrane seaman.
16. (B). Nellie Bly was mentally ill
17. (C). The name Nellie Bly came from a song.
18. (D). The name Nellie Bly was used on articles that Seaman wrote.
19. 4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as something that Nellie Bly did to
get a good story?
20. (A). she acted like a thief
21. (B). she got arrested by the police.
22. (C). she pretended to be ill.
23. (D). she worked as a doctor in a mental hospital.
4. FIND PRONOUN REFERENTS
Dalam tes reading seringkali anda diminta untuk menentukan sebuah pronoun
mengacu pada noun yang mana?
Cara menjawab pertanyaan ini adalah dengan melihat kalimat /kata-kata sebelum
pronoun. Anda akan mendapatkan noun yang dimaksud disana.
Example
The passage
Carnivorous plants, such as the sundew and the Venus Flytrap are generally found in
the humid areas where there is an inadequate supply of nitrogen in the soil. In order to
survive, these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within their foliage.
They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects. These
plants trap the insects in a variety of ways. The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves;
when an insect lands on these leaves, it gets caught up in the sticky hairs, and the leaf
wraps itself around the insect. The leaves of the Venus-Flytrap function more like a
trap, snapping suddenly and forcefully shut around an insect.
The questions :
1. The pronoun they in line 4 refers to
2. (A) humid areas
3. (B) these plants
4. (C) insects
5. (D) digestive fluids
6. 2. The pronoun it in line 6 refers to
7. (A) a variety
8. (B) the sundew
9. (C) An insect
10. (D) the leaf
5. INDIRECTLY ANSWERED QUESTIONS
Beberapa pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL akan meminta jawaban yang tidak secara
langsung disebutkan dalam teks. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini anda harus menarik
kesimpulan dari informasi yang di berikan dalam teks.
Pertanyaan jenis ini meliputi dua : (1) implied detailed questions and (2) transitions
questions.
ANSWER IMPLIED DETAILED QUESTIONS CORRECTLY
Example
The passage
The Hawaiian language is a melodious language in which all words are derived from
an Alphabet of only twelve letters, the five vowels, A,E,I,O,U and the seven
consonants H,K,L,M,N,P,W. Each syllable in the language ends in a vowel, and two
consonants never appear together, so vowels have a much higher frequency in the
Hawaiian language than they do in English.
This musical sounding language can be heard regularly by visitors to the islands. Most
Hawaiians speak English, but it is quite common to hear English that is liberally
spiced with words and expressions from the traditional language of the culture. A
visitor may be greeted with the expression aloha, and may be referred to as a malihini
because he is a new comer to the island. This visitor may attend an outside luau where
everyone eats too much and be invited afterwards to dance the hula.
The questions :
1. Which of the following is probably NOT a Hawaiian word?
(A) mahalo
(B) mahimahi
(C) meklea
(D) moana
2. It is implied a luau is
(A) a dance
(B) a feast
(C) a concert
(D) a language
TOEFL EXERCISE
PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)
Eskimos need efficient and adequate means to travel across water in that the areas
where they live are surrounded by oceans, bays, and inlets and dotted with lakes and
seas. Two different types of boats have been developed by the Eskimo, each
constructed to meet specific needs.
The Kayak is something like a canoe that has been covered by deck. A kayak is
generally constructed with one opening in the deck for one rider, however, some
kayaks are made for two, Because the deck of a kayak is covered over except for the
hole (or holes) for its rider (or riders), a kayak can tip over in the water and roll back
without filling with water and sinking. One of the primary uses of the kayak is for
hunting.
The umiak is not closed over, as is in the kayak, instead it is an open boat that is built
to hold ten to twelve passengers. Eskimos have numerous uses for the umiak which
reflect the size of the boat; e.g. the umiak is used to haul belongings from campsite to
campsite, and it is used for hunting larger animals that are too big to be hunted in a
kayak.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that an example of the animal mentioned in
lines 12-13 might be
(A) a kangaroo
(B) a snake
(C) a whale
(D) a salmon
PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5)
Two types of trees from the same family of trees share honors in certain respects as
the most impressive of trees. Both evergreen conifers, the California redwood
(Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiandendrom gigantteum) are
found growing natively only in the state of California. The California redwood is
found along the northern coast of the state, while the giant sequoia is found inland and
at a higher elevations, along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas.
The California redwood is the tallest living tree and is in fact the tallest living thing on
the face of the earth; the height of the tallest redwood on the record is 385 feet (120
meters). Though not quite as tall as the California redwood, with the height of 320
feet ( 100 meters), the giant sequoia is nonetheless the largest and the most massive of
living things ; giant sequoias have been measured at more than 100 feet (30 meters)
around the base, with weights of more than 6,000 tons.
3. It is implied in the passage that
(A) the leaves of only California redwood turn brown in the autum
(B) the leaves of only the giant sequoia turn brown in the winter
(C) the leaves of both types of trees in the passage turn brown in the winter
(D) the leaves of neither types of tree in the passage turn brown in the winter
4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Siera Nevadas are
(A) a type of giant redwood
(B) a coastal community
(C) a group of lakes
(D) a mountain range
5. Which of the following is implied in the passage?
(A) The giant sequoia is taller than the California redwood.
(B) The California redwood is not as big around as the giant sequoia.
(C) The California redwood weighs more than the giant sequoia.
(D) Other living things are larger than the giant sequoia.
TRANSITION QUESTION CORRECTLY
You will sometimes be asked to determine what a probably came before the reading
passage (in the preceding paragraph) or what probably comes after the reading
passage (in the following paragraph). Of course, the topic of the preceding or
following paragraph is not directly stated, and you must draw a conclusion to
determine what a probably in these paragraph.
This type of question. It asks you to demonstrate that you understand that good
writing contains transition from one paragraph to the next. A paragraph may start out
with the idea of the previous paragraph as a way of linking the ideas in the two
paragraphs. A paragraph may also end with an idea that will be further developed in
the following paragraph.
Example
The passage:
Another myth of the oceans concerns Davy Jones, who in folklore is the mean-spirited
sovereign of the oceans depths. The name Jones is thought by some etymologists to
have been derived from the name Jonah the Hebrew prophet who spent three days
in a whales belly.
According to tradition, any object that goes overboard and sinks to the bottom of the
ocean is said to have gone to Davy Joness locker, the ocean sized, mythical
receptacle for anything that falls into the water, needless to say, any sailor on the seas
is not so eager to take a tour of Davy Joness locker, although it might be a rather
interesting trip considering all the treasures located there.
The questions:
1. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses
1. The youth of Davy Jones
2. Davy Jones career as a sailor
3. A different traditional story from the sea
4. Preparing to travel on the ocean
1. The topic of the paragraph following the passage most likely is
1. valuable items located of the bottom of the ocean.
2. Where Davy Jones is found today
3. Jonah and the whale
4. Preventing objects from failing overboard
6. VOCABULARY QUESTIONS
Dalam tes reading akan ada sejumlah soal tentang vocabulary. Jawaban atas soal ini
seringkali sudah ada dalam teks itu sendiri. Berikut ini beberapa macam jenis soal
vocab.
FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES
(Menemukan definisi dari kata kunci yang ada dalam teks

Ketika anda diminta untuk menemukan kata dalam tes reading kemungkinannya:
1. Teks memberikan informasi tentang kata itu
2. Ada tanda-tanda trtentu yang mengarahkan kita pada kata tersebut
Example
The passage ;
One of the leading schools of psychological thought in the
twentieth century is behaviorism the belief that the role of the
psychologist is to study behavior, which is observable, rather than conscious and
unconscious thought, which is not. Probably the best known proponent of
behaviorism is B.E Skinner, who is famous for his research on how rewards and
punishment influence behavior. He came to believe that positive reinforcements such
as praise, food, or money were more effective in promoting good behavior than
negative reinforcement or punishment.
The questions
1. In behaviorism In line 2, a psychologist is concerned with
(A) unconscious thought patterns
(B) observable actions
(C) unobservable actions
(D) unobservable actions
2. What is positive reinforcement in line 7
A) a gift
B) A reward
C) A bribe
D) A penalty
3. What is negative reinforcement in line 9?
(A) A promotion
(B) A reward
(C) A surprise
D) A punishment
To answer the first question, you should look at the part of the passage following
word behaviorism. The dash punctuation (-) gives extra or further information about
behaviorism. In the information following the dash you should see that the behaviorist
in behavior which is observable, so the best answer to this question is answer (C).
To answer the second question, you should look at the part of the passage following
the expression positive reinforcements. The expression such as indicate that examples
of positive reinforcement are going to follow. Your job is to look at the examples of
positive reinforcement and draw a conclusion about what positive reinforcement
might be. Since price, food, or money might be given in return for a job well done,
then positive reinforcement must be a reward. The best answer to this question is
therefore answer
(B).To answer the third question, you should look at the part of the passage following
the expression negative reinforcement. The word or following negative reinforcement
tells you that the idea is going to be restated in different words. You can see in the
passage that another word for negative reinforcement is punishment, so answer (D) is
the best answer to this questions
DETERMINE MEANINGS FROM WORD PARTS
When you are asked to determine the meaning of long words but you do not know
THE MEANING in the reading comprehension section of the TOEFL test, it is
sometimes possible to determine the meaning of the word by studying the word part.
Example
The Passage
Ring lardner himself was born into a wealthy, educated, and cultured family. For the
book of his carrier, he worked as a reporter for newspapers in South Bend, Boston,
Santa Louis, and Chicago. However, it is for his short stories of lower middle clash
Americans that ring lardner is perhaps best known. In these stories, Lardner vividly
creates the language and the ambiance of this lower class, often using the misspelled
words, grammatical errors and incorrect diction that typified the language of the lower
middle class.
The questions
1. The word vividly in line 6 is closest in meaning to
A) in a cultured way
(B) in a correct way
(C) in a lifelike way
(D) in a brief way
2. The word misspelled in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) highly improper
(B) vulgar
(C) incorrectly written
(D) slang
1. The word diction in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) Writing
(B) Sentence structure
(C) Form
(D) Speech
In the first question, the word vividly contains the word part viv, which means life, so
the best answer is answer (C).
In the second question, the word misspelled contains the word part mis, which means
error or incorrect, so the best answer is answer (C).
In the third question, the word diction contains the word part dic, which means speak,
so that answer is answer (D).
USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS
On the TOEFL test you will sometimes be asked to determine the meanings of a
difficult word, a word that you are expected to know. In this case, the passage will
give you a clear indication of what the word means.
Example
Line in the passage :
The barges headed across the lake
The question :
A barge is probably, which of the following?
A) A trai
(B) A plane
C) A bicycle
(D) A boat
USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF SIMPLE WORDS
You will sometimes be asked to determine the meaning of a simple word, a word that
you see often in everyday English. In this type of question, you should not give the
normal everyday meaning of the word, instead, the TOEFL test wants you to know the
meaning of the word in this situation.
Example
A line from the passage :
He put his answer this way
The question :
The word put is closest meaning to which of the following?
A) Placed
(B) Set
(C) Expressed
D) handed
She always helps many people. She, however, is bad with her mother.
Cardamon is not as widely used as a spice in the United States as it is in other parts of
the world. This fruit of the ginger plant provides an oil that basically has been used
solely as a stimulant in American and English medicines. Other cultures have
recognized the multipurpose benefits of this aromatic fruit. In Asia it is used to season
sauces such as curry; in Middle Eastern countries it is seeped to prepare a flavorful
golden colored tea; in parts of northern Europe it is used as spice in various types of
pastry.
1. The word solely in line 2 could best be replaced by
A) initially
B) only
C) reportedly
D) healthfully
2. The word multipurpose in line 3 is closest in meaning to the word season in
line 4?
(A) Health
(B) Singular
(C) Recognized
(D) varied
3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word season in line 4?
(A) Divide
(B) Forecast
(C) Spice
(D) Put a time limit
4. Curry in line 4 is
(A) the fruit of ginger plant
(B) A spicy type of sauce
(C) A culture in the area of the Middle East
(D) A type of golden-colored tea
5. The word seeped in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) Steamed
(B) Dried
(C) Stored
(D) grown
The life-span of an elephant that dies from natural causes is about sixty-five years. Of
course, an elephant can perish from a number of unnatural causes; e.g it can be
killed by hunters, most probably for the valuable ivory in its tusks; it can die from
deases that spread throughout an elephant herd; or it can die from drought or from the
lack of food that almost certainly accompanies the inadequate supply of water.
If, however, an elephant survives disasters, it falls prey to old age in its mid-sixties.
Around this age, the cause of death is attributed to the loss of the final set of molars.
When this last set of teeth is gone, the elephant dies from malnutrition because it is
unable to obtain unadequate nourishment. In old age, elephant tend to search out a
final home where there is shade for comfort from the sun and soft vegetation for
cushioning; the bones of many old elephants have been found in such places.
1. The word perish in line 2 means
2. (A) fall ill
3. (B) shoot
4. (C) die
5. (D) get rich
1. The word unnatural in line 2 is closest meaning to
2. (A) wild
3. (B) violent
4. (C) domesticated
5. (D) abnormal
1. The word drought in line 4 means
2.
3. (A) a drowning
4. (B) a lack of food
5. (C) an inadequate supply of water
6. (D) an overabundance of animals
1. Which of the following could be used to replace the word survives in line 6?
2.
3 (A) Rises to
4 (B) Succumbs to
5 (C) Denies
6 (D) Lives through
1. Molars in line 7 are
2. (A) germs
3. (B) old-age characteristics
4. (C) types of food
5. (D) teeth
1. In line 8, malnutrition is used to describe someone who
2. (A) is in good health
3. (B) has an illness
4. (C) suffers from poor eating
5. (D) experiences dental problems
1. The expression a final home in line 9 is closest in meaning to
2. (A) a place to die
3. (B) a comfortable house
4. (C) a place for sale
5. (D) the only remaining place to live
1. The word shade in line 9 is closest in meaning to
2. (A) color
3. (B) heat
4. (C) diminished light
5. (D) a front porch
6. GRAMMAR/STRUCTURE
NORMAL SENTENCE PATERN
IN ENGLISH
Subject Verb Complement Modifier
(predicate) (object) (adverb)
John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied present perfect last week.
Learn the following sentences and their sentence patterns!
They smile.
They smile.
Subject Verb / predicate
We sleep.
We sleep.
Subject Verb / predicate
My father drinks coffee.
My father drinks coffee.
Subject Verb / predicate Complement
/ object
The lady writes a letter.
The lady Writes A letter.
Subject Verb/ predicate Complement / object
The man lives in a village.
The man lives in a village.
subject Verb/ predicate Modifier/ adeverb
The man makes handicrafts in a village.
The man makes Handicrafts in a village.
Subject Verb / predicate Complement / object Modifier
/ adverb
She can dance.
She can dance.
Subject verb phrase
Mr. Joko has gone.
Mr.Joko Has gone.
Subject Verb phrase
He is shopping.
He is shopping.
Subject verb phrase
Linking verb : am, is, are
Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.
Verb modifier complement
Correct : She drove the car on the street.
Verb complement modifier
Urutannya subject + Verb + complement + modifier, tidak bisa dibalik antara
complement dengan modifier
. Identify the subject, verb, and modifier
1. George is cooking dinner.
2. Henry and Marcia have visited the president.
3. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.
4. Pat should have visited the president.
5. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.
6. Trees grow
7. It was raining at seven oclock this morning.
8. Jill is buying a new hat in the store.
9. Harry is washing dishes right now.
10. She opened her book.
B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives
My car is new.
He has a house.
His house is old
And so on.
I have a car.
Aku dalam bahasa Inggris ketika sebagai subjek = I, ketika sebagai objek = me..
Selanjutnya ketika aku berfungsi menyatakan kepunyaan berubah menjadi my,
kemudian you menjadi your, dst.
Rumusnya
Subject pronouns Possessive adjectives
I my
You your
They their
We our
He his
She her
It Its
C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns
My hat is red and your hat is blue.
My hat is red and yours is blue.
Your hat is blue and mine is red.
Ketika kita mau mengatakan topiku bahasa Inggrisnya = my hat. Lantas apa bahasa
inggrisnya milikku? Yaitu mine.. milik mereka = theirs, mikik kami ours,
dst.Rumusnya
Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns
My mine
Your yours
Their Theirs
Our Ours
His His
Her Hers
Its Its
D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns
He cooked for me yesterday.
He cooked for himself last night.
Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.
Joan bought herself a new hat.
Rumus ini digunakan ketika sebuah subjek melakukan perbuatan yang terarah pada
dirinya sendiri. Misalnya, Aku membeli makanan untuk diriku, maka bahsa
inggrisnya I buy food for myself. Dia menyakiti dirinya = He hurts himself. Jadi ada
penambahan self/selves pada pronounya.
Rumusnya
Object/complement pronouns Reflexive pronouns
Me myself
You yourself
yourselves
Them themselves
Us ourselves
Him Himself
Her Herself
It Itself
Do the following exercises!
1. I go to school with (he/him) yesterday.
2. I see (she/her/herself) at the union everyday.
3. She speaks to (we/us/ourselves) every morning.
4. (He/Him) is going to New York on vacation.
5. (She/her) and John gave the money to the boy.
6. I hurt (my/mine/the) leg.
7. John bought (he/him/ hisself /himself) a new hat.
8. (Your/yours) record is scratched and (my/mine) is too.
9. (We/us) girls are going camping over the weekend.
10. We like (our/ours) new car very much.
11. Marry and (I/me) would rather go to the movies.
12. Monday is a holiday for (we/us) teahers.
VERBS AS COMPLEMENTS
Verbs as Complements, artinya kata-kata kerja sebagai pelengkap. Maksudnya sering
kali kata kerja itu berfungsi sebagai pelengkap, yaitu pelengkap dari kata-kata kerja
lain. Contoh :
1. He agrees to meet.
2. He enjoys sitting there.
3. Kata meet adalah sebagai pelengkap kata agrees, tapi coba perhatikan meet ditulis
dengan to meet. Bukan meet saja atau ditambah ing meeting.
4. Sedangkan kata enjoys diikuti verb ing sitting, bukan sit saja, atau to sit.
5. Jadi materi ini mengajarkan bahwa ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti to verb, dan
ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti verb-ing.
6. Dalam tes TOEFL materi ini sangat sering diujikan.
A. Verbs yang diikuti infinitives (to verb)
Agree : setuju
Desire : ingin
Intend : ingin
Prepare : menyiapkan
Tend : cenderung
Attempt : berusaha
Fail : gagal
Learn : belajar
Pretend : berpura-pura
Try : mencoba
Claim : mengklaim
Forget : melupakan
Need : membutuhkan
Refuse : menolak
Want : menginginkan
Decide : memutuskan
Hesitate : ragu-ragu
Offer : menawarkan
Seem : kelihatan
Wish : berharap
Demand : menuntut
Hope : berharap
Plan : berencana
Agree : setuju
Contoh
Marry learned to swim when she was very young.
The soldiers are preparing to attack the village.
The budget committee decided to postpone this meeting.
B. Verbs diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)
Admit : mengakui
Appreciate : menghargai
Delay : menunda
Miss : ketinggalan / rindu
Regret : menyesal
Risk : mengambil resiko/beresiko
Deny : menyangkal
Postpone : menunda
Report : melaporkan
Suggest : menyarankan
Avoid : menolak
Enjoy : menikmati
Practice : berlatih
Resent : marah, benci, merasa tersinggung
Cant help : tidak betah
Finish : menyelesaikan
Quit : berhenti
Resist : menahan, menolak
Consider : mempertimbangkan
Mind : keberatan
Recall : mengingat
Resume : melanjutkan, mulai lagi
Object to : keberatan
Look forward to : mengharap-harap
Confess to : mengakui
Approve of : setuju dengan
Give up : menyerah
Worry about : merasa cemas dengan
Be better off : lebih baik
Insist on : bersikeras
Succeed in : berhasil
Count on : mengharapkan
Keep on : terus , tetap
Think about : depend on
Put off : menunda
Think of : berpikir terhadap
Contoh :
John admitted stealing the money.
We enjoyed seeing them again.
Michael was considering buying a new car.
John gave up smoking
Marry insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane.
Fred confessed to stealing the jewels.
We are not looking forward to going back to school.
C. Verbs yang dapat diikuiti oleh gerund = verb-ing atau infinitives = to verb
tanpa perubahan makna.
Begin : mulai
Like : suka
Cant stand : tidak betah
Love : cinta
Continue : melanjutkan
Prefer : lebih suka
Dread : takut kepada
Start : mulai
Hate : benci
Contoh :
He started to study TOEFL. OR He started studying TOEFL.
Joan hates to ride her bicycle. OR Joan hates riding her bicycle to school.
He dreads meeting the headmaster. OR He dreads to meet the headmaster.
D. Be berapa verbs yang dapat diikuti baik oleh infinitive = to verb atau gerund =
verb-ing, tapi maknanya berubah.
stop
remember
forget
For examples
John stopped studying. (John sedang belajar kemudian berhenti, dan tidak
melanjutkan lagi)
John stopped to study. (John sedang melakukan suatu pekerjaan, kemudian berhenti
unuk belajar)
I remember meeting him in a seminar last year. (Aku ingat peristiwa ketika bertemu
dia di sebuah seminar tahun lalu.)
I remember to meet him today. (Aku ingat bahwa aku harus / berencana untuk
menemui dia hari ini.)
Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat yang diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)
Accustomed to : terbiasa dengan
Intent on : bermaksud sungguh-sungguh untuk
Afraid of : takut pada
Interested in : tertarik pada
Capable of : mampu untuk
Successful in : sukses dalam
Fond of : senang pada
Tired of : lelah dengan
For examples
Mitch is afraid of getting married now.
I am accustomed to smoking
We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends.
Alvaro is intent on finishing school next year.
Crag is fond of dancing.
Tambahan* Daftar kata benda yang diikuti oleh the gerund (verb ing)
Choice of : pilihan terhadap/atas
Possibility of : kemungkinan terhadap
Excuse for : alasan untuk
Intention of : keinginan untuk
Reason for : alasan untuk
Method for / method of : metode.
Contoh :
George has excuse for dropping out of school.
There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.
There is no reason for leaving this early.
Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem.
Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat diikuti oleh infinitive (to verb)
Anxious : khawatir
Eager : ingin tahu
Pleased : senang
Usual : biasa
Boring : membosankan
Easy : mudah
Prepared : siap
Common : umum
Dangerous : berbahaya
Good : bagus
Ready : siap
Difficult : sulit
Hard : keras
Strange : aneh
Able : dapat
For Examples
Muhammad is anxious to see his family.
It is dangerous to drive in this weather.
We are ready to leave now.
It is difficult to pass this test.
Do the following exercise
1. The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper.
2. They appreciate (to have/ having) this information.
3. We found it very difficult (reaching / to reach) a decision)
4. Dona is interested in (opening/to open a bar).
5. Marry regrets (to be/ being) the one to have to tell him.
6. George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday.
7. He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on.
8. Henry shouldnt risk (to drive/driving) so fast.
9. There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition.
10. She is looking forward to (return/returning) to their country.
THE VERB NEED
The boy needs cutting his hair or The boy needs to cut his hair?
Kata kerja need diikuti infinitive / to verb hanya jika subjeknya benda hidup. Tapi jika
subjeknya benda mati maka kata kerja need diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) atau diikuti
oleh to be + past participle (Verb 3)
A. Subjek benda hidup + infinitive
John and his brother need to paint the house.
My friend needs to learn Spanish
He will need to drive
B. Subjek benda mati + verb ing (to be+ past participle)
The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be painted.
The television needs repairing. OR The television needs to be repaired.
The composition needs rewriting. OR The composition needs to be written.
Perhatikan, kita menggunakan in need of dengan aturan berikut.
subject + be + in need of + noun
For examples
Jill is in need of money. (Jill needs money)
The roof is in need of repairing. (The roof needs to be repaired.)
The organization is in need of volunteers. (The organization needs volunteers.)
Exercise
1. Its too hot and my hair needs (cut).
2. The computer needs (repair).
3. James needs .. (see) a doctor.
4. Marry will need (make) a new dress for the party.
5. His car needs (tune).
6. You will need to be here at night.
7. The house needs (paint) soon.
QUESTIONS
Dalam pertanyaan selalu digunakan kata kerja Bantu atau to be sebelum subjek.
Contoh :
Are you sad?
Is he tall?
Why are they angry?
What do you eat?
What will we get?
Etc
Selalu beriringan to be / kata kerja Bantu + subject
Penting*Embedded Questions : Adalah sebuah pertanyaan yang terdapat dalam
sebuah kalimat lain ; kalimat positive, negative, atau interrogative. Pelajari
susunannya.
Rumusnya :
Subject + verb (phrase) + question word + verb
Pelajari contoh-contoh berikut !
Question : Where will the meeting take place?
Embedded question : We havent ascertained where the meeting will take place.
Q.word Subject verb phrase
Question : Why did the plane land at the wrong airport?
Embedded Questions : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at the
Q.word subject verb
wrong airport.
Embedded Questions :
Do you know where he went?
Could you tell me what time it is?
The professor didnt know how many students would be in her afternoon class.
I have no idea how long the interview will take.
Tambahan (perkecualian)* Apabila kalimat Tanya nya seperti berikut (question word
berfungsi sebagai subject) maka dalam embedded question kalimat Tanya tersebut
tidak mengalami perubahan.
Question : Who will paint that picture?
Embedded question : They cant deide who will paint the picture.
Question : Whose car is parked in the lot?
Embedded Questions : The police cant determine whose car is parked in the lot.
Question tag* Dalam bahasa Indonesia kita sering mengatakan kamu lapar kan?
..Dia tinggal di Jogja kan?.. dst. Berikut caranya, pelajari baik-baik!
You are sick, arent you?
He likes tea, doesnt he?
You helped him, didnt you?
You were at home, werent you?
He can swim, cant he?
Berikut ini beberapa contoh tipe soal dalam tes TOEFL, pelajari baik-baik!
Tipe soal 1
Penggunaan to be
Find the incorrect word/words!
Buying clothes are often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes
ABC
that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah A. To be are yang ditulis disana salah, seharusnya to be
nya adalah is.
Nah dari sini seharusnya kita kita kritis bertanya, mengapa yang benar is bukan are?
Kapan digunakan is, kapan digunakan are?
Pertama, to be is digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah he, she, atau it atau orang
ketiga tunggal (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu
tunggal). Contoh The boy is handsome. The cat is funny.
Kedua, to be are digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah you, they, we atau orang
ketiga jamak (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu
jamak)
Contoh : The boys are handsome. The cats are funny.
Adapun untuk soal di atas to be yang benar adalah is karena subjeknya adalah buying
clothes (membeli pakaian). Buying clothes disini dianggap tunggal karena sama
maknanya dengan kata it (sesuatu yang kita bicarakan, dan itu tunggal).
Perhatikan kalimat berikut!
Membeli banyak pakaian tidak baik. (Buying clothes is not good.)
Coba kita perhatikan frase membeli banyak pakaian itu termasuk subjek tunggal.
Jangan terkecoh pada kata banyak pakaian (clothes)! Frase buying clothes tetap itu
dianggap tunggal karena frase itu merupakan sebuah topic/ issue tunggal.
Tipe soal 2
Penggunaan many atau much, a few atau a little
Find the incorrect word/words!
Because they had spent too many time considering the new contract, the students
ABC
lost their opportunity to lease the appartment.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah B.
Karena too many time.. adalah salah. Seharusnya too much time.
Mengapa yang benar pakai much bukan many? Bagaimana aturannya?
Rules
Diikuti kata benda terhitung
/countable nouns Diikuti kata benda tak terhitung /uncountable nouns
a, the, some, any
some chairs the, some, any
some water
this, that, these, those this, that
none, one, two, three None
Many
a lot of
a large number of
a great number of
(a) few
(b) fewer than
(c) more than much (usually in negatives or questions)
a lot of
a large amount of
(a) little
(b) less than
(c) more than
Tipe soal 3
Penggunaan pronoun kata ganti; my/me, they/them, himself/hisself?
Find the incorrect word/words!
These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time, but perhaps we
ABCD
will return later.
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah C.
..all too expensive for we to buy. Kata for we disini salah, yang
benar seharusnya for us.
Mengapa?
Karena kata kita disini berposisi sebagai object of preposition/complement of
preposition(objek preposisi)
Contoh mudahnya sebagai berikut, mana yang benar?
I buy an apple for. (he/him).tentu yang benar adalah him
He builds a house for (they/them.)
Berikut teori lengkapnya:
A. Subject pronouns Vs Object/complement pronouns
I like him.
He likes me.
They like us.
We like them.
I write a letter for her.
And so on..
Subject pronouns Object pronouns
(Complement pronouns)
I Me
You You
They Them
We Us
He Him
She Her
It It
B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives
I have a car.
My car is new.
He has a house.
His house is old
And so on.
Subject pronouns Possessive adjectives
I My
You Your
They Their
We Our
He His
She Her
It Its
C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns
My hat is red and your hat is blue.
My hat is red and yours is blue.
Your hat is blue and mine is red.
Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns
my Mine
your Yours
their Theirs
our Ours
his His
her Hers
its Its
D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns
He cooked for me yesterday.
He cooked for himself last night.
Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.
Joan bought herself a new hat.
Object/complement pronouns Reflexive pronouns
me Myself
you yourself
yourselves
them themselves
us ourselves
him Himself
her Herself
it Itself
Tipe Soal 4
Embedded question
Find the incorrect word/words!
The next important question we have to decide is when do we have to submit the
ABCD
proposal.
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah pilihan C.
Seharusnya kalimat itu adalah The next important question we have to decide is
when we have to submit the proposal.
Jadi tidak pakai do.
Untuk lebih memahaminya perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut;
When do you go?
Then question is when you go.
Penggunaan do dihilangkan manakala kalimat tersebut berfungsi sebagai
objek/complement dari sebuah kalimat (noun clause)
Contoh lain :
Where do you live?
I know where you live.
Where is your house?
He told me where your house is.
Tipe soal 5
Penggunaan either dan neither
Find the incorrect word/words!
George has not completed the assignment yet, and Maria hasnt neither.
ABCD
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah pada pilihan D.
Seharusnya yang benar adalah Maria hasnt either, atau Maria has neither.
Kata either artinya juga.
Sama, kata neither artinya juga.
Kedua-duanya digunakan untuk kalimat bermakna negatif.
Anda mau mengatakan :
Dia tidak makan, dan aku juga.
Anda dapat mengatakan :
He does not eat, and neither do I.
Atau
He does not eat, and I dont either.
Jadi rumusnya :
Neither + auxiliary verb + subject
Subject + auxiliary verb + not + either
Tipe soal 6
Susunan modifier dan complement yang dibalik
John decided to buy in the morning a new car, but in the afternoon
ABC
he changed his mind.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah B.
Seharusnya kalimat diatas John decided to buy a new car in the morning, but
..
Jadi masalah di atas terkait dengan posisi complement(objek) dengan modifier
(keterangan) yang di awali preposis yang terbalik. Seharusnya complement dulu, baru
modifier yang diawali preposisi.
Pelajari teori berikut.
Normal Sentence Pattern in English
Subject Verb Complement Modifier
John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied present perfect last week.
They smile.
They smile.
Subject verb
We sleep.
We sleep.
Subject verb
My father drinks coffee.
My father drinks coffee.
Subject verb complement
The lady writes a letter.
The lady writes a letter.
Subject verb complement
The man lives in a village.
The man lives in a village.
Subject verb modifier
The man makes handicrafts in a village.
The man makes handicrafts in a village.
Subject verb complement modifier
She can dance.
She can dance.
Subject verb phrase
Mr. Joko has gone.
Mr.Joko Has gone.
Subject Verb phrase
He is shopping.
He is shopping.
Subject verb phrase
Linking verb : am, is, are
Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.
Verb complement
Correct : She drove the car on the street.
Verb complement
Tipe soal 7
Penggunaan kata other
Some of the plants in this store require very little care, but this one needs
AB
much more sunlight than the others ones.
CD
Tipe soal 8
Penggunaan tenses dalam adverbial clause yang menggunakan kata after dan before
After George had returned to his house, he was reading a book.
ABCD
After + s + had + v3s + v2
After I had taken a bath, I prayed.
After I had taken a bath, I was sleepy.
Before I ate , I had taken a bath.
Tipe A Tipe B
Predikat Kata kerja Predikat selain kata kerja
We sleep.
He drinks tea.
I go home.
I do not stand.
We do not walk.
She does not sing.
We do not have money.
Do you smoke?
Do I sleep?
Does she sing?
Do you eat rice?
What do you eat?
Does she drink milk?
What does she drink?
Who do you go with?
What do you work for?
Last night I met a ghost.
Yesterday they walked.
Yesterday I did not eat.
Yesterday he did not smile.
Did you go to the beach yesterday?
What did you write last night?
Tomorrow I will meet the director.
Tomorrow I will go to Bali.
Will you fly?
Will you sleep?
Will she cry?
What will you eat?
Who will you go with?
I have eaten.
She has gone.
They have left jogja.
Has she gone?
Have they left jogja?
Have I eaten?
What have I eaten?
I am sitting.
He is reading.
They are talking.
Are they studying?
What are they studying?
They are not playing.
I have eaten now.
At that time I had eaten.
At that time she had gone.
At that time she had not gone.
Now we are studying English.
At that time we were studying.
At that time I would call you. She is beautiful.
They are rich.
My mother is pretty.
I am not hungry.
She is not famous.
She is not angry.
We are not at home.
Are you crazy?
Am I beautiful?
Why are you sad?
Why am I tired?
Why are they sad?
Last night I was afraid.
Yesterday they were angry.
Yesterday I was not healthy.
Yesterday they were not sick.
Were you happy last night?
Was crazy last night?
Why were you sad last night?
Next year I will be happy.
Will she be happy?
Will she be mine?
Why will you be here?
They have been here.
He has been satisfied.
Why has he been satisfied?
Why have you been disappointed?
Tipe soal 9
Subject-verb agreement
Many theories on conserving the purity of water has been proposed,
AB
but no one has been as widely accepted as this one.
CD
The girls .are/isin bad condition.
The boy playing toys..naughty.
They boys are
I eat.
You eat.
They eat.
He eats.
She eats.
The lady eats.
The ladies eat.
The lady ..has/have.. a car.
The ladies ..has/have.. a car.
Tipe soal 10
Beberapa kata yang tidak pernah digunakan dalam bentuk continuous
The food that Mark is cooking in the kitchen is smelling delicious.
ABCD
Know
Understand
Have
Believe
Hate
Need
Hear
Love
Appear
See
Like
Seem
Smell
Want
Taste
Wish
Sound
Own
Tipe soal 11
Pemahaman tenses dasar
After John eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed.
ABCD
Tipe soal 12
Keterangan waktu pada tenses dasar
The manager has finished working on the report last night, and now she will
ABC
begin to write the other proposal.
D
I have eaten now.
I have eaten two hours ago.
S + v2
S + have/has + v3
I have eaten now.
I ate two hours ago.
I have bought a dictionary today.
I have bought a dictionary this morning.
Tipe soal 13
Masalah pronoun
Because Sam and Michelie had done all of the work theirselves., they were
ABC
unwilling to give the results to Joan.
D
Tipe soal 14
Masalah conditional sentence
Daniel said that if he had to do another homework tonight, he would not be able
AB
to attend the concert.
D
TIPE 1
If I meet Mr. Yanto, I will address him.
If I get money , I will treat you.
If it rains, I will wear a raincoat.
TIPE 1
If I am hungry, I will buy some food.
If you are sick, I will take care of you.
If he comes, I will be happy.
Tipe 2
If I brought money, I would treat you.
If he met me, I would be happy.
If they helped me, I would thank them.
TIPE 2
If I were healthy, I would work.
If I were rich , I would build a villa
Tipe 3
If I had brought money , I would have given you some food.
If I had passed, I would have studied abroad.
If they had come, they would have helped us.
If I had been healthy, I would have helped you.
If I had been rich, I would have built a villa.
Tipe soal 15
Prepositions + gerunds (Verb-ing)
After to take the medication the patient became drowsy and more manageable.
ABCD
Tipe soal 16
Verbs + prepositions followed by gerund
We insist on you leaving the meeting before any further outburst take place.
ABCD
Approve of
Give up
Rely on
Worry about
Be better off
Insist on
Succeed in
Count on
Keep on
Think about
Depend on
Put off
Think of
Tipe soal 17
Question tag
It has been a long time since we have talked to John , isnt it?
ABCD
You are sick, arent/isnt you?
You will go, wont you?
He sleeps, doesnt he?
Tipe soal 18
Verbs + prepositions followed the word to as preposition
(object to, look forward to, confess to)
Henry objects to our buying this house without the approval of our attorney, and
ABC
John does so.
D
I want to go.
He comes to sleep.
Tipe soal 19
Verbs that are followed by gerund / verb ing
Rita enjoyed to be able to meet several Congress members during her vocation.
ABCD
Admit
Delay
Miss
Regret
Risk
Appreciate
Deny
Postpone
Report
Suggest
Avoid
Enjoy
Practice
Resent
Cant help
Finish
Quit
Resist
Consider
Mind
Recall
Resume
Tipe soal 20
Verbs that are always followed by infinitive (to + verb)
After being indicted for his part in a bank robbery , the reputed mobster decided find
ABCD
another attorney.
Agree
Desire
Intend
Prepare
Tend
Attempt
Fail
Learn
Pretend
Try
Claim
Forget
Need
Refuse
Want
Decide
Hesitate
Offer
Seem
Wish
Demand
Hope
Plan
Strive
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
KUNCI UMUM
Kunci 1 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk perintah (direction) pada masing-masing bagian
(part) dengan baik sebelum hari- H ujian.
Kunci 2 : Baca pilihan-pilihan jawaban pada masing-masing soal sebanyak mungkin
ketika narrator sedang membacakan directions dan contoh soal (example)
Kunci 3 : Dengarkan dengan penuh konsentrasi dan fokuskan perhatian Anda pada
percakapan yang sedang Anda dengarkan.
Kunci 4 : Maksimalkan kemampuan listening Anda pada soal-soal pertama pada
masing-masing part.
Kunci 5 : Fokuskan pendengaran Anda pada pembicara kedua.
Kunci 6 : Jangan panik bila tidak bisa memahami kata demi kata dalam percakapan
secara komplit. Anda hanya perlu menangkap ide atau isi percakapan.
Kunci 7 : Bila Anda sama sekali tidak bisa memahami apa yang diucapkan pembicara
kedua, pilihlah jawaban yang paling berbeda dari apa yang telah Anda dengar.
Kunci 8 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk functional expression (agreement, uncertainty,
suggestion, surprise), idiomatic expression, dan situasi ketika pembicaraan dilakukan.
LONGER CONVERSATION
Kunci 9 : Ketika narrator membacakan direction part B anda sebaiknya membaca
pilihan jawaban secara sekilas kemudian mrekamnya dan memperkirakan tema apa
yang akan menjadi perbincangan.
Kunci 10 : ketika menyimak conversation, anda harus mengetahui apa tema/topic
yang dibicarakan
Kunci 11 : waspadalah terhadap masing-masing pertanyaan.
Kunci 12 : Cermati kondisi dan situasi yang terjadi selama percakapan berlangsung,
yakni menyangkut tempat dan waktu pembicaraan, apa dan siapa yang dibicarakan.
Kunci 13 : Bila anda memiliki waktu, lihatlah pilihan-pilihan jawban yang tertera
pada lembar soal dan temukan kata kuncinya.
Kunci 14 : Waspadailah pembicaraan pada kalimat-kalimat pertama karena biasanya
akan menjadi topic bagi kalimat-kalimat selanjutnya.
Kunci 15 : Fokuskan pendengaran anda pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan
pertanyaan 5-wh (what, who, when, where, why) dan how.
Kunci 16 : buatlah kesiompulan\inferasi atas situasi yang terjadi saat pembicaraan
dilakukan.
PENTING!!!
(PELAJARI EXPRESI-EXPRESI BERIKUT)
Turned out well : sangat baik
Watch your step : hati-hati
Take it easy : santai aja
Thats it : ya itu / beres
Youve got to be kidding : menyatakan keterkejutan
Make ones own mind : berpikir sendiri
Stand on ones own foot : mandiri
Thanks for the attention and forgive me any of my lacks! Good Luck!
MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION
Oleh : Gun gun Maulana,S.Pd