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KONSEP DASAR

KEPENDUDUKAN

Rendra Suprobo Aji ST. MT.


OUTLINE
Pengertian DEMOGRAFI dan
KEPENDUDUKAN
Konteks KEPENDUDUKAN
dalam PWK
PENGERTIAN
DEMOGRAFI
 Demografi adalah studi ilmiah terhadap penduduk,
terutama mengenai jumlah, struktur dan
perkembangannya (United Nation; 1958).
 Demografi adalah studi matematik dan statistik
terhadap jumlah, komposisi, dan distribusi spasial
penduduk, dan perubahan-perubahan dari aspek
tersebut yang senantiasa terjadi sebagai akibat
bekerjanya lima proses, yaitu; fertilitas, mortalitas,
perkawinan, migrasi dan mobilitas sosial (Bogue;
1969).
 Demografi merupakan studi hubungan antar variabel
demografi sendiri.
KEPENDUDUKAN
 Kependudukan mempersoalkan hubungan antara variabel
demografi dengan variabel dari sistem lain (Hauser; 1969).
 Studi kependudukan  makro demografi. Penelitian
makro demografi  unit skala besar, agregasi orang
dengan seluruh sistem dan keseluruhan budaya manusia
(Rusli; 1982).
 Ruang lingkup MAKRO DEMOGRAFI benua, bangsa, dan
kesatuan-kesatuan wilayah yang luas seperti propinsi dan
kota-kota besar.
 Ruang lingkup MIKRO DEMOGRAFI  penelitian unit skala
kecil yang umumnya bersifat internal; memusatkan diri
pada individu, kesatuan-kesatuan keluarga, kelompok-
kelompok kecil dari lingkungan ketetanggaan.
HUBUNGAN ANTARA VARIABEL DEMOGRAFI -
VARIABEL NON DEMOGRAFI
KAJIAN DEMOGRAFI
I. ASPEK DEMOGRAFI:
1. KARAKTERITIK
PENDUDUK:
• JUMLAH
• PERSEBARAN
• KOMPOSISI

2. PROSES DEMOGRAFI:
• KELAHIRAN
• KEMATIAN
• MIGRASI
KAJIAN
II. ASPEK NON DEMOGRAFI: KEPENDUDUKAN
•SOSIOLOGI
•ANTROPOLOGI
•EKONOMI
•GEOGRAFI
•BIOLOGI
Sumber: Yauky, 1990 dalam Mantra, 2000
KOMPONEN KEPENDUDUKAN
DEMOGRAFI NON DEMOGRAFI
JUMLAH PENDUDUK FASILITAS DAN UTILITAS
FERTILITAS DAN KEBUTUHAN LAHAN
MORTALITAS LAPANGAN KERJA
UMUR DAN KELAMIN KEBUTUHAN RUMAH
MOBILITAS PENDUDUK
MATRIKS KEPENDUDUKAN
NON DEMOGRAFI FASILITAS & LAHAN LAPANGAN
DEMOGRAFI UTILITAS KERJA

FERTILITAS &
MORTALITAS

UMUR & JENIS


KELAMIN

MOBILITAS

JUMLAH
PENDUDUK
KONTEKS KEPENDUDUKAN DALAM PWK
KENAPA YA..
KEPENDUDUKAN
PENTING??? Hmmm…
Planning and Demography
 Demography is the scientific study of human population.
Demographers are very interested in:
1) Population size,
2) Population composition,
3) Population distribution,
4) Causes of changes in these factors over time,
5) Consequences of these changes over time.
 Demographers study in detail these changes over time,
investigating issues such as changes in fertility rates, mortality
rates, and migration.
 Planners are also very interested in these very same issues, but
from a perspective of:
--how do population changes influence the demand for and
provision of infrastructure and public services
--how will population changes impact the environment
--how do population changes influence changes in land use
Population Size
 Population size: The number of people in a given geography at a
given time.
U.S., Florida, and Leon County Population 1960-2000
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
US 179,323,175 203,211,926 226,545,805 248,709,873 281,421,906
FL 4,951,560 6,789,443 9,746,324 12,937,926 15,982,378
LC 74,225 103,047 148,665 192,493 239,452

 Natural Increase: The amount of population increase attributable


to a greater number of births than deaths.
--In US in 1990, 17 births per 1000, 9 deaths per 1000
a natural increase of 8 per 1000 (0.8%) (290 million)
--World  1.8% per year for natural increase (6.26 billion)
 Use the “Rule of 70” to determine doubling time: Divide 70 by
the growth rate. So World will double population in ~39 years
(70/1.8 = ~39)
Population Distribution
• Population distribution: The location of population across
geography/space.
• Major shifts in population distribution occurred in the
Twentieth Century in the United States:
--Concentration: Movement from Rural to Urban/Metro
Areas
--Deconcentration: Movement from Central Cities to
Suburbs
• Planners are particularly interested in these changes and
their impacts on the built and natural environments.
• These macro-level changes have tremendous impacts upon
communities of all sizes and in all areas of the United States.
Concentration Illustrated

Roughly 4 of every 5
Americans
lives in a metropolitan area
now.
Deconcentration Illustrated

As of 2000, 1 of every 2
Americans
lives in a suburban area.
Regional Shifts Illustrated
Regional Shifts Illustrated
Population Composition
• Population composition: The characteristics of the
population.
• Among those characteristics of interest to demographers
and planners are:
--Age
--Sex
--Race/Ethnicity
• Again, the United States experienced many changes in these
attributes throughout the Twentieth Century:
--An aging population
--The “rise of women”
--An increasingly racially and ethnically diverse
population
An Aging Population Illustrated
An Aging Population Illustrated
The “Rise of Women” Illustrated
A Diversifying Population Illustrated
21
22

By 2050, India will


probably be the
world's
most populous
(297) country.
23

China's one-child-
per-family policy
decreased the
country's fertility rate
from 6 to 1.8 in two
decades. However,
the policy is very
controversial.
24
25

As incomes rise, so does life


expectancy.
26

Living Longer: Demographic Implications


 A population growing by natural increase has
more young people than does a stationary
population.
 Dependency ratio - the number of nonworking
individuals compared to working individuals -
declining in countries such as the U.S. and Japan
 If current trends continue, by 2100 the median
age in the U.S. will be 60.
27
28

U.S. Birth Rates: 1910-2001


Part 7: The Future of Human
29 Populations
30

Fig. 4.13
INFRASTRUKTUR, FASILITAS, UTILITAS
KEMISKINAN
TUGAS
Berikan 3 contoh peranan kependudukan dalam
konteks Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota?
jelaskan!

 Individu

 Tulis tangan
 Dikumpul pukul 16.00 WIB