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Adjective Clause (Klausa Adjektif)

Tujuan Pembelajaran :
Setelah selesai pembahasan materi ini peserta didik diharapkan mampu:
1. Menjelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan “adjective clause” dan
“relative pronoun”
2. Menyebutkan macam – macam “relative pronoun” dan masing –
masing fungsinya.
3. Menjelaskan perbedaan antara relative pronoun who, which, whom,
whose.
4. Menggunakan relative pronoun untuk melengkapi kalimat.

Ilustrasi:
Saya suka buku............ada di atas meja itu.
Kata apa yang cocok untuk mengisi titik – titik di atas?

Sebelum lebih jauh berbicara tentang “adjective clause”. Terlebih


dahulu pelajari istilah – istilah berikut ini:

1. Clause ( Klausa) adalah :


sekelompok kata yang mengandung sebuah subjek dan sebuah kata
kerja (verb).

2. Independent Clause ( Klausa Independen) adalah :


kalimat lengkap yang mengandung sebuah subjek dan sebuah kata
kerja (verb). Independent Clause disebut juga “main clause.”

3. Dependent Clause ( Klausa Independen)


adalah :kalimat tidak lengkap yang harus dihubungkan kepada
sebuah “Independent Clause”.

4. Adjective Clause (Klausa Adjektif)


adalah :sebuah “dependent clause” yang memodifikasi sebuah
kata benda yang bertujuan untuk menjelaskan, mengidentifikasi,
atau memberi informasi lebih lanjut tentang benda tersebut.
Adjective Clause disebut juga Relative Clause.

Example
I like the book which is on the table.
Kata “which” memodifikasi kata “book”.

Klausa Adjective biasanya diawali oleh kata yang disebut “relative


pronoun” atau kata ganti penghubung yang berfungsi untuk
menghubungkan Kata Benda yang dijelaskan dengan Kalimat yang
menjelaskannya.
Macam – Macam Kata Ganti Penghubung (Relative Pronouns)
- who
- whom

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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- whose
- which
- that
Some Examples
1. The man who came here just now is Mr.Wahyu.
(=Pria yang baru saja datang ke sini adalah Pak Wahyu)
2. The film which I saw last night was very good.
(=Film yang saya lihat tadi malam sangat bagus)
3. The girls whom I met in the party last night are very friendly.
(=Gadis – gadis yang saya jumpai di pesta tadi malam sangat ramah.)
4. The boy whose father died looks very sad.
(=Anak lelaki yang ayahnya meninggal itu tampak sangat sedih.)
Question 1
Tahukah kamu apa arti kata – kata who, which, whom, whose, yang
terdapat dalam contoh kalimat tadi?
answer :
Question 2
Karena keempat kata tersebut memiliki arti yang sama dalam bahasa
Indonesia, dapatkah kata – kata tersebut saling menggantikan?
answer : meskipun keempat “relative pronoun” tersebut memiliki
makna yang sama dalam
bahasa Indonesia, namun masing – masing memiliki fungsi yang
berbeda - beda.
“who” dan “whom” hanya digunakan untuk kata ganti
penghubung “orang”.Sedangkan
“which” digunakan untuk kata ganti penghubung “benda”

Perhatikan Contoh Berikut!


1. I thanked the man who helped me.
2. They killed the dog which bit a boy.

Latihan. Complete these sentences with who or which.

1. I don’t know the girl ........... talked with you.


2. The book ........... You bought yesterday is very good.
3. She wants a magazine...........has alot of picture in it.
4. The police caught the thief ...........stole my money.
5. Did you see someone ...........went out from this room?

Apa perbedaan antara who, whom, dan whose?


Untuk menjawab pertanyaan di atas, perhatikan contoh – contoh kalimat
berikut ini

1.The man who drives an aeroplane is called a pilot


2.The film was about a man who fought against the corruption.
3.The man whom I met in the party a pilot
4.I will visit the doctor whom you talked about.
5.The man whose son died looked sad.

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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6.President Susilo will visit the people whose houses were damage by
floods.

Latihan. Fill in the blanks with, who, whom, or whose!

1. The man .............she married with left her a month after they got
married.
2. I met the girl …………you saw in the party.
3. They visited the man …………….bought a new car.
4. Has he talked to the girl .............. book he borrowed yesterday?
5. The woman ……….. car was stolen called the police.
6. The servant .................broke the vase apologized for her carelessness.
7. I apologized to the woman.............I spilled her coffee.
8. They met the woman...............husband is the president of the
corporation.
9. The passengers..............came late missed the train.
10.The profesor...............theory used everywhere died at the age of 70.

Bagaimana cara menggunakan kata “that”.


Relative pronoun (kata penghubung) who, whom dan which dalam kalimat
– kalimat di atas dapat diganti dengan Relative pronoun (kata
penghubung) that.

Examples
1. The passengers who came late missed the train.
Menjadi:
The passengers that came late missed the train.

2. I apologized to the woman whom I spilled her coffee.


Menjadi:
I apologized to the woman that I spilled her coffee.

3. The film which I saw last night was very good.


Menjadi:
The film that I saw last night was very good.

Latihan . Fill in the blanks with : who, whom, whose or which.

1. He has eaten the fruit …………. he bought this morning.


2. I saw the doctor ……………. I met in the hospital.
3. She has studied the lesson ……………the teacher explained last
week.
4. I met the girl …………you saw in the party.
5. They visited the man …………….bought a new car.
6. Has he returned the book ………….. he borrowed yesterday?
7. Siti will not post the letter ………… she wrote yesterday.
8. We removed the chair …………..you bought last week.
9. The woman …………… has glasses is my mother.
10. The girls ………….. are playing volleyball are SMP 1 students.
11. The man …………. died of hunger is very old.

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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12. The woman ……….. car was stolen called the police.
13. I met the girl ………….. umbrella was left.
14. She married the man …………wife died last year.
15. He knows the man ………….. son went to England two years
ago.
16. The old man …………… you helped in the street is his
grandpa.
17. Do you see someone ……………is bringing a suitcase?
18. I don’t like people …………. talk too much.
19. The film ………………I watched last night is about the
Vietnam’s war.
20. We visited the family ………….. house was on fire last month.
21. The servant broke the plate …………..my aunt bought in the
market.
22. Have you read the magazine ………………. I gave to you?
23. The young lady ………….. lives next to me is very beautiful.
24. The boys …………. are playing football look very happy.
25. The man ………..dog bit a boy is called by the police.
26. Did you remember the man …………… motor-cycle hit you?
27. The man ……………. I met this morning is a tailor.
28. The young man …………she married a month ago died of
cancer.
29. The cat ……………..is sleeping by the door is very tame.
30. Are the shoes ……………….. you bought last Sunday
comfortable to wear?

Degrees of Comparison
(Tingkat Perbandingan)
We use degrees of comparison when we want to compare things or
people.
(=Kita menggunakan tingkat perbandingan bila kita ingin membandingan
benda atau orang)

Look at this example:


1. Amir is as clever as Ahmad. (=Amir sama pandainya dengan
Ahmad.)

Explanation :
Ungkapan “as clever as” adalah contoh bentuk perbandingan untuk
membandingkan dua hal yang sama. Perbandingan seperti ini disebut
“positive degree” atau perbandingan tingkat positif.

Look at this example:


2. A buffalo is bigger than a sheep.(=Seekor kerbau lebih besar
daripada seekor domba.)

Explanation :
Ungkapan “bigger than” adalah bentuk perbandingan. Perbandingan
seperti ini disebut “comparative degree” atau perbandingan tingkat lebih.
Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..
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Look at this example:
3. Jakarta is the largest city in Indonesia. (=Jakarta adalah kota
paling besar di Indonesia.)

Explanation :
Ungkapan “the largest” adalah juga bentuk perbandingan.
Perbandingan seperti ini disebut “superlative degree” atau perbandingan
tingkat paling.

Perhatikan contoh nomor 2 dan 3 di atas


2. A buffalo is bigger than a sheep.
Kata : bigger berasal dari kata big (=besar) yang ditambah akhiran “er”
(=lebih).

3. Jakarta is the largest city in Indonesia.


Kata : largest berasal dari kata large (=luas) yang ditambah akhiran
“est” (=paling)

Explanation
Sebuah kata sifat (adjective) dan kata keterangan (adverb) yang
pendek (hanya satu suku kata) dapat diubah dari tingkat positif (positive
degree) menjadi tingkat komparatif (comparative degree) dengan cara
ditambah akhiran –er dan menjadi tingkat superlatif (superlative degree)
dengan cara ditambah akhiran –est.
Perhatikan contoh berikut:

Comparative
No Positive Degree Superlative Degree
Degree
Longer (lebih
1. Long (panjang) Longest (paling panjang)
panjang)

2. Tall (tinggi) Taller (lebih tinggi Tallest (paling tinggi)

Cheaper (lebih
3. Cheap (murah) Cheapest (paling murah)
murah)

4. Small (kecil) Smaller (lebih kecil) Smallest (paling kecil)

5. Funny (lucu) Funnier (lebih lucu) Funniest (paling lucu)

Sedangkan untuk kata sifat (adjective) dan kata keterangan


(adverb) yang panjang (dua suku kata atau lebih) dapat diubah dari
tingkat positif (positive degree) menjadi tingkat komparatif (comparative
degree) dengan cara ditambah kata MORE dan menjadi tingkat superlatif
(superlative degree) dengan cara ditambah kata MOST.
Perhatikan contoh berikut:

Comparative
No Positive Degree Superlative Degree
Degree
Important More important Most important
1. (penting) (lebih penting) (paling penting)
Dangerous More dangerous (lebih Most dangerous
2.

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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(bahaya) bahaya) (paling bahaya)
Boring More boring Most boring
3. (membosankan) (lebih membosankan) (paling membosankan)
Diligent More diligent Most diligent
4. (rajin) (lebih rajin) (paling rajin)
Expensive More expensive Most expensive
5. (mahal) (lebih mahal) (paling mahal)

Beberapa kata sifat memiliki tingkat komparatif (comparative degree) dan


tingkat superlatif (superlative degree) yang tidak beraturan. Artinya tidak
ditambah akhiran –er untuk komparatif dan tidak ditambah akhiran –est
untuk superlatifnya.

Berikut ini daftar kata sifat yang memiliki bentuk komparatif dan superlatif
yang tidak beraturan:

No Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree

1. Good (baik) Better (lebih baik) Best (paling baik)

2. Bad (buruk) Worse (lebih buruk) Worst (paling jelek)

3. Far (jauh) Further (lebih jauh) Furthest (paling jauh)

4. Little (sedikit) Less (lebih sedikit) Least (paling sedikit)

5. Many/much (banyak) More (lebih banyak) Most (paling banyak)

Exercise 1
Lengkapilah tabel berikut dengan “positive degree, “comparative
degree” dan “superlative degree” yang benar. Sebutkan pula makna
bahasa Indonesianya

Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree


Short (pendek)
Fast (cepat)
darker (lebih gelap)
deeper (lebih dalam)
highest (tertinggi)
smartest (paling cerdas)
Happiest (paling bahagia)

Notes
1. Dalam kalimat tingkat komparatif biasanya diikuti oleh kata “than”
yang makna bahasa Indonesianya “daripada”;
2. Dalam kalimat tingkat superlatif biasanya didahului oleh kata
“the”
3. Huruf “y” pada kata “happy, lazy, crazy, pretty, dsb. harus diubah
menjadi “i” sebelum ditambah akhiran “er” atau “iest”

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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Examples
1. My ruler is longer than yours.
2. Sofi looks happier than Santi.
3. The weather today is hotter than yesterday.
4. Bengawan Solo is the longest river in Java island.
5. Do you know who the richest man in Indonesia is?

Exercise 2 :
Complete the following sentences with the correct form of degrees of
comparison of the word in brackets.
(Lengkapilah kalimat berikut dengan bentuk “positive degree,
“comparative degree” atau “superlative degree” dari kata yang tersedia
dalam kurung.)

1. Mr. Kodir is _______ than Mr. Pedro. (rich)


2. Hanna is the_______ student in m class. (smart)
3. Your dictionary is as_______ as hers. (good)
4. Do you remember what the_______ moment in your life is? (happy)
5. Can a donkey run _______ than a horse? (fast)
6. Ahmad is the_____________ student in my class (diligent)
7. English is not as _______________ as most people think. (difficult)
8. The tsunami in Aceh killed _______________ people than it was in
Japan (many)
9. My computer is ________________ than yours. (expensive)
10. Reading a book is _____________________ than watching television.
(useful)

Exercise 3. Make a sentence based on the picture.

Pictures below are for number 1 – 4. (number 1 is done for an example)

Name : Mrs. Lucy Name : Mrs. Laura


Age : 35 years old Age : 50 years old
Height : 165 cm tall Height : 170 cm tall

1. Mrs. Laura is older than Mrs. Lucy. (Ny. Laura lebih tua daripada
Ny. Lucy)
2. Mrs. Laura is ______________ than Mrs. Lucy. (tall)
3. Mrs Lucy is ______________ than Mrs. Laura. (short)
4. Mrs Lucy is ______________ than Mrs. Laura. (young)

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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Monas Eifel
Built : in 20th century
Built : in 18th century
Height : 70 m
Height : 120 m

5. Eifel is ________________ than Monas. (high)


6. Eifel is ________________ than Monas. (old)

Exercice 4. Reaarange these jumbled words into a good sentence!

1. than - a – starts – most - earlier – reporter – working – people


=> ______________________________________________________
2. the – newspaper – Kompas – is – the – in – city – largest.
=> ______________________________________________________
3. office – reporter – Jim Taylor – the – his – is – oldest – in.
=> ______________________________________________________
4. In the morning – it – study – in the afternoon – than – is – better
– to
=> ______________________________________________________
5. than – late – better – never – is – it
=> ______________________________________________________

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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Eliptical Sentence
(Kalimat Eliptik)

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Setelah selesai proses belajar mengajar tuntas, siswa diharapkan mampu:
1. Menjelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan Eliptical Sentence.
2. Membuat kalimat eliptik yang berasal dari dua buah kalimat
3. Menggunakan kalimat eliptik untuk memberi respons positif

Adalah kalimat yang dihilangkan sebagian karena bagian yang


dihilangkan tersebut memiliki kesamaan gramatikal dengan kalimat
sebelumnya. Kalimat Eliptik merupakan gabungan 2 (dua) buah kalimat
yang memiliki Subjek berbeda tetapi bagian yang lainnya sama. Kalimat
yang di-eliptik-kan adalah kalimat yang kedua.

Pahami Contoh Berikut:


1. I am a student.
My bother is a student.

Kedua kalimat di atas dapat digabung menjadi :


I am a student, and my brother is too. ATAU : I am a student, and
so is my brother.

2. He can operate a computer.


I can operate a computer.

Kedua kalimat di atas dapat digabung menjadi :


He can operate a computer, and I can too. ATAU : He can operate a
computer and, so can I.

3. You love Sundanese food.


She loves Sundanese food.

Kedua kalimat di atas dapat digabung menjadi :


You love Sundanese food, and she does too. ATAU : You love
Sundanese food, and so does she.

4. My father doesn’t like lamb.


My mother doesn’t like lamb.

Kedua kalimat tersebut dapat gabungkan menjadi:


My father doesn’t like lamb,and my mother doesn’t either.
ATAU :
My father doesn’t like lamb, and neither does my mother.

5. She didn’t watch the football match on TV last night.


We didn’t watch the football match on TV last night.

Kalimat tersebut dapat dieliptikkan menjadi:


She didn’t watch the football match on TV last night, and we didn’t
either.

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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ATAU :
She didn’t watch the football match on TV last night, and neither did
we.

Quiz 1.
Buatlah kalimat eliptik dari pasangan kalimat berikut ini.

1. She can dance well.


Her sister can dance well.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

2. She doesn’t speak English well.


They doesn’t speak English well.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

3. She is reading a magazine.


We are reading a magazine.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

4. Tono didn’t buy a new book book.


His sister didn’t buy a new book.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________
5. Indonesia is a tropical country.
Thailand is a tropical country.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

Ada kata – kata khusus yang digunakan untuk membuat kalimat


eliptik yaitu:
1. untuk kalimat positif
a. too
b. so
2. untuk kalimat negative
a. either
b. neither
Perhatikan Perbedaan Letak Kata “too” dan “so” dalam kalimat berikut:

1. A radio is an electronic media, and a TV is too.


2. A radio is an electronic media, and so is a TV.

Kata “too” diletakkan di akhir kalimat, sedangkan kata “so” diletakkan di


tengah kalimat setelah kata “and”.

Perhatikan Pula Perbedaan Letak Kata “either” dan “neither” dalam


kalimat berikut:
1. My father doesn’t like Indian films, and I don’t either.
2. My father doesn’t like Indian films, and neither do I.

Kata “either” diletakkan di akhir kalimat, sedangkan kata “neither”


diletakkan di tengah kalimat setelah kata “and”.

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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Quiz 2. Pilihlah kata yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat eliptik berikut
ini.
Example 1
I like English, and my sister does..........
a. too c. either
b. so d. neither
Example 2.
She will not go to the party, and......... will her sister.
a. too c. either
b. so d. Neither

1. You want to pass the exam, and I do......


a. too c. either
b. so d. neither
2. I can’t remember his name, and she can’t............
a. too c. either
b. so d. neither
3. English is a difficult subject, and ........is mathematics.
a. too c. either
b. so d. neither
4. I won’t go to Bali, and ............have my family.
a. too c. either
b. so d. neither
5. I was ill yesterday, and ......were you.
a. too c. either
b. so d. neither

Cara Meng-eliptik-kan Kalimat

Kalimat Eliptik berasal dari gabungan 2 (dua) buah kalimat yang memiliki
Subjek berbeda tetapi bagian yang lainnya sama, dan kalimat yang di-
eliptik-kan adalah kalimat yang kedua.

1. Bila Predikat dalam kalimat mengandung “modals”(can, may, must,


shall, will, could,
might, should, would) maka “modals” yang sama digunakan pada
kalimat yang dieliptikkan.
Example 1:
She can sing “Indonesia Raya”.
I can sing “Indonesia Raya”.
Eliptiknya menjadi:
She can sing “Indonesia Raya”, and I can, too. ATAU : She can sing
“Indonesia Raya”, and so can I.

Example 2:
The students shouldn’t smoke.
The teachers shouldn’t smoke.
Eliptiknya menjadi:
The students shouldn’t smoke, and the teachers shouldn’t either
Atau
The students shoudn’t smoke and neither should the teachers.

2. Bila Predikat dalam kalimat mengandung “to be”(am, is, are, was, dan
were) maka “to be”

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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yang digunakan pada kalimat yang dieliptikkan harus disesuaikan
dengan Subjek pada
kalimat yang dieliptikkan tersebut.

Example 1
I am an SMP student.
She is an SMP student.

Eliptiknya menjadi:
I am an SMP student, and she is, too. ATAU : I am an SMP
student, and so is she.

Example 2
He wasn’t here yesterday.
We weren’t here yesterday.
Eliptiknya menjadi:
He wasn’t here yesterday, and we weren’t either ATAU : He wasn’t
here yesterday, and neither were we.

Quiz 3.
Gabungkan pasangan kalimat berikut menjadi kalimat eliptik. Gunakan
kata pembentuk eliptik yang sesuai dengan kalimat tersebut.
Ingat! Kalimat Positif gunakan “too “atau “so”, dan Kalimat Negatif
gunakan “either” atau “neither”

1. I must study hard.


Everybody must study hard.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

2. He mustn’t cheat in the test.


We mustn’t cheat in the teast.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

3. He is a diligent student.
You are a diligent student.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

4. Ridwan isn’t reading now.


His brothers aren’t reading now.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

5. The President will come to the ceremony.


The Vice President will come to the ceremony.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

6. You shouldn’t watch TV too long.


Your brother shouldn’t watch TV too long.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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7. She was on holiday last week.
Her children were on holiday last week.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

8. Vitamins are not produced by our body.


Minerals are not produced by our body.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

9. Men can’t live without water.


Animals can’t live without water.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

10. They are standing in a queue.


I am standing in a queue.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

3. Bila Predikat dalam kalimat hanya berupa kata kerja penuh bentuk I
(simple pesent), maka
dalam kalimat eliptik kata kerja tersebut harus diganti dengan “do”
atau “does”.

Example 1. He goes to SMP 1 Bungbulang.


I go to SMP 1 Bungbulang.
dibuat kalimat eliptik menjadi:
He goes to SMP 1 Bungbulang, and I do too. ATAU : He goes to SMP 1
Bungbulang,and so do I

Example 2. Animals need water to live.


Plants need water to live.
dibuat kalimat eliptik menjadi:
Animals need water to live, and plants do too. ATAU : Animals need
water to live,and so do plants.

Example 3. I like news programs on TV.


My father likes news programs on TV.
dibuat kalimat eliptik menjadi:
I like news programs on TV, and my father does too.
ATAU :
I like news programs on TV, and so does my father.

Quiz 4. Gabungkan pasangan kalimat berikut menjadi kalimat eliptik.


Gunakan kata pembentuk eliptik yang sesuai
dengan kalimat tersebut.
Ingat! Kalimat Positif gunakan “too “atau “so”, dan Kalimat
Negatif gunakan “either” atau “neither”

1. She likes Sundanese food.


I like Sundanese food.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________
Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..
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2. They don’t subscribe the paper.
You don’t subscribe the paper.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

3. A buffalo eats grass.


A cow eats grass.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

4. We don’t like alcoholic drink.


He doesn’t like alcoholic drink.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

5. Newspapers get money from ads.


Magazines get money from ads.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

6. My mother likes reading.


My father likes reading.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

7. I don’t understand what he said.


They don’t understand what he said.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

8. The students borrow the book from the library.


The teachers borrow the book from the library.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

9. Mr. Joko doesn’t speak Sundanese.


Mr. Aryo doesn’t speak Sundanese.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

10. I grow some flowers in the garden.


My neighbours grow flowers in the garden.
→ _________________________________________________
→ _________________________________________________

Quiz 5. Gabungkan pasangan kalimat berikut menjadi kalimat eliptik.


Gunakan kata pembentuk eliptik yang sesuai dengan kalimat tersebut.
Ingat! Kalimat Positif gunakan “too “atau “so”, dan Kalimat Negatif
gunakan “either” atau “neither”

1. Jakarta suffered from floods.


Bandung suffered from floods.
___________________________________________
2. I came late to school.
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14
She came late to school.
___________________________________________
3. My brother didn’t watch the film.
My sister didn’t watch the film.
___________________________________________
4. I got up late this morning.
My brother got up late this morning.
___________________________________________
5. Football didn’t get a gold medal in SEA GAMES.
Basketball didn’t get a gold medal in SEA GAMES.
___________________________________________
6. The boys felt very hungry.
The girls felt very hungry.
___________________________________________
7. We didn’t go to the beach last Sunday.
They didn’t go to the beach last Sunday.
___________________________________________
8. The nurse examined the patient.
The doctor examined the patient.
___________________________________________

Quiz 6. Lengkapilah Kalimat Eliptik berikut dengan kata pembentuk eliptik


( too, so, either,
neither ) dan “auxiliary” ( tobe, modal, do, does, did ).

Example: My mother goes to the market every Sunday, and my


aunt...............................
Answer : does too.
1. I can’t remember his name, and she ............
2. You want to pass the exam, and I.............
3. English is an international language, and ............Arabic.
4. I’ve never been to Bali, and ..................... my family.
5. She was ill yesterday, and ..................... you.
6. I must study hard, and everybody .....................................
7. He mustn’t cheat in the test and..........................we.
8. He is a diligent student,and ...............................you.
9. Ridwan isn’t reading now,and his brothers .....................................
10. The President will come to the ceremony,and the Vice
President......................................

Quiz 7
Responlah kalimat berikut ini dengan menggunakan kalimat eliptik.
Gunakan “So........I” untuk merespon pernyataan positif dan gunakan
“Neither.........I” untuk merespon pernyataan negatif.

Example:
1. Your friend : I am hungry now.
You : So am I. Let’s go to the canteen,then.
2. Your friend : I can’t anwser question number 5.
You : Neither can I. Let’s ask our friends,then.

1. Your friend : I am sleepy now


You : .......................................................... . Let’s have some
coffee,then.

2. Your friend : I can’t understand what she explained.


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You : .............................................................. . Let’s ask her
to explain one more
time,then.

3. Your friend : I am tired now


You : .............................................................. Let’s take a
rest,then.

4. Your friend : I didn’t do my home work.


You : .............................................................. . Let’s do it
now,then.

5. Your friend: I don’t like horror films.


You : ............................................................... Let’s find
another film,then.

6. Your friend : I am not ready to go now.


You : ............................................................... Let’s go
later,then.

7. Your friend : I will go to the beach tomorrow


You : ............................................................... Let’s go
together,then.

8. Your friend : I like reading detective stories.


You : .............................................................. . So we have
the same hobby,then.

9. Your friend: I got 9 for the English test.


You : ............................................................. .So we got the same
mark,then.

10. Your friend : I’ve never been to the new bookstore,yet.


You : .............................................................. . What about going
there next
Sunday?

Kata Hubung Tunggal


(Single Conjunction)

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Setelah menyelesaikan bahasan tentang Kata Hubung Tunggal peserta
didik diharapkan mampu:
1. Menyebutkan macam – macam kata hubung tunggal
2. Menyebutkan kegunaan masing – masing kata hubung
3. Menggunakan kata hubung tunggal dalam kalimat

Adalah:
Kata – kata yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua buah kalimat.
Kalimat yang dihubungkan bisa berupa kalimat yang menyatakan sebab

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16
akibat, saling bertentangan, menyatakan pilihan, atau menyatakan dua
kegiatan/peristiwa yang terjadi bersamaan.

A. Untuk menyatakan sebab akibat biasanya digunakan kata


hubung :
- Because = karena
- For = karena
- So = sehingga

Study these examples:


1. He didn’t go to school because he was ill.
(=Dia tidak pergi ke sekolah karena dia sakit.)
2. The child cried, for he was afraid of a dog.
(=Anak itu menangis, karena dia takut akan anjing.)
3. He was ill,so he didn’t go to school.
(=Dia lelah, sehingga dia pergi tidur.)

Bandingkan kalimat nomor 1 dengan nomor 3 pada contoh tadi


1. He didn’t go to school because he was ill.

3. He was ill,so he didn’t go to school.

Question :
Kesimpulan apa yang bisa kamu ambil?

Explanation
Sebuah tanda baca koma (,) selalu digunakan sebelum kata hubung
for dan so. Tanda baca koma tidak diperlukan sebelum kata hubung
because.

Exercise 1
Gantilah kata hubung “so” dalam kalimat berikut dengan
kata hubung “because”. Lakukan perubahan seperlunya.

1. It rained very hard for long time, so the flood happened


everywhere.
You say :
2. We were very hungry, so we decided to buy some bread.
You say :
3. There was no interesting program to see, so we turned off the TV.
You say :
4. The weather was very bad, so many flights were cancelled.
You say :
5. The water is clean enough, so we can swim here.
You say :

B. Untuk menghubungkan yang kalimat saling bertentangan


biasanya digunakan kata :
- But = tetapi (bertentangan langsung)

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- Although = meskipun (bertentangan dengan dengan hasil
tak terduga)

Study these examples:


1. Ahmad is a very diligent student but his brother is rather
lazy.
(= Ahmad adalah siswa yang rajin tetapi saudara lelaki dia agak
malas.)
Kedua kalimat ini disebut bertentangan langsung karena di
dalamnya ada 2 (dua) kata
yang saling ber-antonim yaitu diligent dan lazy

2. The family looks happy although they are poor.


(= Keluarga itu tampak bahagia meskipun mereka miskin.)
Kedua kalimat ini disebut bertentangan dengan hasil tak
terduga karena kalau miskin logikanya sedih (sad), namun di sini
sebaliknya yakni bahagia (happy).

Quiz
Jelaskan mengapa kalimat berikut ini
disebut “bertentangan dengan hasil tak terduga”.

1. He went to school although he was ill.


(=Dia pergi ke sekolah meskipun dia sakit.)

2. The man still works hard although he is old.


(=Pria itu masih bekerja keras meskipun sudah tua.)

3. The quality of this book is good although the price is price.


(=Mutu buku ini bagus meskipun harganya murah.)

4. Although he has an own car, he goes to his office by bus.


(=Meskipun dia punya mobil pribadi, dia pergi ke kantornya naik
bis.)

5. Although he works hard, he is still poor.


(=Meskipun dia kerja keras,dia tetap miskin.)

Exercise 1. Supply the blanks in the following sentences with but


or although.
1. We went to the zoo _________ it was raining.
2. My father doesn’t like Indian films________my mother does.
3 He is tall__________his wife is short.
4. I still trust him___________he has ever lied to me.
4. Most of Indonesian people are still poor__________this country has plenty
of natural
resources.

C. Untuk menyatakan pilihan biasanya digunakan kata hubung :


or = atau

Here are some examples:

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• You can borrow the book from the library or you can buy it in the
bookstore.
(=Kamu bisa meminjam buku itu dari perpustakaan atau kamu bisa
membelinya di toko
buku.)
• Where will you continue your study after graduating from SMP, to
SMA or to SMK?
(=Kemana kamu akan melanjutkan studimu setelah lulus SMP,ke SMA
atau ke SMK?)

D. Untuk menyatakan dua kegiatan/peristiwa yang terjadi


bersamaan biasanya digunakan
kata hubung : and = dan

Here are some examples:


1. Both of my parents are reading. My mother is reading a magazine and
my father is
reading a newspaper.
(= Kedua orang tuaku sedang membaca. Ibuku sedang membaca
sebuah majalah dan
ayahku sedang membaca sebuah surat kabar.)
2. It was raining hard,and there was a strong wind.
(= Hujan turun dengan lebat dan angin bertiup kencang.)

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with or or


and.

1. Please go to the post office________buy some stamps for me.


2. You can send me a letter_______you can call me at work hours.
3. The sky was very dark ________it began to rain.
4. Are you here to study ______ to play?
5. I will call her _______ask her to come here now.

Exercise 2.
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with or, and, because,
so, although or but.

1. He was very tired,_________ he went to bed.


2. The child hid behind his mother’s skirt__________he was afraid of the
dog.
3. Daniel made many promises_________________he had no intention of
keeping
them.
4. I heard you went to Surabaya. Did you go there by plane
________ by train?
5. She went to the library________ read some books there
6. Albert Einstein became a well-known scientist _________ he didn’t go
to
university.
7. __________ he is always busy, he never forgets to do “shalat”.
8. Many accidents happen _________the drivers drive carelessly.
9. TVRI is a government’s TV station ________ Metro TV is a private one.
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10. I didn’t sleep well last night,________ I feel sleepy now.

Keterangan Kuantitas
(Expressions of Quantity)
Tujuan Pempelajaran
Setelah selesai pembelaran, siswa diharapkan mampu:
1. Menjelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan keterangan kuantitas
2. Menyebutkan macam – macam keterangan kuantitas untuk benda terbilang dan benda
tak terbilang
3. Menggunakan kata keterangan kuantitas dalam kalimat.
Adalah :
Kata – kata yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan jumlah suatu benda.

A. Macam – Macam Keterangan Kuantitas Yang Hanya Digunakan Dengan Kata


Benda
Terbilang.

Keterangan Digunakan dengan benda


Makna
Kuantitas Terbilang Tak terbilang

one one book X* satu,sebuah


each each book X* masing-masing
every every book X* setiap
two two books X* dua
both both books X* keduanya
a couple of a couple of books X* dua,sepasang
three,etc. three books X* Tiga
a few a few books X* Sedikit
several several books X* Beberapa
many many books X* Banyak
a number of a number of books X* sejumlah

X* = not used (tidak digunakan)


For example:
You can say : “I have one book” but You can’t say : “I have one rice”.

B. Macam Keterangan Kuantitas Yang Hanya Digunakan Dengan Kata Benda Tak
Terbilang.

Keterangan Digunakan dengan benda


Makna
Kuantitas
Terbilang Tak terbilang

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a little X* a little rice sedikit
much X* much rice banyak
a great deal of X* a great deal of rice banyak

X* = not used (tidak digunakan)


For example:
You can say : “I have a little rice” but You can’t say : “I have a little book”.

C. Macam Keterangan Kuantitas Yang Dapat Digunakan Dengan Kata Benda


TerbilangMaupun Dengan Kata Benda Tak Terbilang

Keterangan Digunakan dengan benda


Makna
Kuantitas Terbilang Tak terbilang
not any/no* not any/no books not any/no rice tidak ada
Some* some books some rice beberapa, sedikit
a lot of* a lot of books a lot of rice banyak
lots of* lots of books lots of rice banyak
plenty of* plenty of books plenty of rice banyak, melimpah
Most* most of books most of rice sebagian besar

All* all books all rice semua, seluruh

* = used for both ( digunakan untuk kedua jenis kata benda)


For example:
You can say : “I have no books” also You can say : “I have no rice”.

Here however, we will not learn all of the expressions of quantity. We’re only going to
discuss some of them, those are:
each = masing - masing
every = setiap
both = keduanya
all = semua,seluruh
most = sebagian besar,kebanyakan.
A lot of = banyak

Explanation.
a. Each dan Every hanya diikuti oleh kata benda terbilang bentuk tunggal. Tidak boleh
diikuti
oleh kata benda bentuk jamak juga tidak boleh diikuti oleh kata benda tak terbilang.
Kedua kata ini dapat saling mengganti namun dengan makna yang sedikit berbeda. Each
dapat dipakai untuk membicarakan dua hal/dua orang atau lebih. Every hanya digunakan
untuk tiga orang atau lebih tidak pernah dipakai untuk membicarakan yang dua
orang/dua hal.

Examples:

1. Each student should have own English dictionary to help them in learning English.
(=Masing – masing siswa seharusnya memiliki kamus bahasa Inggris sendiri untuk
membantu mereka dalam belajar bahasa Inggris.)
2. Every student should have an English dictionary to help them in learning English.
(=Setiap siswa seharusnya memiliki kamus bahasa Inggris untuk membantu mereka

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dalam belajar bahasa Inggris.)
3. Each child will find his own personal road to success.
(=Masing – masing anak akan menemukan jalannya sendiri menuju keberhasilan.)
4. I have two apples and there are two children here. So if I give the apples to them,
each
child will get one apple.
(=Saya punya 2 buah apel dan ada 2 orang anak di sini. Jadi jika saya berikan apel itu
kepada mereka, masing – masing anak akan mendapatkan satu buah apel.)

Interlude
Tentukan kata – kata benda berikut ini, apakah termasuk terbilang tunggal, terbilang jamak,
atau tak terbilang. Kamu cukup memberi tanda check list (√) pada kolom yang sesuai.

Kata Benda Terbilang Kata Benda Tak


Kata benda
terbilang
Tunggal Jamak
sentence
branches
woman
water
mice
letters
salt
food
friends
money
student
people

Tips
Kamu akan dengan mudah mempelajari tentang Keterangan
Kuantitas apabila kamu sudah paham macam – macam kata benda
terbilang (bentuk tunggal dan jamak) dan macam – macam kata benda
tak terbilang.
Untuk kata benda tak terbilang tidak adalah istilah “jamak”
semuanya dianggap “tunggal”.

Explanation.

b. Both hanya diikuti oleh kata benda terbilang yang jumlahnya hanya 2 (dua). Tidak boleh
diikuti oleh kata benda tak terbilang.

Examples:
1. Both restaurants are good. (=Kedua restoran itu bagus.)
2. Mrs. Ose and Mrs. Nina are sisters. Both of them teach English in SMP 1 Bungbulang.
(Ibu Ose dan Ibu Nina adalah bersaudara. Keduanya mengajar bahasa Inggris di SMP 1
Bungbulang.)

Explanation.

c. Most, a lot of dan All dapat diikuti oleh kata benda terbilang maupun kata benda tak

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terbilang. Kalau diikuti oleh kata benda terbilang, maka kata bendanya harus dalam
bentuk
jamak.
Examples:

1. Most people in Indonesia eat rice as their daily diet.


(Kebanyakan orang di Indonesia memakan nasi sebagai makanan mereka sehari - hari.)
2. A baby spends most of his time for sleeping.
(Seorang bayi menghabiskan sebagian besar waktunya untuk tidur.)
3. All sugar is sweet. (=Semua gula adalah manis.)
4. The fifth principle of Pancasila is “social justice for all Indonesian people”, but up till now
not
all people have felt the justice.
(Asas kelima dalam Pancasila adalah “keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia, tetapi
hingga saat ini tidak semua orang telah merasakan keadilan itu.)

Quiz
Apakah kata benda yang mengikuti kata “most” dan “all” dalam kalimat – kalimat berikut ini
tergolong kata benda terbilang atau kata benda tak terbilang?

1. Most newspapers are daily published.


2. Most rice in Indonesia is produced by the farmers in Java island.
3. Indonesia imports most wheat from USA.
4. Out of all the students, Ali usually asks most questions during the class.
5. Most programs on RCTI and TPI are entertainments.
6. All cars have wheels. All wheels are round.
7. All water we drink, all food we eat and all air we breathe is from Allah SWT.
8. We will not be able to count all enjoyment given by Allah SWT to us.
Exercise. Supply the blanks in these sentences with each, both, or all.
Remember :
Each => used for singular countable noun only,
Both => used for two countable noun only,
All => used for plural countable noun,and uncountable noun.

1. It is very important for_______student to have a book.


2. ___________ students in my class are diligent. No one is lazy.
3. France and England are developed countries._______ of them are in Europe.
4. I have two brothers._______ of them are married.
5. It is impossible for us to know________ languages in the world.
6. The host gave a present to ________ woman in the party.
7. “Bank Indonesia” controls ________ money circulating in our country.
8. He got serious injured in the accident. He broke _________of his legs.
9. “Bengawan Solo” and “Citarum” are rivers in the island of Java and _________ of them
run to the Java sea.
10. A : Can we count .......... the stars in the sky?
B : I don’t think we can.

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23
QUESTION TAGS
(PERTANYAAN PENGUKUH)

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Setelah selesai proses pembelajaran, peserta didik diharapkan mampu:
1. Menjelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan Question Tags.
2. Menyebutkan beberapa ketentuan dalam question tags
3. Mampu menggunakan question tag dalam ragam kalimat tertulis

Contoh Perbandingan dengan Bahasa Indonesia


Sekarang musim kemarau, iya kan?

+ sekarang musim hujan => pernyataan


+ iyakan? => pertanyaan pengukuh

Contoh dalam Bahasa Inggris :

1. You are a student, aren’t you?


2. She didn’t answer your letter, did she?

Pernyataan Question tags


You are a student, aren’t you?
She didn’t answer your letter, did she?

Beberapa Ketentuan dalam “Question Tag”

1. a. Bila Pernyataan Berupa Kalimat Positif, maka “Question Tag”-nya


harus Negatif
Contoh :
She is a beautiful girl, isn’t she?

b. Bila Pernyataan Berupa Kalimat Negatif, maka “question tag”-nya


harus Positif
Contoh
You don’t want to fail the exam, do you?

Quiz 1. Which one is the correct question tag?

1. She is an intelligent student, ...


a. is she?
b. isn’t she?

2. They aren’t in the classroom, ...


a. are they?
b. aren’t they?

3. You can’t drive a bus, ...


a. can you?
b. can’t you?
4. He will lend us some money, ...

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a. will he?
b. won’t he?

2. Bila Subjek dalam pernyataan tidak berupa kata ganti (bukan “I,
you, we,they, he,
she atau it ), maka dalam “question tag” subjek tersebut harus
diganti dengan kata
ganti yang sesuai.

Contoh :
1. The film was very good, wasn’t it?
2. Your father does not smoke, does he?
3. Elisa is a dentist, isn’t she?
4. Your books are on the table, aren’t they?
Quiz 2. Complete with a correct the question tag .

1. Your father is a teacher, ......................?


2. Ali was absent yesterday, ....................?
3. The library doesn’t have the book you need,.....................?
4. The books are from the library, ........................?
5. Mrs. Susi can’t speak Javanese, ..........................?

3. Bila Predikat dalam Pernyataan Mengandung “tobe”(am, is, are, was,


were) atau
“modals”(can, may, must, shall, will, have/has, could, might, should,
would, had)
maka “tobe” atau “modals” tersebut digunakan kembali pada
“question tag”

Contoh : 1. You are a student, aren’t you?


2. She cannot sing well, can she?
3. We have done our best, haven’t we?
4. She has got married, hasn’t she?
5. He won’t invite you to the party, will he?

Quiz 3. Supply with a correct question tag.

1. It is a good book, ................................?


2. She must be here now, ...............................?
3. We shouldn’t come late, ....................................?
4. They were here just now,....................................?
5. I have told you about it, ....................................?
6. He won’t be angry with us, ...............................?

4. Bila Predikat dalam Pernyataan berupa Kata Kerja Penuh (bukan “tobe”
atau
“modals”) maka pada “question tag” harus menggunakan kata bantu
“do atau does,
(bila Kalimatnya “The Simple Present Tense”) dan menggunakan “did”
(bila
Kalimatnya “The Simple Past Tense”)

Contoh :

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25
1. You go to school on Saturdays, don’t you?
2. She likes Sundanese food, doesn’t she?
3. They promised to help us, didn’t they?
4. He forgot his keys, didn’t he?

Quiz 4. Choose the correct question tag.


1. She likes Sundase songs, ...................
a. does she
b. doesn’t she
c. did she
d. didn’t she
2. They always give you good advice, ........?
a. don’t they
b. do they
c. did they
d. didn’t they
3. You enjoyed the food in the party, ...........?
a. do you
b. don’t you
c. did you
d. didn’t you
4. He made some mistakes in the test, ........?
a. does he
b. doesn’t he
c. did he
d. didn’t he
5. TV stations get money from advertisements, ...........?
a. do they
b. don’t they
c. did they
d. didn’t they

Quiz 5. Complete with correct.

1. He drinks a glass of milk every morning, ..........................?


2. The sun rises in the east, ............................?
3. It rained hard yesterday,............................?
4. She went to Garut last week,..............................?
5. The boys play football every Saturday
afternoon, .................................?
6. You always bring your phone to school,...........................?

BEBERAPA KEKECUALIAN

1. Bila dalam pernyataan terdapat kata never, seldom, hardly ever,


maka pernyataan
tersebut tergolong negatif oleh karena itu “question tag”-nya harus
positif.

Contoh:

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26
1. She is never angry with you, is she?
2. He has never been to Bali, has he?
3. Mr. John never comes late, does he?

Quiz 6. Choose the correct answer.


1. She is never late to school, ..............?
a. isn’t she c. doesn’t she
b. is she d. does she
2. He never makes you sad, .................?
a. doesn’t he c. isn’t he
b. does he d. is she
3. They seldom go to city , ..............?
a. aren’t they c. don’t they
b. are they d. do they
4. You’ve never travelled on train, .................?
a. haven’t you c. didn’t you
b. have you d. did you

Quiz 7. Complete with correct question tags.

1. You will never forget me,..........................?


2. She is never angry with you,.........................?
3. They never tell a lie, ..........................?
4. We seldom meet to each other, ..........................?
5. He has never called you, ............................?

2. Bila Pernyataan diawali dengan kata “that/this” maka dalam “question


tag” kata tersebut diganti dengan kata ganti “it”
Contoh :
1. That is your dictionary, isn’t it ?
2. This is his car, isn’t it ?

Quiz 8. Complete with correct question tags.

1. This letter is for me,..........................?


2. That is your motorcycle,.........................?
3. This isn’t a library, ..........................?
4. That isn’t her bag, ..........................?
5. That is a good idea, ............................?

3. Bila Pernyataan diawali dengan kata “These/Those” maka dalam


“question tag” kata
tersebut diganti dengan kata “they”

Contoh :
1. These are yours, aren’t they ?
2. Those aren’t your books, are they ?

Quiz 9. Complete with correct question tags.

1. These letters are for me,..........................?


2. Those are your motorcycles,.........................?
3. These aren’t lesson books, ..........................?
4. These are her ballpoints, ..........................?
5. Those aren’t my mistakes, ............................?
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4. Bila Pernyataan diawali dengan kata “there”, maka dalam “question
tag” kata tersebut
digunakan kembali sebagai subjek

Contoh :
1. There was an earthquake in Sumatra last week, wasn’t there ?
2. There are a lot of people here, aren’t there?

Quiz 10. Complete with correct question tags.

1. There is a letter for me,..........................?


2. There are many motorcycles,.........................?
3. There aren’t lesson books here, ..........................?
4. There was an interesting film last night, ..........................?
5. There will be a football match, ............................?

5. Bila Pernyataan Positif Predikatnya memakai/mengandung “tobe am”


maka “question
tag”-nya menjadi “ aren’t I”

Contoh;
1. I am healthy, aren’t I ?
2. I am talking to you, aren’t I?
Catatan
Tapi bila pernyataannya berupa kalimat negatif, maka pada “question
tag”-nya tetap normal yaitu menggunakan “am I”

Contoh : I am not guilty, am I ?


Quiz 11. Complete with correct question tags.

1. I am invited,..........................?
2. I’m free,.........................?
3. I am not late, ..........................?
4. I’m not in the wrong way, ..........................?
5. I am doing my job, ............................?

6. Untuk Pernyataan yang berupa kalimat perintah dan kalimat larangan,


maka
bentuk “question tag”-nya sama, yaitu menggunakan “ will you “
Contoh:
1. Sit down, will you?
2. Don’t smoke here, will you?

Quiz 12. Complete with correct question tags.

1. Do your homework,..........................?
2. Never come late,.........................?
3. Speak clearly, ..........................?
4. Don’t forget to turn off the lights before you go to
bed, ..........................?
5. Be carefull, ............................?

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7. Bila Pernyataan berupa kalimat ajakan yang menggunakan “Let us =
Let’s”, maka
“question tag”-nya selalu menggunakan “shall we”

Contoh:
1. Let’s go to the library, shall we?

Quiz 13. Complete with correct question tags.


1. Let’s go tomorrow,..........................?
2. Let’s do it together,.........................?
3. Let’s forget it what has happened, ......................?
4. Let’s wait and see, ..........................?

STRUKTUR PARALEL
MENGGUNAKAN KATA HUBUNG (KONJUNGSI) BERPASANGAN

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Setelah selesai proses pembelajaran, peserta didik diharapkan mampu:
4. menjelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan Kata Hubung Berpasangan
5. menyebutkan beberapa ketentuan dalam Kata Hubung Berpasangan
6. menggunakan Kata Hubung Berpasangan dalam ragam kalimat
7. membuat kalimat dengan menggunakan kata hubung berpasangan

Pasangan kata hubung:


a. both .........and........ (......dan........,keduanya..........)*
b. not only ...... but also.......... (tidak hanya......tetapi juga........)*
c. either.......or........ (baik......ataupun............)*
d. neither.........nor.......... (baik.....ataupun.....tidak.....)*

*makna frase di atas tidak mutlak dan dapat diubah sesuai dengan
konteks kalimat.

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Pehatikan beberapa contoh berikut:

1. Both my father and my mother are still alive.


(Ayahku dan ibuku keduanya masih hidup/belum meninggal)
2. Not only Jakarta but also Bandung often suffers from floods.
(Tidak hanya Jakarta tetapi juga Bandng sering mengalami banjir.)
3. Eiher kerosene or gasoline is expensive now.
(Baik minyak tanah ataupun bensin sekarang mahal.)
4. Neither the President nor the Vice President of Indonesia is
Sundanese.
(Baik Presiden ataupun Wakil Presiden Indonesia adalah bukan
orang Sunda.)
5. The book is not only good but also cheap.
(Buku itu tidak hanya bagus tetapi juga murah.)

Remember ! (Ingat!)

Kedua pasang kata dalam struktur paralel harus diikuti oleh


kata/kelompok kata yang
memiliki bentuk grammatikal yang sama. Dengan kata lain, kalau kata
“both” diikuti
oleh kata benda, maka kata “and” sebagai pasangan katanya juga
harus diikuti oleh
kata benda.,tidak boleh diikuti oleh kata sifat, kata kerja atau jenis
kata yang lainnya.
Begitu pula pasangan kata yang lainnya.

Perhatikan kembali contoh – contoh di atas:


1. Both my father and my mother are still alive.

Kata Benda Kata Benda

2. The book is not only good but also cheap.

Kata Sifat

Coba kamu pelajari jenis kata apa yang mengikuti pasangan kata
hubung pada contoh
nomor 2, 3, dan nomor 4?
Ingat pula bahwa posisi kata hubung berpasangan tidak selalu
berada di awal kalimat
tetapi bisa juga di tengah kalimat, tergantung kepada letak kata yang
akan
dihubungkan. Seperti pada contoh nomor 5.

Latihan 1.
Sebutkan jenis kata yang mengikuti pasangan kata hubung dalam
kalimat berikut ini!
1. Both the teachers and the students are on holiday now.
2. Either John or Mary will come to Bob’s party.
3. The cat is not only funny but also tame.
4. That book is neither interesting nor accurate.
5. Indonesia exports rubber not only to Japan but also to America.
6. She can either dance or sing.
7. A good football player needs both good skills and strong body.
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8. Neither my brother nor my sister likes Indian films.

Latihan 2.
Gabungkan pasangan kalimat berikut dengan kata hubung
berpasangan yang diberikan dalam kurung.
Example :
1. I have met his father. I have met his mother.
(either.........or.......)
You write : => I have met either his father or his mother.
( pada contoh 1 di atas 2 buah objek yaitu “his father” dan “ his mother”
digabungkan oleh pasangan kata hubung “either.......or..........)
2. Wheat is grown in Kansas. Corn is grown in Kansas. (not
only....but also....)
You write : => Not only wheat but also corn is grown in Kansas.
(pada contoh 2 di atas 2 buah subjek yaitu “wheat” dan “ corn”
digabungkan oleh pasangan kata hubung “not only........but also..........)

1. The city suffers from air polluton.


The city suffers from water pollution. (either .......or..........)
=>___________________________________________________________
2. India has alot of population.
Indonesia has alot of population. (not only..........but also.............)
=>___________________________________________________________
3. He buys used cars. He sells used cars. (both .........and...........)
=>___________________________________________________________
4. Ahmad is studying math. Ahmad is studying chemistry.
(neither.......nor.......)
=>___________________________________________________________
5. RCTI is a private TV station. Metro TV is a private TV station.
(Either......or.......)
=>____________________________________________________________
6. My father reads Republika. My father reads Pikiran Rakyat.
(both........and.......)
=>____________________________________________________________
7. A teacher should be patient. A teacher should be wise. (not
only.......but also........)
=>____________________________________________________________
8. John can speak Japanese. Mary can speak Japanese.
(Neither........nor............)
=>____________________________________________________________
9. I lost my wallet. I lost my keys. (not only.............but also.................)
=>____________________________________________________________
10. The driver got injured in the accident.
The passengers got injured in the accident. (Both.......and............)
=>____________________________________________________________
11. I feel sleepy. I feel tired. (both..........and.................)
=>____________________________________________________________
12. People elected the national representatives members in the
general election.
People elected the local reprensentative members in the general
election.
 ______________________________________________________________

Notice:

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Bila 2 (dua) buah subjek dihubungkan oleh “both.......and.......”, maka
kata kerjanya (predikat) harus menggunakan kata kerja “jamak” (=tanpa
akhiran –s/-es).
Sedangkan 2 (dua) subjek yang dihubungkan oleh “not only.......but
also..........., either.....or..., dan neither.....nor.....”, subjek yang
lebih dekat kepada kata kerja (predikat) menjadi penentu apakah kata
kerjanya harus jamak atau tunggal.

Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:


1. Both the teacher and the student are here.

Kata Kerja (Predikat) Jamak karena dua


benda yaitu teacher dan student dihubungkan oleh kata hubung “both
……and…..”

2. Bandingkan dua kalimat berikut ini:


a. Neither the teacher nor the students are here.

Kata Kerja(Predikat) Jamak karena subjek


yang lebih dekat kepada predikat yaitu students
bentuknya jamak.
b. Neither the students nor the teacher is here.

Kata Kerja(Predikat) Tunggal, karena subjek


yang lebih dekat kepada predikat yakni teacher
bentuknya tunggal.

a. Not only Siti but also her parents like reading.

Kata Kerja(Predikat) Jamak, karena subjek yang


lebih dekat kepada predikat yakni parents
bentuknya jamak.

b. Not only her parents but also Siti likes reading.

Kata Kerja (Predikat) Tunggal, karena subjek yang lebih dekat kepada
predikat yakni Siti bentuknya tunggal.

Latihan 3. Garisbawahi bentuk kata kerja yang benar dari dalam


kurung.
1. Both the students and the teacher (are/is) planning to come.
2. Not only the students but also the teacher (are/is) planning to come.
3. Not only the teacher but also the students (are/is) planning to come.
4. Either the teacher or the students (work/works) hard.
5. Both wheat and corn (are/is) grown in Kansas.
6. Neither her husband nor her children (speak/speaks) English well.
7. Not only her children but also her husband (speak/speaks) English.
8. Both Roni and Bobi (enjoy/enjoys) horseback riding.
9. Either small fox or malaria (are/is) a dangerous disease.
10. Not only cats but also rabbits (breed/breeds) quickly.
11. Neither my brother nor my sister (like/likes) Indian films.
12. Not only the children but also the adults (read/reads) Harry
Potter.
13. Both John and Joe (go/goes) to work early.

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14. Either the teachers or the headmaster (come/comes) to school six
days a week.
15. Not only Mark but also his parents (was/were) not at home
yesterday.

Latihan 4. Susunlah kata – kata acak berikut menjadi kalimat yang baik
dan benar.
1. had – She – and – lunch – both – friends – dinner – with – her
=> ___________________________________________________________
2. math – not only – chemistry – I – studying – but also – am
=> ___________________________________________________________
3. your sister – or – at the airport – Either – will meet – your brother – you
=> ___________________________________________________________
4. nor –a refrigerator – a stove – They – neither – have – in their new
apartment
=> _______________________________________________________________
5. irreplaceable – oil – natural – are – and – coal – resources – Both
=> ___________________________________________________________
THE PASSIVE VOICE ( KALIMAT PASIF )

A. How to Make the Passive Voice.

In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the
passive verb. Only transitive verbs ( verbs that are followed by an object)
are used in the passive. Intransitive verbs such as happen(=terjadi),
sleep(=tidur), come(=datang), and seem (=tampaknya) are
impossible to be used in the passive.

Perhatikan contoh – contoh cara mengubah kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat


pasif berikut ini:

ACTIVE PASSIVE *

Simple Present Tense

1. Ahmad helps the boy. 1. The boy is helped by Ahmad.


2. My mother buys two kilos of 2. Two kilos of apples are bought by
apples. my mother.
3. She invites me to the party. 3. I am invited to the party by her.
4. My father doesn’t like horror 4. Horror films are not liked by my
films. father.
5. Do the boys see the that 5. Is that film seen by the boys?
film?

Present Continuous Tense

1. Ahmad is helping the boy. 1. The boy is being helped by Ahmad


2. My father is making the now.
coops. 2. The coops are being made by my
3. The girls are reading a father.
magazine. 3. A magazine is being read by the
4. My brother is not feeding the girls.
cats. 4. The cats are not being fed by my
5. Are they planting the trees? brother.

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5. Are the trees being planted by
them?

Present Perfect Tense

1. Ahmad has helped the boy. 1. The boy has been helped by
2. Someone has stolen the Ahmad.
phones. 2. The phones have been stolen by
3. The police have caught the someone.
thief. 3. The thief has been caught by the
4. They have not made an police.
agreement. 4. An agreement has not made by
5. Have the farmers cultivated them.
the 5. Has the rice field been cultivated
rice field? by the
farmers?

Simple Past Tense


1. Ahmad helped the boy. 1. The boy was helped by Ahmad.
2. The boys broke the window 2. The window was broken by the boys
yesterday. yesterday.
3. He brought the books to the 3. The books were brought by him to
library. the library.
4. President didn’t attend the 4. The conference was not attended
conference. by the
5. Did they know your address? president.
5. Was your address known by them?

Past Continuous Tense


1. Ahmad was helping the boy. 1. The boy was being helped by
2. The people were singing a Ahmad.
song. 2. A song was being sung by the
3. Mr. Anto was feeding the people.
chickens. 3. The chickens were being fed by Mr.
4. They were not building a Anto.
new house. 4. A new house was not being built
5. Was the servant cleaning the by them.
room? 5. Was the room being cleaned by the
servant?

Simple Present Future Tense


1. Ahmad will help the boy. 1. The boy will be helped by Ahmad.
2. My uncle will give a notebook 2. A notebook will be given by my
to me. uncle to me.
3. The government will issue 3. Some new rules will be issued by
some new the
rules. government.
4. We will not visit the zoo next 4. The zoo will not be visited by us
month. next month.
5. Will you invite Mr. Rene to 5. Will Mr. Rene be invited by you to
the party? the party?

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* Pola utama Kalimat Pasif adalah tobe + Kata Kerja bentuk III
( Past Participle )
Jadi secara umum polanya dapat kita tulis sebagai berikut:

No. Tenses Pola

1. Simple Present Tense is/are/am + Past participle

is/are/am + being + Past


2. Present Continuous Tense
Participle
have/has + been + Past
3. Present Perfect Tense
Participle
4. Simple Past Tense was/were + Past Participle
was/were + being + Past
5. Past Continuous Tense
Participle
6. Simple Future Tense will + be + Past Participle

Latihan 1. Ubahlah bentuk aktif menjadi pasif dengan


memberikan bentuk Be yang benar.

1. Tom opens the door. → The door ___________________ opened by


Tom.
2. Tom is opening the door. → The door ___________________ opened
by Tom.
3. Tom has opened the door. → The door ___________________ opened
by Tom.
4. Tom opened the door → The door ___________________ opened
by Tom. 5. Tom was opening the door.→ The door ___________________
opened by Tom. 6. Tom will open the door. → The door
___________________ opened by Tom.

Latihan 2.Ubahlah bentuk aktif menjadi pasif.

Example: Shakespeare wrote that play.


→ That play was written by Shakespeare.

1. Bill made that box.


→ __________________________________________________
2. Alex is preparing the report.
→ __________________________________________________
3. A waitress serves the customer.
→ __________________________________________________
4. The teacher is going to explain the lesson.
→ __________________________________________________

5. Shirley has suggested a new idea.


→ __________________________________________________

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6. Two horses were pulling the farmer’s wagon.
→ __________________________________________________
7. Josh will invite Ann to the party.
→ __________________________________________________
8. Kathy has returned the book to the library.
→ __________________________________________________
9. The president will make the announcement.
→ __________________________________________________
10. Mr. Brown is painting my house.
→ __________________________________________________

B. How to Use the Passive Voice.

The passive voice is usually used without a “by phrase.” We often


prefer the passive when it
is not known or not important to know exactly who or what performs
the action. The passive
is used when we want to stress the thing done than the doer of it.

Perhatikan contoh berikut:

1. This house was built in 1890.


(= Rumah ini dibangun pada tahun 1890.)

2. The new hotel will be built next year.


(=Hotel baru itu akan dibangun tahun depan.)

3. This problem can be solved soon.


(= Masalah ini dapat diselesaikan dengan segera.)

Latihan 3. Lengkapilah kalimat – kalimat ini dengan salah satu dari kata
kerja berikut. (Jangan
lupa mengubah kata kerja tersebut ke dalam bentuk Past
Participle).

arrest wake knock check translate


discuss look examine repair make

1. A decision will not be _____________ until the next meeting.


2. That building is not safe. It should be _____________ down before it
falls down.
3. When you go through Customs, your luggage will be ___________ by a
customs officer.
4. I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to be _______________ up at
6.00.
5. Her new book will probably be ______________ into a number of foreign
languages.
6. If you kicked a policeman, you would be _______________________
7. The missing boy is being ______________ for by the police.
8. The road is being ____________ by the worker.
9. The black box of the crash aeroplane will be __________ in Australia.
10. The problems were ________________ by the government and the
parliament last week.
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Latihan 4. Dalam teks berikut ini terdapat sejumlah kalimat pasif.
Temukan dan tulis kembali
kalimat – kalimat tersebut.

It was announced today that oil had been discovered off the coast of
a small island nation in the Carribbean. This is considered a very
important development. It came as a surprise, since it had been
believed that no oil existed there. The prime minister declared that
drilling rights would be given to a private companies.

The oil companies will be required to give proof of their capability of


extracting the oil economically. Applications will be accepted for a
period of sixty days, beginning March 1. The oil companies will be
asked to sign an agreement to pay a percentage of their profits to
the Department of Transportation. Some of these funds will be used
to build highways; some will be spent on the study of solar energy.
With the world’s oil supply becoming scarce, other kinds of fuel will
have to be utilized.

Example: It was announced today … (=Diumumkan hari


ini…..)

Latihan 5. Terjemahkan kalimat pasif berikut ke dalam bahasa Indonesia.


1. That theory was developed by Dr. Ikeda.

____________________________________________________________________
2. My sweater was made in England.

____________________________________________________________________
3. English is taught everywhere.

____________________________________________________________________
4. “Monas’ was built in President Soekarno’s era.

____________________________________________________________________
5. The Prambanan temple will be renovated next year.

____________________________________________________________________
6. A new strategy is being prepared to overcome the problem.

____________________________________________________________________
7. Thousands American soldiers are sent to Iraq and Afghanistan.

____________________________________________________________________

Beberapa Terminologi Penting dalam Bahasa Inggris

A. Subjek (Subject)
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Subjek adalah pokok kalimat. Biasanya berupa kata benda. Dalam
kalimat positif dan negatif terletak di awal kalimat. Sedangkan pada
kalimat tanya terletak setelah auxiliary (kata bantu). Contoh kata
bantu adalah: do, does, did, have, has, had, is, am, are, can, will,
must,
must, dll

Contoh :
1. She is a good student.

“she” adalah Subjek dalam kalimat positif


2. We don’t like smoking.

“we” adalah subjek dalam kalimat negatif.


3. Where did you go in the last holiday?

“you” adalah subjek dalam kalimat tanya informatif.


4. Are they playing basketball?

“they” adalah subjek dalam kalimat tanya interrogatif


B. Verba

Verba adalah kata yang sangat penting dalam kalimat bahasa


Inggris karena hampir setiap kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris
mengandung verba ( kata kerja). Verba tersebut berfungsi sebagai
Predikat biasanya terletak setelah subjek baik dalam kalimat positif,
negatif, maupun kalimat tanya. Namun dalam kalimat negatif dan
kalimat tanya biasanya di dahului oleh auxiliary.
auxiliary.
Contoh:
1. I invited all of my classmates to my birthday party.

“invited” adalah verba sebagai predikat dalam kalimat


positif.
2. We don’t like
like spacy food.

“like” adalah verba sebagai predikat dalam kalimat


negatif yang didahului oleh auxiliary “do + not”.
3. What do you need right now?

“need” adalah verba dalam kalimat tanya informatif yang


didahului oleh auxiliary “do”.
4. Did she call you yesterday?

“call” adalah kata kerja sebagai predikat dalam kalimat


tanya interrogatifyang didahului auxiliary “did”.
5. She is a good singer.

“is” adalah kata kerja (tobe) sebagai predikat dalam


kalimat positif.
Latihan 1. Sebutkan Subjek dan Verba (sebagai predikat) pada kalimat
kalimat berikut ini.
Contoh: The man speaks English very well.
Subjek kalimatnya adalah The man.man. Verba sebagai predikatnya
adalah speaks.
speaks.
1. Jack put the letter in the mailbox.

2. The children walked to school.

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3. Chairil Anwar wrote a lot of poems.

4. Mary didn’t do her homework.

5. Does Mr. John come from America?

6. Birds is flying in the sky.

7. Why did the baby cry?

8. The students need a pen.

9. My friends enjoyed the party.

10. Are they studying in the library?

11. Did you enjoy the party?

12. When will we go to the zoo?

13. She opened the door.

14. Father asks me to study hard.

15. Ana doesn’t always come on time.

16. George is a productive writer.

17. The soup smells very good.

18. I didn’t go anywhere during holiday.

19. Does she stay there?

20. What does he teach at the school?

21. Jack has a part-time job.

22. He works at a fast-food restaurant.

23. Monkeys don’t like water.

24. Do you have a pet?

25. When did they arrive?

C. Adjective (Kata sifat)


Kata sifat (adjective) adalah kata yang menerangkan kata benda
(noun). Dalam istilah tata bahasa kata sifat memodifikasi kata benda.
Memodifikasi artinya “mengubah sedikit”. Kata sifat tidak memiliki
bentuk jamak. Jadi kita tidak bisa menambahkan akhiran “e/es” kepada
kata sifat. Beberapa contoh kata sifat: good, bad, young, beautiful, old,
rich, poor, brown, hungry, thirsty, modern, careful, easy,
easy, dll.
Contoh pemakaian kata sifat untuk memodifikasi kata benda:
1. good student (=siswa yang baik)

“good” adalah kata sifat, “student” adalah kata benda.


2. rich man (=orang kaya)

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“rich” adalah kata sifat, “man” adalah kata benda.
3. beautiful girl (=gadis yang cantik)

“beatiful” adalah kata sifat, “girl” adalah kata benda.


Latihan 2. Sebutkan kata sifat dan kata benda dalam frase berikut ini.
1. Easy question

2. Soft voice

3. Good book

4. Intelligent student

5. Young man

6. Lazy boy

7. Black jacket

8. Big house

9. Hungry people

10. Busy road

11. Heavy door

12. Expensive car

13. Correct answer

14. Diligent girl

15. Green apple

Latihan 3
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frase yang berupa kata sifat + kata benda. Carilah semua
frase tersebut, kemudian pahami artinya!

Success Story

Yesterday afternoon Frank Hawkins was telling me about his


experiences as a young man. Frank is now the head of a very large
company, but as a little boy he used to work in a small shop. It was
his job to repair bicycles and at that time he was used to work
fourteen hours a day. He saved money for years and in 1938 he
bought a small work-shop of his own. During the war Frank used to
make spare parts of aeroplanes. At that time he had two helpers. By
the end of the war, the small work-shop had become a large factory
which employed seven hundred and twenty-eight people. Frank
smiled when he remembered his hard early years and the long road
to success. He was still smiling when the door opened and his
beautiful wife came. She wanted him to repair their son’s bicycle !

Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..


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Kompilasi Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas IX by Dedeng Sukmana, S.Pd.,M.M.Pd..
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