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Daya Dukung

(Bearing Capacity)

Tanah
kuat
batuan (rock)
SIVA

Pondasi Dangkal
~ untuk melimpahkan beban ke lapisan di bawahnya
~ utamanya untuk tanah kuat atau beban ringan

Tanah
kuat
batuan (rock)
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Footing Performance
Vertical Load

Vertical movement

safe load

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Elastic
maximum tolerable
settlement

maximum service ultimate


capacity
load

Plastic

Ultimate Limit State


Serviceability Limit State
Maximum allowable load =
min [safe load, max service load ]
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Plunging
Failure

Limit States

Serviceability

Ultimate
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Bearing Pressure Definitions


Allowable
Safe Bearing Pressure qasb <
/uA/
=q
F.q
s (settlement)
F

Plan Area, A

Ultimate Bearing Capacity qu = Ffail / A


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Foundation Failure

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Rotational Failure

Force

Soil Heave

Resistance

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Pola Keruntuhan

General Failure

Local Shear Failure

Punching Shear Failure


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General Failure

Local Shear Failure

Punching Shear Failure

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FOUNDATION FAILURE
1.Generalized Shear Failure
q

Soil Failure
Lines
Settlement
passive

rigid
radial
shear
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log spiral

2. Local Shear Failure


q

minor surface
heave only
Settlement

Medium dense
or firm soils
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3. Punching Shear Failure


q

No surface
heave

Settlement

Loose or
Soft Soils
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Perhitungan Daya Dukung


Untuk menghitung daya dukung dapat dilakukan dengan
analisisis berdasarkan :


Data Uji Laboratorium:


Teori Terzaghi
Teori Meyerhof
Teori Brinch Hansen
Teori Vesic

Data Uji Lapangan :


Plate Bearing Test
Cone Penetration Test/CPT (Sondir
Standard Penetration Test/SPT
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Aplikasi Teori Daya Dukung


KEMIRINGAN

TERZAGHI

MEYERHOF

HANSEN

VESIC

BEBAN

MUKA
TANAH

DASAR
PONDASI

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Daya Dukung Terzaghi


Anggapan-anggapan:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Tanah homogen isotropik


Mode keruntuhan pondasi adalah
adalah general shear failure
Pondasi adalah strip dengan
permukaan bawah kasar
Bidang keruntuhan geser diatas
permukaan tanah diabaikan
Permukaan tanah adalah
horizontal
Tidak terdapat gaya horizontal,
momen dan eksentrisitas
Pondasi terletak pada kedalaman
D<B
Daerah elastis mempunyai sudut
batas yang lurus dengan bid.
horizontal

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Keseimbangan Gaya

Keseimbangan gaya-gaya yang bekeja pada


baji tanah (soil wedge) adalah:
Qu.(2b).1 = - W + 2.Csin + 2.Pp
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1
q f = cN c + 1 DN q + B 2 N
2
Strip footing

1
qf =cNc +1DNq + B2N
2

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Faktor Daya Dukung Tanah Menurut Terzaghi


dan Berbagai Nilai N yang Berbeda

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Terzaghi Bearing Equation


qu nett = c.Nc + p'o (Nq - 1) + 0.5B
0.5B'N
applies to strip footing
 Nc, Nq and N are functions of , and are
usually given in graphical form
 c, and ' refer to soil properties in the failure
zone below the footing
 p'o is the effective overburden pressure at the
founding level
 shear strength contribution above footing level
is ignored : conservative for deeper footings


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Terzaghi Bearing Equation


qu nett = c.Nc + p'o (Nq - 1) + 0.5B
0.5B'N

Overburden

p'o = 'o D
B

Failure Zone (depth 2B)


Generalized soil strength : c, Soil unit weight : ' (total or
effective as applicable)
(drainage as applicable)
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Adopt weighted average values !

Bearing Capacity Factors

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Faktor daya dukung Terzaghi


a = e
N

3
) tg
4
2

=
2

2 cos

( 45 +

1 ). ctg

= (N

= 5 , 7 jika : = 0

= 2(N

+ 1 ). tg
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Faktor daya dukung Terzaghi


Nq = e

.tg

tg ( 45 +
2

N c = ( N q 1).ctg

N c = 5,7 jika : = 0
N = 2 ( N q + 1).tg
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Faktor Daya Dukung

Bearing capacity factors


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Rumus Umum Daya Dukung


Secara umum daya dukung dapat ditulis
sbb:

qu = c.c Nc + q. D.Nq + .0,5 B.N


dimana:

c, q, = faktor koreksi yang tergantung


pada bentuk,kedalaman,kemiringan: beban,
muka tanah, dasar pondasi
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Faktor Daya Dukung


Bearing Capacity Factor

1000

100

Nc
Nq
N

Nq = 33
Nc = 10

10

0.1
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N = 250

14o
0

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10

46o

35o
20

30

Friction Angle (deg)

40

50

Persamaan Daya Dukung Meyerhof

qu = c.N
c.
c.N
Ncscdcic + q.N
q
q..N
Nqsqdqiq + 0.5
0.5BN
BNsdi
Bearing Capacity
for soil
Correction
factors Factors
for footing
shape (s),

cohesion,
surcharge
and
weight
footing depth (d) and load inclination (i ).
Dfof friction angle, q = .Df

functions
determine from appropriate equations
c
determine
by equation
B or from graph
soil density, , (kN/m3)
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Faktor daya dukung Meyerhof


Nq = e

. tg

tg ( 45 +
2

N c = ( N q 1). ctg

N c = 5 ,14 jika : = 0
N = ( N q 1).tg (1, 4 . )
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Faktor daya dukung Hansen


Nq = e

.tg

tg ( 45 + )
2
N c = ( N q 1).ctg
2

N c = 5,14 jika : = 0
N = 1,5( N q 1).tg
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Faktor daya dukung Vesic


Nq = e

.tg

tg ( 45 + )
2
N c = ( N q 1).ctg
2

N c = 5,14 jika : = 0
N = 2( N q 1).tg
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Pengaruh Muka air

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Pondasi dengan Beban Momen


M
P
e

e=M
P
ekivalen eksentrisitas beban
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Cara Meyerhof menentukan eksentrisitas


beban
L

e
B

P
2e

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L' = L- 2e

Eksentrisitas 2 arah
L
2e2

e2

2e1
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L' = L- 2e1

B' = B- 2e2

e1

Daya Dukung Berdasar Data Uji Lapangan


(In Situ Test)




Plate Bearing Test


(Uji Pembebanan Pelat)
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
Cone Penetration Test/CPT
(Sondir)

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Plate Load Tests

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Plate Bearing Test


(Uji Pembebanan Pelat)

Tanah dengan kekuatan konstan


qu = qu , p
B < 4 Bp

Tanah Dengan Kekuatan Meningkat


Secara Linear Thd Kedalaman
B < 4 Bp

qu = qu , p

Ekstrapolasi Hasil Uji Penurunan


Terzaghi & Peck.
q
q1 =
i
1,5

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B
Bp

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Standard Penetration Test (SPT)




PONDASI TELAPAK (FOOTING)


MEYERHOF (1956,1974)
N
B 4 ft qa,1 = n Kd
F1
N B + F3
B > 4 ft qa,1 = n
F2 B

Dimana :
qa,1 = daya dukung ijin utk penurunan 1 inchi
Kd = 1+0,33 D/B1,33
Nn = SPT yang dikoreksi
F = faktor tergantung energi pukulan SPT


PONDASI PELAT (MAT/RAFT)


N
q a ,1 = n K d
F3

q a = q a ,1
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Cone Penetration Test/CPT


(Sondir)
SCHMERTMANN (1978)
 DAYA DUKUNG BATAS PADA TANAH NON
KOHESIF
MENERUS
: qu = 28 0,0052(300-qc)1,5
BUJUR SANGKAR : qu = 48 0,0090(300-qc)1,5


DAYA DUKUNG BATAS PADA TANAH KOHESIF


MENERUS
: qu = 2 + 0,28 qc
BUJUR SANGKAR : qu = 5 + 0,34 qc
qu dan qc dalam tsf atau kg/cm2
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Belajar

Jangan tunggu sampai menit terakhir.


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Exams

My mama always said, Exam is like a box


of chocolates; you never know what you
are gonna get

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