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ANALISA STRUKTUR METODA

MATRIKS
(BASIC CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS)
(BASIC CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS)

• Permodelan Struktur, nodal displacement


• Action and Displacement
• Hukum Analisis Struktur
• Derajat Ketidaktentuan
• Prinsip Superposisi
• Action and Displacement Equations
• Matriks Kekakuan
• Equivalent Joint Loads
Pemodelan Struktur
• Guna memudahkan dalam analisis maka
struktur yang ditinjau dapat disederhanakan
menjadi model diskrit.
• Model diskrit diperoleh dengan membagi
struktur menjadi unsur-unsur
(elemen/batang) dimana tiap elemen dibatasi
oleh titik kumpul/titik simpul/node.
Joint/nodal
• Titik simpul/join/nodal pada elemen struktur dapat berupa
pertemuan antar elemen/member, titik/tempat perletakan
dan ujung bebas elemen

Roller support

Hinge/pinned support

Fixed support Free end


Nodal Displacement
Deformasi
• Pembebanan pada struktur menyebabkan struktur
mengalami deformasi (perubahan bentuk).

• Deformasi dapat berupa :


1. Translasi
2. Rotasi
• Jenis deformasi :
 Normal (Axial deformation)
 Momen lentur (Flexural deformation)
 Momen torsi (Torsional deformation)
 Geser (Shearing deformation)
Tipe Deformation
Axial deformation

P
d (∆ x ) = ε x .dx = .dx
εX =
σx
=
(P A) = P EA
E E EA L
P L
∴ ∆ L = ∫ d (∆ x ) = ∫ .dx = P
O
EA EA

EA = axial rigidity

Dimana : A = luas tampang ; E = modulus elastis bahan


L = panjang elemen
Flexural Deformation

M .y σx
σx = − εx = − =−
M .y
Iz E EI Z
L
ε x .dx M M EIz=flexural rigidity
dθ = − = .dx ∴θ = ∫ dθ = ∫ .dx
y EI Z O
EI Z
Shearing deformation

V .dx
Shear Stress ; τ=
V .Q Displacemen relatif ; dλ = f .
I z .b G. A
L
f .V f .L
∴ ∆ S = ∫ dλ =
GA O∫
τ .dx = .V
Shearing Strain ; γ = GA
G
GA
= shearing rigidity f = shape factor
f
Torsional deformation

T.r τ T .r γ maks T
τ= γ = = dφ = dx = dx
J G G.J R G.J
L
T.R τ maks
T .R ∴ φ = ∫ dφ = ∫ .
T
dx =
L
∴τ max = γ maks = = G.J GJ
.T
J G G.J O

J = momen inersia polar


G.J = torsional rigidity
konstanta torsi
Hukum Analisis
• Keseimbangan/Equilibrium
• Kompatibilitas/Compatibility
• Constitutive Law
Keseimbangan/Equilibrium

∑F x =0 ∑M x =0
∑F y =0 ∑M y =0
∑F z =0 ∑M z =0
• Assuming that forces are in x-y plane (2
dimensi dengan sumbu x-y), maka persamaan
yg perlu diperhatikan adalah

∑F x =0 ∑F
y =0 ∑M z =0
Kompatibilitas/Compatibility
• Keserasian dari perpindahan atau kontinuitas perpindahan di
seluruh struktur. Misal : pada tumpuan jepit tidak terjadi
translasi maupun rotasi, pada titil simpul yang kaku
perpindahan yang terkadi (translasi dan rotasi) harus sama.
• Contoh :

θA ≠ 0 ; ∆V A = 0 ;∆H A = 0
θA = 0 ;∆V A = 0 ;∆H A = 0
θ CA = θ CD ; ∆V C = 0 ;∆H C ≠ 0
θB = 0 ;∆V B = 0 ;∆H B = 0
θD ≠ 0 ;∆V D = 0 ;∆H D ≠ 0
Constitutive Law/Hooke’s Law
• Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that
the force needed to extend or compress a spring by
some distance is proportional to that distance. That
is: F=k.x ; where k is a constant factor characteristic
of the spring, its stiffness.

Hooke's law: the force is proportional to the extension


Action and Displacement

Action is most commonly a single force or a couple.


Displacement is most commonly a translation or rotation at some point in a structure.
Translation  distance moved by a point in a structure
Rotation  angle of rotation of the tangent to the elastic curve (or its normal) at a point
Action and Displacement
The cantilever beams is subjected by P1
and M1 at point B
The action P1 is a concentrated force acting
downward at the end of the beam, and the
“actions” downward translation ∆ at the end of the beam
is the displacement that corresponds to this
“reactive force and action . Similiarly, the couple M1 and the
reactive moment” rotation θ are corresponding action and
displacement

However, that the displacement ∆


corresponding to the load P1 is not caused solely
by the force P1, nor the displacement θ
corresponding to M1 caused by M1 alone

Instead, in this example, both ∆ and θ are


displacement due to P1 and M1 acting
Simultaneously on the beam
Action and Displacement

(a) Cantilever beam subjected to action A1,A2,A3. Displacement corresponding to A1


A2,A3 denoted by D1,D2,D3 D11 indicates that the displacement correspond
to action A1 and caused by action A1
(b) Cantilever beam subjected to A1 only D21 indicates that the displacement correspond
to action A2 and caused by action A1
D12 indicates that the displacement correspond
(c) Cantilever beam subjected to A2 only to action A1and caused by action A2

(d) Cantilever beam subjected to A3 only And so on


• Then the displacements in the beam under all
loads acting simultaneously are determine by
summation :
D1 = D11 + D12 + D13
D2 = D21 + D22 + D23
D3 = D31 + D32 + D33

• These summations are expressions of the


principle of superposition
Principle of superposition
• The principle of superposition maybe stated
as the deflection at a given point in a structure
produced by several loads acting
simultaneously on the structure can be found
by superposing deflections at the same point
produced by loads acting individually.
According to the principle of superposition,
the equations can be written :
Ra = Ra’+Ra” Rb = Rb’+Rb”
Mb = Mb’+Mb” D = D’+D”

The principle of superpositions can be used when


the structure is said to be linearly elastic
Derajat Ketidaktentuan/Degree of
freedom
• Derajat ketidaktentuan statis (static indeterminacy)
adalah jumlah kelebihan gaya pada struktur untuk
dapat diselesaikan dengan persamaan static
equilibrium.

DKS = 3

DKS = 1
Derajat Ketidaktentuan/Degree of
freedom
• Derajat ketidaktentuan kinematis (kinematic
indeterminacy) adalah jumlah displacement
(translasi dan rotasi) yang belum diketahui besarnya
pada ujung-ujung batang.  digunakan dalam
metode direct stiffness

DKK = 0

DKK = 5
Contoh sederhana
1

{
∆ f ∆ D=f F
F f = fleksibilitas
∆ D ∆

F = gaya / action S
D = displacemen
∆ 1 ∆ F=kD
k = kekakuan

1 1
k= atau f =
f k
Metode Analisis Struktur dengan Matriks
Metode gaya
Gaya merupakan variabel utama yang tidak diketahui

{D } = [F ]{A}
Dimana D adalah displacement/perpidahan, F adalah fleksibilitas
dan A adalah aksi/gaya. Satuan F = panjang/gaya

Metode Kekakuan / Perpindahan


Perpindahan merupakan variabel utama yang tidak diketahui

{A} = [S ]{D }
Dimana S adalah stiffness/kekakuan.
Satuan S = gaya/panjang
Contoh
A1

D1
D2

STRUKTUR BALOK MENERIMA BEBAN TERPUSAT A1 DAN MOMEN LENTUR A2


PADA UJUNG KANTILEVER SEPERTI TERGAMBAR
HITUNG MATRIKS KEKAKUAN [K] DARI STRUKTUR TERSEBUT ????
Metode Kekakuan
-6EI
E,I,L S21= 2
L
1
12 EI 6 EI
S11=
12EI A1 = 3
D1 − 2
D2
L
3
L L
4EI
S22=
L 6 EI 4 EI
A2 = − +
1

2
D1 D2
L L
-6EI
S12= 2
L

 12 EI 6 EI 

Lihat tabel B4  A1   L3
  =  6 EI L2   D1 
 A2  − 4 EI   D2 

 L2 L 

[A] = [S ] {D}
Contoh metode kekakuan
(a),(b) show the actions and displacements
in the original beam
(c) Show a unit displacement corresponding to A1
induced in the structure while displacement
correponding to A2 and A3 are equal to zero
(d) Show a unit displacement corresponding to A2
induced in the structure while displacement
correponding to A1 and A3 are equal to zero
(e) Show a unit displacement corresponding to A3
induced in the structure while displacement
correponding to A1 and A2 are equal to zero

Note :
A = F = action/gaya
D = displacement
S = k = koefisien kekakuan
Contoh metode kekakuan
Stiffness coefisient S11 represents an action
coressponding to A1, when a unit displacement of
type D1 is introduced while the other displacements,
Namely, D2 and D3, are kept equal to zero
Stiffness coefisient S12 represents an action
coressponding to A1 caused by a unit displacement
type of D2, while D1 and D3, are kept equal to zero

A = SD
A1 = S11 D1 + S12 D2 + S13 D3
A2 = S 21 D1 + S 22 D2 + S 23 D3
A3 = S31 D1 + S32 D2 + S33 D3

Note :
A = F = action/gaya
D = displacement
S = k = koefisien kekakuan
Matriks Kekakuan
• The action equations for the structure with n actions
A acting upon it can be obtained by solving
simultaneously for the action in term of
displacements
Equivalent Joint Loads
• Pada metode matriks, pengaruh beban luar
yang bekerja pada batang (atau “member
loads”) dapat diekivalensikan dengan beban
pada node/joint yang mempunyai pengaruh
sama seperti beban aslinya  Equivalent Joint
Loads
• Equivalent joint loads yang ditambahkan
dengan actual joint loads dinamakan
combined joint loads
Table A.3
Displacement of
prismatic beams
Table B1
Fixed-Ends Actions
Caused by Loads
Table B4
Fixed-Ends Actions
Caused by End-
Displacements
Daftar pustaka
• PENGANTAR ANALISA STRUKTUR METODE
MATRIKS ( Erwin Rommel (FT.Sipil UMM))
• Konsep-konsep Dasar Analisa Struktur
(bhupalaka.files.wordpress.com)
• Matrix Analysis of Framed Structures by
William Weaver Jr , James M.Gere)