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Douglas DC-8 Medium to Long-Range Jetliner

[B] DESKRIPSI: Ketika Boeing mulai mengembangkan 707, Douglas terpacu untuk mengembangkan sebuah pesawat komersial bertenaga jet-nya sendiri karena takut kehilangan posisi pasar. Dimulai dengan sebuah Program Kecelakaan (Crash Program), Douglas berhasil menerbangkan DC-8 tiga tahun setelah program dimulai. Walaupun dari luar tampak similar dengan Boeing707 dengan sebuah sayap terpasang-rendah tertekuk ke belakang dan empat mesin turbojet, DC-8 dilengkapi dengan inovasinya sendiri, termasuk fitur servisabilitas dan reliabilitas canggih. Model produksi awal semuanya mempunyai dimensi dan berat similar, tetapi berbeda dalam pemasangan mesin, membuat keuntungan untuk pengembangan secara cepat dalam teknik propulsi. Sementara DC-8 Seri 10 dan 20 dinuat untuk keperluan penerbangan domestik, Seri 30 dibuat untuk jarak terbang interkontinental. Sedangkan Seri 50 dikenalkan lay-out kabin baru yang memungkinkan jumlah penumpang yang lebih banyak, dan seri ini juga merupakan model varian kargo built-in yang pertama. Akan tetapi, varian produksi utama pesawat ini adalah seri Super 60 yang diperkenalkan pada 1967. Seri ini terdiri dari DC-8 Super 61 yang diperpanjang yang mampu mengangkut 29 penumpang, serta pesawat D8 Super 62 dan DC-8 Super 63 jarak-jauh dengan bodi pesawat yang diperpanjang. Ketika efesiensi bahan bakar dan kebisingan menjadi perhatian utama selama tahun 1970an, banyak model pesawat ini selanjutnya yang dilengkapi dengan mesin turbofan canggih baru dan didesain ulang seperti Super 71, Super 72, dan Super 73 HISTORY:

First Flight: (DC-8-10) 30 May 1958; (DC-8-71) April 1982; (DC-8-72) 5 December 1981; (DC-8-73) 4 March 1982 Service Entry: September 1959 (with Delta Airlines and United Airlines) CREW: 3 flight crew PASSENGERS: (DC-8-10) 179; (DC-8-50) 189; (DC-8-63) 259 AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root: DSMA-277/-280 Wing Tip: DSMA-281 DIMENSIONS: Length: (DC-8-10) 150.50 ft (45.90 m); (DC-8-62) 157.42 ft (47.97 m); (DC-8-63) 187.42 ft (57.12 m) Wingspan: (DC-8-10) 148.42 ft (45.24 m); (DC-8-62) 154.42 ft (47.07 m) Height: 42.42 ft (12.93 m) Wing Area: 2,927 ft2 (271.92 m2) Canard Area: not applicable WEIGHTS: Empty: (DC-8-63) 153,750 lb (69,740 kg); (DC-8-73) 166,500 lb (75,500 kg) Typical Load: unknown Max Takeoff: (DC-8-63) 350,000 lb (158,760 kg); (DC-8-73) 355,000 lb (161,025 kg) Fuel Capacity: internal: unknown; external: not applicable Max Payload: (DC-8-10) 34,360 lb (15,585 kg); (DC-8-63F/CF) 116,000 lb (52.615 kg); (DC-8-73) 105,820 lb (48,000 kg) PROPULSION: Powerplant: (DC-8-10) four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 turbojets; (DC-8-30) four Pratt & Whitney JT4A-9 turbojets; (DC-8-40) four Rolls-Royce Conway 509 turbofans; (DC-8-63) four Pratt & Whitney JT3D-7 turbofans (DC-8-73) four General Electric/SNECMA CFM56-2-C1 turbofans Thrust: (DC-8-10) 54,000 lb (240.21 kN); (DC-8-30) 67,200 lb (298.93 kN); (DC-8-40) 70,000 lb (311.39 kN); (DC-8-63) 76,000 lb (338.08 kN); (DC-8-73) 88,000 lb (391.46 kN) PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed: at altitude: 600 mph (965 km/h); at sea level: unknown cruise speed: 525 mph (840 km/h) Initial Climb Rate: unknown Service Ceiling: unknown Range: (DC-8-10) 4,160 nm (7,710 km); (DC-8-63) 3,905 nm (7,240 km); (DC-8-73) 4,830 nm (8,950 km) g-Limits: unknown KNOWN VARIANTS: DC-8 Series 10: Initial production model; 2 built DC-8 Series 20: Similar to Series 10 but with more powerful engines for operation in hot or high-altitude conditions; 49 built DC-8 Series 30: Long-range model and first designed for intercontinental operations; 52 built

DC-8 Series 40: Similar to Series 30 but equipped with more powerful Rolls-Royce engines; 29 built DC-8 Series 50: Improved model with more powerful engines and revised cabin layout allowing 10 additional passengers to be seated, also featured new wing leading edge that reduced drag improving speed and range; 162 built DC-8AF Jet Traders: Freighter model of Series 50 DC-8CF Jet Traders: Convertible cargo/passenger model of Series 50 DC-8 Super 60: Generic designation for three new models described below, all three available in passenger only (DC-8-6_), cargo only (DC-8-6_F), or combination cargo/passenger (DC-8-6_CF) variants; 262 built DC-8 Super 61: Enlarged model with extended fuselage for up to 259 passengers DC-8 Super 62: Long-range model with lengthened fuselage for greater fuel capacity but still carrying 189 passengers, also featured larger wingspan DC-8 Super 63: Final production model combining enlarged fuselage of the Super 61 with new wing and other aerodynamic improvements of the Super 62 DC-8 Super 71: Super 61 airframes equipped with new more fuel efficient GE/SNECMA turbofans allowing much improved range and meeting noise regulations DC-8 Super 72: Super 62 airframes equipped with new engines DC-8 Super 73: Super 63 airframes equipped with new engines EC-24 Former United Airlines DC-8-54F modified to simulate enemy communications and control systems and used by the US Navy; 1 converted KNOWN OPERATORS: Civil: Absa Cargo AECA Aeral Aero del Peru Aeromar Airlines Aromaritime Aeromexico Aeronaves del Peru Aero Peru Aerouruguay Aer Turas Teoranta Affretair African Air Charter African International Airways Agro Air International Air Afrique Air Algerie Airborne Express Air Canada Air Cargo Spain Air d'Evasions Air Evasion Air France Air Gabon Air Gabon Cargo Air India

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