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DEFINISI BOILER

SUATU BEKAS YANG TERTUTUP YANG DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENJANAKAN STIM PADA TEKANAN YANG MELEBIHI TEKANAN ATMOSFERA TERMASUK PERALATAN SUPERHEATER & ECONOMIZER SERTA KELENGKAPAN LAIN YANG ADA DIPASANG KEPADANYA.
BBB / SHMS

AKTA = Undang-undang

PERBEZAAN ISTILAH
- Akta dibincang diperingkat Parlimen

- Dilulus Oleh Menteri Sumber Manusia


Regulation = Peraturan

- Terhasil dari akta & dibuat oleh JKJ Rules = Hukuman / Penalti
-Undang-undang melibatkan misconduct

- Denda Paling Tinggi RM 1000.00


BBB / SHMS

- Paling ditakuti Seal Kilang

AKTA KILANG DAN JENTERA 1967 (ACT 139)


FMA 67Ada 15 Regulation, 4 Berkaitan Boiler
FMA (Steam Boiler & UPV) Regulation, 1970.

FMA (Person-In-Charge) Regulation, 1970.


FMA (Certificate Of CompetencyExaminations) Regulation, 1970. FMA (Notification, Certificate of Fitness and Inspections) Regulation, 1970.
BBB / SHMS

AKTA KESELAMATAN DAN KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN 1994


1. OSH (Employers Safety & Health General Policy Statement)(Exception) Regulation 1995 2. OSH (Control Of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) [CIMAH] Regulation 1996 3. OSH ( Safety & Health Committee) Regulation 1996 4. OSH (Classification, Packaging & Labeling of Hazardous Chemical) Regulation 1997 5. OSH (Safety & Health Officer) Regulation 1997 6. OSH (Use & Standard of Exposure of Chemical Hazardous To Health) Regulation 2000
BBB / SHMS

OSHA 94
1. What is OSHA 94 - New act - Occupational Safety & Health Act 1994

- Tambahan kepada FMA 1967


- Mengawal & melindungi kebajikan & keselamatan pekerja dikilang & tempat lain - Semua bidang pekerjaan kecuali di laut & army 2. Why OSHA 94 FMA 67 limited scope

- FMA 67 Very detail & specific


- FMA 67 terlalu bergantung Kjjn - Satistic kmlgn mangkin tingkat
BBB / SHMS

OBJEKTIF OSHA 94
1. Memberi / Melindungi Keselamatan pekerja

- Kesihatan pekerja
- Kebajikan pekerja 2. Melindungi orang luar kpd Hazard di workplace 3. Suasana pekerjaan yg diperlukan dari segi psychology pekerja & kehendak psychology 4. Mempunyai sistem keselamatan & kesihatan pekerjaan yang berasaskan undang2 & kod industri yang praktik dimana ianya berkombinasi dengan data.
BBB / SHMS

1. Nama

Pengenalan Tempat Bertugas

2. Grad U ? & Thn ? 3. Tempat Kerja

4. Tempoh
5. Jenis Boiler 6. HS

7. Tujuan Boiler=prod stim


Jln Turbine (Pow) - Sterilization

- Heating B/Minyak
- K/plant - Press
BBB / SHMS

-BST

TUJUAN DATANG Person incharge

Tujuan & Borang JKKP

HS ? Perlukan ?

BORANG JKKP JKJ 105 Layout

- (Permohonan Pemasangan Peralatan


Di ) JKJ 14 - Perakuan Kelayakan (CF) - Penting utk dapat sijil pendaftaran
BBB / SHMS

JKJ 127 - HT Certificate PMD, PMT

1. Visit 2 x /bulan

TUGAS VE

2. Report & submit to JKKP sblm end of each month 3. Accompany during any JKKP inspection

4. Inspection
Initial Ins. Plant / unit baru - Regular / annual Ins. 15 or 12 bln

- Supplementary Ins. Datang mengejut tanpa notis


- Special Insp. Datang utk periksa HT - Accident Case

- Commissioning SB
- Boiler Failure - Further Ins. Datang dgn notis utk periksa samaada
BBB / SHMS

unit2 tersenarai betul-betul beroperasi

1. Tarikh Sah sehingga

JKJ. 14 Perakuan Kelayakan (CF)

2. ASWP = dlm kpa & psi

3. No. pendaftaran
4. Nama Pembuat 5. S/N 6. Nama boiler & Jenis WTB / FTB 7. HS = m3 & ft2

8. Nama Insp.
* Tempoh 15bln + 3bln + 3bln * Permohonan lanjutan 1 bulan sblm tamat
BBB / SHMS

- (Surat, CF asal, lap opr, lap main, lap W threatment, NDT & aktiviti kslmtn)

Conversion Table
Kpa = Psi x 6.895 m2 = ft2 x 0.093 lb = kg x 2.205
OC
BBB / SHMS

Psi = Kpa x 0.145 ft2 = m2 x 10.763 kg = lb x 0.4535


OF

= (OF 32) / 1.8

= I.8(OC) + 32

Jenis Boiler
1. WTB Air bergerak dalam tube manakala flue gas dari furnance ke bhg luar yang bersebelahannya 2. FTB - Flue gas dari furnance mengalir dalam

tube manakala air dibahagian luar tube


yang bersebelahannya. 3. Combi. WTB & FTB Biasanya WTB dahulu

baru FTB.
4. Electrode boiler Heating guna elektrod
BBB / SHMS

Maklumat Lain Boiler


1. Jenis Pembuat -Pacage Boiler Dtg dlm btk Pacage -Constructed Boiler Di bina & pasang di side 2. Jenis Fuel Pepejal (A/batu, kayu, fibre dsb) - Liquid (Diesel) - Gas (LPG)

- Chemical Reaction
3. Jenis Pembakaran Direct - Waste Heat boiler
BBB / SHMS

Boiler Tube Name


1. Generating Tube / Riser - Tube yang direct kpd flue gas - Material biasanya medium carbon steel - OD size 2 3 inci

- Thickness 3.2mm 4.5mm


2. Downcomer Tube Tidak direct kpd flue gas - Diameter > 6in

3. Superheater Tube
- Material High Carbon Steel
BBB / SHMS

- Guna utk generate superheated steam

Boiler Tube Name


4. Distributing Tube / Injector - Letaknya dalam upper drum dr FCV ke dlm - Ada lubang 1/8 inci hala ke bwh elak kocak - Func. distribute air dlm drum

- Kedudukan bawah LWL


5. Economizer Tube - Tujuan utk naikkan Temp feed water

- Mengurangkan Flue gas Temp lepas ke udara


- Kedudukan selepas pass yang tersakhir
BBB / SHMS

6. Tubeless boiler Drum shj & 1in thickness

1. Flaring (expand)

Pemasangan Tube

2. Welding

3. Forging

BBB / SHMS

Steam Theory

N = Sifat2 stim & air sama terjadi pada P = 3200psi T1 = T2 = Evaporatif temp. (300oC dalam sawit) T3 > T1 = T2 Degree of fraction = 1 / (1-x) where x = wet steam

Wet steam =Wap air yg masih bersentuh dgn air pada T sama
Dry steam = Wap yg tidak mengandungi cairan & susah
BBB / SHMS

dipanaskan

Heat Transfer

3 Kaedah

1. Sinaran
2.Konduksi 3.Olahan

BBB / SHMS

SB Water Circulation
OBJEKTIF 1. Better Heat Transfer 2. Cooling system for SB 3. Better chemical reaction
BBB / SHMS

4. Better BD

SB Fan & Flue gas Circulation

BBB / SHMS

Essential Fittings
4V 2 SV (HS < 100ft2,1)
- MSV - BDV

2G PG
- Insp. Test att.

- FCV
5W 2 Feed Pump (HS < 150ft2,1) - Fusi Plug - 2 WG (Eva < 300 lb/hr,1)

2P Name Plate
- Regis. Plate

- LW Fuel Cut Off


BBB / SHMS

- LW Alarm

SV
Punca-punca SV Blow 1. 2. During Steam test Setting SV

3.
4. SET SV 5.

Online test (tarik leaver)


During over setting P Before operate MSV

1.
2. 3.

WP + 5psi
Between 1 & 3 ASWP BBP

* Kalau tak blow E/Shutdown

STARVATION SV drum blow dulu sehinggakan stim tak supply ke SH Overheating pada SH tube

ASWP 0 70 psi 2 3psi ASWP 71 300psi 5 10 psi


BBB / SHMS

ASWP 301 1000psi 1%

PG

BBB / SHMS

PG Accessories
Tester use for checking PG accuracy
Siphon
(Utk elak kerosakan PG dgn keadaan air dlm sifon / Tiada direct stim ke PG)

BBB / SHMS

Test Gauge Glass


1. Normal Work 2. PPE 3. Beside / Safe 4. Drain safe

5. DC elak
Thermal shock

6. Follow diagram
Test WC keluar steam Emergency Shutdown
BBB / SHMS

Test SC keluar air BD

Why & When Test Gauge Glass


WHY Bacaan sebenar Operation OK

WHEN
Sblm Start

Pertukaran shift
Selepas shutdown (normal / emergency)
BBB / SHMS

Before Steam Test

BDV
1. Tujuan Tomaintain boiler water Quality 2. P.O.M TDS / hareness, Petro Si 3. Type Continuous BD (Auto) - Intermitent BD (Manual ikut spec W)

P.O.M, 1 x /Shift or TDS hampir out


dari 1800 2000ppm

4. Tempat letak BDV


Intermitent Terbawah lower drum
BBB / SHMS

Continous Bawah operation WL atas LWL

Fusible Plug
1. OBJ Early protection utk elak SB part out 2. Letaknya WTB, 3in bwh LWL - FTB, 3in atas tube teratas 3. < 2 thn tukar sbb regulation

4. Gun metal Al alloy / Tin Alloy


5. Tmelt = 150oF + Tsaturated steam

6. SB soild Fuel shj & ASWP > 100psi


7. P.O.M tak ada fusi. plug sbb dah ada sistem lain spt LW Alarm, WG dsb
BBB / SHMS

MSV
1. Letak Top upper drum / SH Header
2. Direct & sudut tegak 3. OPR Time Selepas SV blow & drop kpd WP - Cara buka Manual, Buka sikit dulu + 50psi utk ada hair crack

supaya tak lekat


- Machine operate

- Sesetengah MSV ada balance


BBB / SHMS

pipe

Starting UP Boiler (Pemeriksaan Awalan)


1. Check- Log Book - WL O/head tank & dearator tank - SB WL - WG - Chem dosing equipment

2. Tutup - Header drain cock


- BDV - MSV - Aux V 3. Buka
BBB / SHMS

- S/H drain

1. Purging (10-15min) utk discharge explosive / flamable gas by start stop ID fan (-ve P) 2. Masuk Feul + Start firing 3. Tutup Furnance door 4. Pasang FD, FJ & SSB Fan 5. Buka damper ID Fan & Ash pit door (Create natural draft & then assign by FD Fan)

Starting UP Boiler (Firing)

6. A/p steam keluar dari air vent, tutup air cock & rise P Follow 0-50psi 45min 50-200psi 7. Buka MSV pada WP 45min 200 300psi 20min
BBB / SHMS

1. Close MSV

Normal Shutdown

2. Stop Feul supply 3. Stop All Fan FJSSBFD5minID fan

4. Pull out fire dlm furnance


5. Buka semua steam drain V 6. Close semua steam outlet V

7. Reduce P gradually Till safety cond.


8. Open S/H drain V 9. Open air vent / cock 10. Open Outlet damper / furnance door to allow nature draft 11. Purging by start stop ID Fan * Make sure WL 1/2
BBB / SHMS

1. Close MSV

Emergency Shutdown (LWL)

2. Stop All Fan FJSSBFDID fan

3. Stop Feul supply


4. Pull out fire dlm furnance 5. Open Fire door / damper 6. Open Bypass S/H 7. Biarkan boiler sejuk sendiri 8. Open air vent 9. Report to JKKP
BBB / SHMS

1. Gauge Glass pecah

Emergency Shutdown (Others)

- Test WG satu lagi kalau LWL Emergency Shut down - Test WG satu lagi kalau OK
a. Close SC & WC
b. Open DC c. Normal stop boiler 2. Over Pressure - Close MSV bila pressure drop 3. SV tak blow a. Continue guna steam

b. Decrease rate of Firing Stop


FJSSBFDID, Pull fire & Tutup damper c. Stop FP d. Cooled down slowly
BBB / SHMS

1. Tujuan Utk confirm size SV 2. Masa Commisioning

Steam Test

- Upgrade / downgrade biler 3. Cara - Naikkan stim pada setting P - Tutup MSV

- Tutup FCV
- Tutup FP - Tutup BDV - Continuous Firing * Biarkan test 10min, P raise mesti < 10% opr 4. Safety Solid Feul SB W WL sbb SV blow WL drop

- Semua fitting sudah test


- Feul control damper with natural draft
BBB / SHMS

- Disconnect Alarm

HT
1. Time Commisioning - Setiap < 7 thn - Lepas repair yang libatkan strength - Permintaan Insp. pada SB yang dia tak dapat masuk 2. HT Pressure - HS < 100psi, 2ASWP - HS > 100psi, 1.5ASWP - Fitting, 2ASWP - Welded joint, 2ASWP 3. Holding time 20min dgn Zero P drop 4. HT tak berjaya, ASWP turun 5. Medium Air
BBB / SHMS

Simpan Boiler
1. Few Days Wet method Maintain SB Water Threatment - Maintain normal WL 2. <1bln Wet method Fully fooded with water - Keluarkan angin - Threated water with catalized NaS04 - Tujuan utk beri Alkali access 150ppm

- Together with Alkali (NaCO3 / NaH2)


- pH value 10 11 - Check lavel & test water /week 3. <1bln Ni2 blanket - 90% air & 10% hot Ni2 4. >1bln Dry method Coated with Si2 gel - Drain & dry with udara panas - Letak small electric heater bwh boiler
BBB / SHMS

- Buka door / manhole for ventilation

Water Threatment

BBB / SHMS

Boiler Water Parameter


Feed Water Al ion = Nil

Dissolve 02 < 0.02ppm


Dissolve Solids < 100ppm Total Hardness < 5ppm

Water Out pH = 10 11 Sulfit = 30 70ppm

PH = 6.8 7.5

Posfate = 30 50ppm
TDS = 1800 2000ppm Caustic Alk = 250 400ppm Silica = 100 200ppm Tot Hardness < 5ppm Cloride < 150ppm Fe ion < 2ppm

BOILER
BBB / SHMS

SBB BOILER FAILURE


SEBAB UTAMA Design / Material spec BOILER OPERATION Over P

Boiler Operation
Feed water FEED WATER Corrosion Scaling

Over Heating
Furnance Explosion External loading Thermal Fatigue Faulty Equipment

Erosion
Pitting Caustic cracking
BBB / SHMS

Supervision fault

MUSABAB BOILER FAILURE


OVER HEATING Loss of water Scaling Starvation LOSS OF WATER False water lavel

Pump Failure
No water supply Feed Water line failure

Flame Impigment
By pass Flue gas Restriction Flue Gas

Water alarm failure


Fail LWF Cut off EXTERNAL LOADING SB Hunting Air berkocak SV Blow

THERMAL FATIGUE
Sudden start / stop To high fluctuation T
BBB / SHMS

Heavy shoot

Water hammer

DEFECT SBB FAILURE


BOILER TUBE Burst Buldging Sagging Pitting DRUM

Corrosion
Crack Buldging

Distortion
Cracking Pitting

FURNANCE Brick Wall Collapse Baffle failure Furnace buldging

Erosion

BBB / SHMS

DETAIL FAILURE
BULDGING 1. Hanya berlaku kepada - Boiler tube - Furnance Chamber

2. Punca Flame Impigment


- Tube sumbat, tiada cooling sys - If tube ceiling buldging sbb tube nipis - Scaling1mm Si ~ 100oC utk lepas tebat - Creep P same but T berubah - Fatigue Beban bepanjangan BURST 1. SBB O/heating 2. Bhn bersifat plastic 3. Punca dari scaling & crack
BBB / SHMS

DETAIL FAILURE
CRACKING 1. Caustic Cracking Punca dari high caustic - Pecah antara boundry material - Pecah antara composition - Pecah antara mersentile / perlite

2. Normal Crack Welding Joint


- Internal crack masa roll - Nipis

3. Ligament Crack Retak antara tube plate &


plate
BBB / SHMS

- Tube & header

SAGGING & DISTORTION LWL Air kering, panas tetiba sejuk Scalling Overloading

DETAIL FAILURE

Improper set SV
Improper BD FURNANCE COLLAPS

BBB / SHMS

Furnance explosion
Sudden start / stop External / Internal loading

1. Hard Scale (Berkilat)

TYPES OF SCALE
- Si - CaSO4 - MgSO4

2. Soft Scale (Karbonate) CaCO3 - Mg(CO3)2

- FeCO3
- FeO2 3. Permanent hardness 4. Temp hardness
BBB / SHMS

- CA2+

SO42-

Mg2+
- CA2+ Mg2+

Cl2CO2-

OPTIMUM CONTROL WATER CONDITIONING


Tot SS Si2 Carry Over Organic Antifoams Sludge Cond Deposits Al PHO4 O2 Scavanger Corrosion BD
BBB / SHMS

Hardness
pH > 7 O2

Condensate corrosion Inhibitors

Boiler Repair
TYPE Retubing Welding Patching Fitting replacement METHOD 1. Hantar report ke JKKP Date, Failure, Cause, sketching, CF & Proposal for repair. 2. Preparation for Inspection B/wall repair

3. Repair Patching, material testing, cutting (disposal),


patching (welding), heat threatment & NDT
BBB / SHMS

4. Report to JKKP with complete written

1.

Inform JKKP Lisan & Written - Repair proposal

Repair Shell Buldging

- Follow regulation 78, 76 & 79 FMA 67 2. Carry out hardness test (Brinell) pada buldging area & determine weakend point to cut.

3. Cut oval / eclips shape


4. Cut plate baru sama material spec 5. Welding Preparation Certificate Welder - Butt weld V Shape 60O - Pre Heat (150oF 750oF) + 350oC - Fully weld both side 6. Buat stress relive

Eclips

- Utk release internal stress


- Utk avoid crack on welding
BBB / SHMS

- Utk reduce cooling rate

NDT
NDT Dye penetherant - Ultrasonic - Magnetic Particle Inspection - Radiography (X-ray) - Eddy Current

DYE PENETHERANT 1. Cuci surface dgn cleaner 2. Apply penetherant liquid & biarkan 3-10min (Merah) 3. Cuci penetherant di surface 4. Apply developer (Putih)
BBB / SHMS

Kelemahan Dye Penetherant Hanya surface crack Surface kena bersih & licin

5. Wait 15-20min

Magnetic Test & X-ray


Magnetic Test
1. Iron powder apply atas surface 2. Letak magent pada bhg bwh 3. Magnet akan bergerak 4. Kelemahan hanya thin layer

X Ray
Punca Cesium 137 - Cobalt 60 - Iridium 192 - Gamma ray
BBB / SHMS

Test Room Tips (Locomotive)


LOCOMOTIVE BOILER Kesalahan

1. Beroperasi > ASWP


2. PG < 6in 3. Drain pipe WG & BDV takde 4. Fire door slightly opened Test

1. WG
2. BDV
BBB / SHMS

Test Room Tips (Cockrane)


COCKRANE BOILER Single pass Fusi Plug

3in atas
highest tube hala furnance

BBB / SHMS

Test Room Tips (Fraser)


Ditanya 1. Berapa pass

2. Flue gas
3. Water circulation 4. Fusi. Plug

Fitting
1. FCV 6. Dearator 2. SV 3. SV 7. Air kok 8. PG

4. LWAl 9. Sub Blower


BBB / SHMS

5.Auxillary line