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Bahan Kuliah Termodinamika

Oleh: F.X. Sukidjo

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Kontrak Pembelajaran
Diskripsi mata kuliah
Tujuan pembelajaran
Topik-topik Bahasan
Metode penilaian
Syarat mengikuti UTS dan UAS
Pustaka

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Deskripsi Mata Kuliah
Termodinamika adalah suatu cabang ilmu teknik yang
mempelajari tentang panas (heat) dan sifat zat
(substance properties) yang berhubungan dengan
panas dan kerja (work). Pembahasan termodinamika
mendasari pada pembahasan tentang analisis kerja
alat-alat teknik, misalnya pompa (pumps),
kompresor (compressors), ketel uap (boiler), turbin
(turbine), kondensor (condenser), alat pertukaran
kalor (heat exchanger), mesin refrijerasi
(refrigeration engine), mesin otomotif (automotive
engines), peleburan (melting) dan pembekuan (. )
logam, aliran fluida (fluid flow), dan lain-lain.
Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV
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Tujuan Pembelajaran

Tujuan mempelajari termodinamika adalah


agar mahasiswa memiliki pengetahuan teknik
tentang konsep dasar kekekalan massa,
kekekalan energi dalam aplikasi pada berbagai
alat teknik, perubahan sifat zat. Setelah selesai
mempelajari termodinamika, mahasiswa
dapat melakukan analisis dasar tentang kerja,
panas, perubahan sifat zat dan proses
perubahan keadaan zat.

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Topik Bahasan
1. Besaran dan satuan
2. Sifat dan Perubahan sifat zat
3. Hukum-hukum termodinamika
4. Gas ideal
5. Proses termodinamis
6. Siklus Carnot
7. Siklus Otto
8. Siklus Diesel
9. Siklus Renkine dan Brayton
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Metode Penilaian
Untuk menentukan nilai akhir mata kuliah ini,
diperlukan beberapa elemen nilai. Elemen-
elemen nilai tersebut adalah:
1. Kedisiplinan mengikuti kuliah, jumlah
kehadiran 75 % dari jumlah kuliah tatap
muka: 5 %. Jumlah tidak hadir 4 kali
2. Nilai tugas-tugas kelas (class work): 20 %
3. Nilai Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS): 35 %
4. Nilai Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS): 40 %
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Syarat dapat mengikuti Ujian

1. Terdaftar resmi sebagai mahasiswa UGM


2. Telah mengisi KRS secara on-line
3. Jumlah kehadiran mengikuti kuliah
memenuhi syarat
4. Memiliki materi kuliah dalam bentuk hard
copy
5. Tidak tercatat sebagai pelanggar Peraturan
Umum UGM, Sekolah Vokasi dan Peraturan
khusus Departemen Teknik Mesin
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Pustaka

Burghardt, M.D., 1978, Engineering Thermodynamics


with Application, Harper International Edition, New
York
Cengel, Y.A., 1989, Thermodynamics An Engineering
Approach, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York
Harijono, D., 1994, Dasar-dasar Termodinamika Teknik,
Gramedia, Jakarta

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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1. Besaran dan Satuan
Besaran-besaran terkait dengan pembahasan termodinamika
antara lain:
1. Massa (mass)
simbul m, satuan kg.
2. Gaya (force)
simbul F, satuan newton (N).
3. Tekanan (pressure)
simbul p, satuan paskal (Pa)
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
Ada 3 macam tekanan, yaitu tekanan atmosfir (atmospheric
pressure or barometric pressure), tekanan terukur (gage
pressure) dan tekanan absolut (absolute pressure)
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Renkine Cycle
Work in group. Make description of this cycle.
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Automotive Engines
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Gambar Hubungan tekanan-tekanan

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Hubungan beberapa temperatur
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Systems, boundary and surrounding
In thermodynamics a system is defined as collection or
quantity of matter or region (space) of fixed identity
Boundary separates the systems and everything external
Surroundings everything not in the system

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Closed and open system
The system is called closed system if there no mass or matter
flow cross the boundary, but heat may transferred.
Open system: there is matter or mass and energy cross the
boundary

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Processes and cycles
A process is any change that a system undergoes from
one equilibrium state to another state .

1 = initial state 2 = final state


There are an infinite number of ways for a system o change from
state 1 to state 2. A and B are called path.
Cycle is collection of 2 or more process for which the initial and final
states are the same.

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Phases of a pure substance
Certain groups of state of a substance may be called
phase of that substance. Water has solid, liquid and
vapor phases. Any pure substance may exist in any
combination of the phases.
Phase transitions:
melting: when a solid turns to a liquid
freezing or solidifying: a liquid turns to solid
vaporization : a liquid turns to a gas or vapor
condensation: a gas or vapor turns to liquid.
sublimation: solid turns to gas

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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A pure substance is a substance that has a fixed chemical
composition. A pure substance does not have to be of a
single chemical element. A mixture of various chemical
elements or compounds also qualifies as a pure substance as
long as the mixture is homogenous. A mixture of two or more
phases of a pure substance is still a pure substance as long as
the chemical composition of all phases is the same.

T v diagram

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Saturated vapor: a vapor which is about to condense
Superheated vapor: a vapor which is not about to condense.
At process of 1 to 2 : heating, heat is added to the substance
At process of 2 to 4 : vaporization, heat is added to substance
State 1: initial at liquid state, at state 2: a part of liquid start
to be vaporized. At state 4: all of the liquid vaporized. At
state 3: mixture of liquid and vapor.
At process of 4 to 5: heating the vapor to be superheated
vapor
When a substance change of phase, its temperature is
constant ( line 2 4 ).

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Properties of a system
Property is any characteristic of a system. Some example:
pressure, temperature, volume, mass. Not all properties are
independent, like density () is defined as mass per unit
volume.
Specific gravity (Sp. Gr) or relative density is ratio of the
density of a substance to the density of some standard
substance at a specific temperature (usually water at 4 oC
for which of water = 1000 kg/ m3
Specific volume = volume (V) / mass (m)
Intensive properties: are those which are independent of the
size of a system, such as temperature, pressure and density.
Extensive properties: vary directly with the size, such as mass,
volume, total energy.

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Forms of energy
Thermal, mechanical, kinetic, potential, electric,
magnetic, chemical, and nuclear.
Total energy of a system : E (joule)
Energy per unit mass e = E / m ( joule/kg)
In thermodynamic analysis, there are two groups,
macroscopic and microscopic energy.
Macroscopic form of energy: respect to some outside
reference, such as kinetic and potential energy.
Microscopic energy: related to the molecular structure
af a system and the degree of the molecular activity,
indepenedent of outside reference. The sum of all the
microscopic forms of energy is called Internal energy,
denoted by U.
Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV
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Kinetic energy , KE = m
Kinetic energy per unit mass ke = KE/m
Potential energy PE = m g z (kJ)
PE per unit mass = pe = g z (kJ/kg)
Total energy of a system E = U + KE + PE
Internal energy U depending on the temperature. For
higher temperature the internal energy is larger. U =
f(T) only.
Hydrostatic law
small and moderate pressure difference are often
measured by using a device known as a manometer,
which mainly consists of a glass or plastic U tube
containing a fluid such as mercury, water, alcohol, or
oil. Pressure difference p = h x

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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p = pressure difference (atm or kg/ )
h = height of fluid or liquid (m)
= specific weight ( N/ )

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Class work 1. (work in pairs). !
1. Water flow in a duct, the diameter of duct = 40 cm.
flow-rate = 5 per minute at 10 m height.
Assumption that g = 10 m/ , compute KE and PE.
2. Explain what you know about:
a. pure substance
b. Renkine cycle for generating power
c. Open and closed process
d. State of system

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Property diagrams for water

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T v diagram of pure substance

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Property
Some properties of pure substance:
1. Internal energy (U) or specific internal energy (u)
2. Enthalpy (H) or specific enthalpy (h)
3. Volume (V), or specific volume, (v)
4. Entropy (S) or specific entropy (s)
There are two quantity affected the value of
properties. Those are temperature (T) and pressure
(p). The value of properties can be found on
Property Tables or on Figures or on Charts.
Specific mean the value of properties per unit mass.

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Enthalpy H = U + P V ( kilojoule, kJ), and specific
enthalpy h = u + P v ( kilojoule/kg)
Specific volume v = V / mass ( )
Specific entropy s = S / mass ( kilojoule / kg )
= volume of substance at saturated liquid
= volume of substance at saturated vapor
=
=
=
= -

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Example to read the Table

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Vapor mixture
During a vaporization process, a substance exists as
part liquid and part vapor. That is, it mixture of
saturated liquid and saturated vapor. To analyze this
mixture properly, we need to know the proportions
of the liquid and vapor phases in the mixture. This is
done by defining a new property called the quality
(x) as the ratio of the mass of vapor to the total mass
of the mixture.
Quality x, defined as:
x=

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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At A the value of x = 0, and at C so x = 1 or 100 %
At B part substance as liquid and part as vapor. A two phase
system can be treated as a homogeneous mixture for
computational purposes.
Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV
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V= + and V = m v , so
= + and = -
deviding by , so =(1x) +x and
= +x
= +x
= +x

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Exercise problems

1. Water is being heated in a vertical piston cylinder device.


The piston has a mass of 20 kg and a cross sectional area of
100 cm2. if the local atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa,
determine the temperature at which the water will start
boiling.
2. Complete the following table for water.
T (C) P (kPa) u (kJ/kg) Phase description
150 .. 2300
300 .. Saturated liquid
3. A saturated water has 0,175 Mpa. Determine :
a. Saturated temperature
b. Change of internal energy for vaporization

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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The ideal Gas Equation of state
Any equation that relates the pressure, temperature and
specific volume of a substance is called an equation of state.
The simplest and best known equation of state for substances
in gas phase is the gas ideal equation of state. This equation
predicts the P v T behavior of a gas quite accurately within
some properly selected region.
In 1662 Robert Boyle, an Englishman, observed during his
experiments with a vacuum chamber that the pressure of
gases in inversely proportional to their volume. About 150
years later, Charles and Gay-Lussac, Frenchmen,
experimentally determined that at low pressures the volume
of a gas is proportional to its temperature. That is,
P v = R T, where R is gas constant, and T is absolute
temperature.

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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The gas constant R is different for each gas. If Ru is universal
gas constant, so the value of R is determined:
R = Ru / M. Constant Ru is the same for all substances, and
its value:
Ru = 8,314 kJ / (kmol. K) = 1,986 Btu / (lbmol . R)
M = molar mass or molecular weight ( kg/kmol). For example
M of gas O2 = 32 kg/kmol, M of N2 = 28 kg/kmol.
The mass m of a system is equal to the product of its molar
mass M and the mole number N.
m=MN
The ideal gas equation of state can be written in several
different forms:
(1) P V = m R T or (2) P V = N Ru T or (3) P v = R T

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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The properties of an ideal gas at two different states are related
to each other by:

= an ideal gas is an imaginary substance


that obeys the relation P v = R T

Example.
Determine the mass of the air in a room whose dimensions
are 4 m x 5 m x 6 m at 100 kPa and 25 C.
Solution:
Volume V = 120 m3, T = 25 + 273 = 298 K.
Use Table A-1 to find R = 0,2870 kJ/kmol K, from:
P V = m R T, will be found that m = (100 kPa) (120 m3) /
((0,287 kJ/kmol K) (298 K)) = 140,3 kg.

Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV


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Thermodynamics law
The first law of thermodynamics closed system
The first law of thermodynamics is statement of the
conservation of energy principle. This law stated as
follows: During an interaction between a system and
its surroundings, the amount of energy gained by the
system must be axactly equal to the amount of energy
lost by the surrounding. Energy can cross the boundary
of a closed system in two distinct forms: heat (Q) and
work (W).
Heat is the form of energy that is transferred between
two system (or a system and its surroundings) by
virtue of a temperature difference. If there is no a
temperature difference, there is no heat transferred.
Termodinamika Dept. Teknik Mesin SV
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W (-) Work into the system: negative
Work done by the system: posi
tive
Q(+) Q(-) Heat into the system: positive
Heat rejected: negative
W (+)
In adiabatic process there is no heat exchange between
the system and surrounding. There are two ways a
process can be adiabatic: either the system is well
insulated or the system and the surroundings are at
the same temperature. Q12 = heat transferred during
the process between state 1 to state 2.

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Heat transferred per unit mass q = Q / m ( kJ/kg).
Work
Work is an energy interaction between a system and its
surrounding. The work done during the process between state
1 and state 2, W12. The work done per unit mass w = W/m.
Moving boundary work
During the process part of the boundary moves back and forth
(expand). Expansion and compression work is called moving
boundary work or simply boundary work. The total boundary
work done during a process from state 1 to state 2:
2
W12 = p dV
1

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