Anda di halaman 1dari 10

TAJUK: REDOKS

PEMINDAHAN ELEKTRON PADA SATU JARAK


(a) Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan susunan radas eksperimen untuk mengkaji pemindahan
elektron pada suatu jarak.
Diagram 3.1 shows the apparatus set-up of an experiment to investigate the transfer of
electrons at a distance.

Carbon X
Karbon X

Carbon Y
Karbon Y
Acidified potassium
manganate(VII) solution
Larutan kalium manganat (VII)
berasid

Iron (II) sulphate


solution
Larutan ferum(II)
sulfat
Diagram 3.1
Rajah 3.1

Dilute sulphuric acid


Asid sulfurik cair

(i) Nyatakan nama agen pengoksidaan dalam tindak balas ini.


State the name of the oxidizing agent in this reaction.
....
[ 1 mark]
(ii) Merujuk pada tindak balas yang berlaku di karbon X :
Referring to the reaction that takes place at carbon X :
(iii) Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas itu.
Write the half equation for the reaction.

[ 1 mark]
(iv) Nyatakan satu pemerhatian yang berlaku.
State one observation that occurred.
.............
[ 1 mark]
(v) Tunjukkan arah pengaliran elektron dalam Rajah 3.1
Show the direction of the electron flow in Diagram 3.1
(vi)

Merujuk pada tindak balas yang berlaku pada karbon Y, hitungkan nombor
pengoksidaan bagi mangan dalam MnO4Referring to the reaction that takes place at carbon Y, calculate the oxidation number of
manganese in MnO4-

[ 2 marks]

(b)

Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji penyesaran halogen


daripada larutan halidanya. Air klorin ditambah ke dalam tabung uji yang
mengandungi larutan kalium iodida dan pelarut organik 1,1,1-trikloroetana.
Diagram 3.2 shows the apparatus set-up to investigate the displacement of
halogen from its halide solution. Chlorine water was added to a test tube
containing a potassium iodide solution and organic solvent, 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

Chlorine
water
Air klorin
Potassium iodide
solution
Larutan kalium
iodida
1,1,1-trichloroethane
1,1,1-trikloroetana

(i)

Shake
Goncang

Rajah 3.2
Diagram 3.2

Brown solution
Larutan perang
Purple
organic layer
Lapisan
organik
bewarna ungu

Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas itu.


Write the ionic equation for the reaction.

..........................
[ 1 mark]
(ii)

Apakah fungsi air klorin?


What is the function of chlorine water?
.......................................
[ 1 mark]
(iii)

Nyatakan perubahan nombor pengoksidaan bagi iodin.


State the change of oxidation number for iodine.

................................................................
[ 1 mark]
(iv)

Nyatakan nama satu bahan uji lain yang boleh menggantikan air klorin
State the name of another reagent that can replace chlorine water

............................................
[ 1 mark]

TAJUK: REDOKS

PEMINDAHAN ELEKTRON PADA SATU JARAK


Rajah 5 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji pemindahan elektron pada satu
jarak.Elektrod karbon P dicelup ke dalam larutan kalium iodida manakala elektrod karbon Q dicelup ke
dalam larutan kalium dikromat (VI) berasid.
Diagram 5 shows the set-up of apparatus to study the transfer of electrons at a distance. Carbon
electrode P is dipped into potassium iodide solution whereas carbon
electrode Q is dipped into
acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution.

Carbon electrode Q
Elektrod karbon Q

Acidified potassium
Rajah 5dichromate (VI) solution
Larutan kalium
dikromat
Diagram
5 (VI) berasid

Carbon electrode P
Elektrod karbon P

Potassium iodide solution


Larutan kalium iodida

Sulphuric acid
Asid sulfurik

(a)

Pemindahan elektron pada satu jarak merupakan satu tindak balas redoks.
Apakah tindak balas redoks?
Transfer of electrons at a distance is a redox reaction.
What is redox reaction?

[1 mark]
(b)
Apakah fungsi asid sulfurik dalam eksperimen ini?
What is the function of sulphuric acid in this experiment?
..

[1 mark]
(c)

Lukiskan anak panah untuk menunjukkan arah pengaliran elektron dalam


Rajah 5.
Draw an arrow to show the direction of electrons flow in Diagram 5.
[1 mark]

(d)

.Tulis setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku pada elektrod P.
Write the half equation for the reaction occurred at electrode P


(e)

Selepas 10 minit, beberapa titis larutan kanji ditambahkan ke dalam larutan


pada elektrod P.
After 10 minutes, a few drops of starch solution are added to the solution at
electrode P.
Apakah perubahan warna larutan itu?
What is the colour change of the solution?
..
[1 mark]

(f)
Q.

Persamaan berikut menunjukkan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas pada

elektrod

The following equation shows the half equation for the reaction at electrode Q.

Cr2O7 2 (aq) + 14H+ (aq) + 6e 2Cr 3+ (aq) + 7H2O (l)


(i)Hitungkan nombor pengoksidaan bagi kromium dalam ion Cr2O7 2.
Calculate the oxidation number of chromium in Cr2O7 2 ion.

[1 mark]
(ii)Nyatakan proses yang berlaku pada elektrod Q.
State the process occurs at electrode Q.
..
(iii)Terangkan proses di 4(e)(ii) dari segi perubahan nombor pengoksidaan.
Explain the process at 4(e)(ii) in terms of change in oxidation number
..

.
[2 marks]
(iv)
Namakan bahan kimia lain yang boleh digunakan bagi menggantikan larutan kalium
dikromat (VI) berasid.
Name another chemical that can be used to replace acidified potassium dichromate
(VI)
solution.
...................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

TAJUK: REDOKS
KEREAKTIFAN LOGAM
(c)

Kedudukan karbon adalah di atas logam X dan di bawah logam Y dalam Siri
Kereaktifan logam
The position of carbon is above metal X and below metal Y in the Reactivity
Anda dibekalkan dengan oksida logam X (XO), oksida logam Y (Y2O3), serbuk karbon dan
radas-radas yang diperlukan. Dengan bantuan gambarajah huraikan eksperimen untuk
mengesahkan kenyataan di atas adalah benar. Jawapan anda mesti melibatkan segala
pemerhatian dan persamaan tindakbalas yang sewajarnya.
Gambar rajah menunjukkan susunan radas
Prosedur eksperimen
Pemerhatian
Persamaan kimia.
You are provided with oxide of metal X (XO), oxide of metal Y (Y2O3), carbon powder and
apparatus needed. Describe an experiment to verify the above statement.
Your answer should consist of the following:

Diagram showing the set up of apparatus

Procedure of the experiment

Observation

Chemical equation.
[10 marks]

(a)

The chemical equation below shows a redox reaction.


Persamaan kimia berikut menunjukkan tindak balas redoks.

Mg (s) + CuS04(aq) Cu(s) + MgS04(aq)


Explain the redox reaction in terms of change in oxidation number.
Terangkan tindak balas redoks yang berlaku dari aspek perubahan nombor pengoksidaan.
[4 marks]
(b)

An experiment is carried out to determine the position of metals L, M and copper in the
reactivity series. Diagram 9 shows the results of the experiment.
Satu eksperimen dijalankan untuk menentukan kedudukan logam L, logam M dan kuprum
dalam siri kereaktiJan. Rajah 9 menunjukkan keputusan bagi eksperimen tersebut.
Experiment
Eksperimen
Diagram
Rajah

Observation
Pemerhatian

II

III

L + copper(II) oxide
L + kuprum(II) oksida

M + copper(II) oxide
M + kuprum(II) oksida

M + L oxide
M + L oksida

Black powder
turns brown
Serbuk hitam
menjadi perang

Black powder
turns brown
Serbuk hitam
menjadi perang

No change
Tiada perubahan

Diagram I Rajah 9

(c)

Based on the results in the experiment, arrange the three metals in order of increasing
reactivity toward oxygen. Explain your answer.
Berdasarkan kepada keputusan dalam eksperimen itu, susun tiga logam tersebut mengikut
turutan menaik kereaktiJan terhadap oksigen. Terangkan jawapan anda.
[6 marks]
Rajah 2 menunjukkan dua botol reagen X dan Y. Satu dari botol-botol tersebut
mengandungi heksana dan satu lagi botol mengandungi heksena.
Diagram 2 shows two reagent bottles X and Y. One of the bottles contains hexane while
another bottle contains hexene.

Y
Rajah 2 / Diagram 2

Huraikan satu ujian kimia yang boleh digunakan untuk mengenal pasti
Heksana dan heksena dalam setiap botol.
Penerangan anda hendaklah mengandungi:
Senarai bahan dan radas
Prosedur
Pemerhatian
Describe a chemical test that can be used to verify hexane and hexene in each bottle.
Your explanation should includes:
List of apparatus and materials
Procedure
Observations

Aras sederhana [10 markah]

(a)

Jadual 3 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi dua ujian yang dijalankan untuk membezakan
heksana, C6H14 dan heksena, C6H12.
[Jisim molar bagi C6H14 = 86, C6H12 = 84]
Table 3 shows the observations of two tests to differentiate between hydrocarbons,
hexane, C6H14 and hexene, C6H12.
[Molar mass of C6H14 = 86, C6H12 = 84]
Test
Ujian

Reaction
Tindakbalas

Tindak balas dengan


air bromine

Warna perang air


bromin tidak
berubah

Warna perang air


bromin
dinyahwarnakan

Reaction with
bromine water

Brown colour of
bromine water
remains unchanged

Brown colour of
bromine water is
decolourised

Terbakar dalam
nyalaan kuning
dengan jelaga.

Terbakar dalam
nyalaan kuning
dengan lebih jelaga

Burns in yellow
flame with soot.

Burns in yellow
flame with more
soot.

II
Terbakar dalam
udara
Burnt in air

Hexane
Heksana

Hexene
Heksena

Hexane
Heksana

Table 3
Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian Ujian I dan Ujian II.
Explain why there are differences in observations for Test I and Test II.
Aras sederhana [10 markah]

(c)

Apparatus : test tubes, dropper


Materials: bromine water // acidified potassium
manganate(VII) solution, hexane, hexene
Procedure:
1. 2 cm3 of liquid in bottle X is poured into two separate test
tubes.
2. 2 to 3 drops of bromine water are added to two test
Tubes
3.The mixture is shaken.
4.Any observation is recorded.
5. Step 1 to 3 are repeated using liquid in bottle Y to
replace liquid in bottle X.
Observation:
Liquid in bottle X
Brown bromine water
decolourises // purple
acidified potassium
manganate (VII) solution
decolourises

Quest
ion
No.
3(a)

Liquid in bottle Y
No visible change.

1
1
1
1
1
1

1+1

Liquid in bottle X is hexene


Liquid in bottle Y is hexane

1
1
__
10

T0TAL

20

Explanation
1. Hexene is a unsaturated hydrocarbon while hexane
is a saturated hydrocarbon
2. Hexene has a double bond between carbon and
carbon atoms
3. Undergoes addition reaction when it reacts with
bromine water
4. Hexane has single bond between carbon and
carbon atoms
5. Cannot react with bromine water
6. % of C in C6H14 = 6(12) x 100%
86
7.
= 83.72%
8. % of C in C6H12 = 6(12) x 100%
84
9.
= 85.71%
10. The percentage of carbon atoms in C6H12 is higher than C6H14
Total marks

Mar
k

Mark

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

5
10