Anda di halaman 1dari 90

Kiambang

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas


Belum Diperiksa

Kiambang

Salvinia natans

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan:

Plantae

Divisi:

Pteridophyta

Kelas:

Pteridopsida

Ordo:

Salviniales

Famili:

Salviniaceae

Genus:

Salvinia
Sg.

species

Salvinia auriculata

Salvinia biloba

Salvinia cucullata

Salvinia cyathiformis

Salvinia hastata

Salvinia herzogii

Salvinia minima

Salvinia molesta

Salvinia natans

Salvinia nymphellula

Salvinia oblongifolia

Salvinia radula

Salvinia rotundifolia

Salvinia sprucei

Kiambang

Kiambang (dari ki: pohon, tumbuhan, dan ambang: mengapung) merupakan nama umum bagi paku
air dari genus Salvinia. Tumbuhan ini biasa ditemukan mengapung di air menggenang, seperti
kolam, sawah dan danau, atau di sungai yang mengalir tenang.
Kiambang memiliki dua tipe daun yang sangat berbeda. Daun yang tumbuh di permukaan air
berbentuk cuping agak melingkar, berklorofilsehingga berwarna hijau, dan permukaannya ditutupi
rambut berwarna putih agak transparan. Rambut-rambut ini mencegah daun menjadi basah dan
juga membantu kiambang mengapung. Daun tipe kedua tumbuh di dalam air berbentuk sangat mirip
akar, tidak berklorofil dan berfungsi menangkap hara dari air seperti akar. Orang awam menganggap
ini adalah akar kiambang. Kiambang sendiri akarnya (dalam pengertian anatomi) tereduksi.
Kiambang tidak menghasilkan bunga karena masuk golongan paku-pakuan.
Sebagaimana paku air (misalnya semanggi air dan azolla) lainnya, kiambang juga
bersifat heterospor, memiliki dua tipe spora: makrosporayang akan tumbuh menjadi protalus betina
dan mikrospora yang akan tumbuh menjadi protalus jantan.
Paku air ini tidak memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi, kecuali sebagai sumber humus (karena tumbuhnya
pesat dan orang mengumpulkannya untuk dijadikan pupuk), kadang-kadang dipakai sebagai bagian
dari dekorasi dalam ruang, atau sebagai tanaman hias di kolam atau akuarium. Karena dapat
tumbuh sangat rapat hingga menutupi permukaan sungai atau danau,
muncul pepatah Melayu "biduk berlalu, kiambang bertaut", yang berarti setelah gangguan berlalu,
keadaan akan kembali seperti semula.

Paku rawa
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Paku rawa

Ceratopteris thalictroides,
dengan ental tipe kering

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan Plantae
:
Divisi:

Pteridophyta

Kelas:

Pteridopsida

Ordo:

Polypodiales

Famili:

Pteridaceae

Upafamil Ceratopteridoide
i:

ae

Genus:

Ceratopteris

Spesies:

C.
thalictroides

Nama binomial
Ceratopteris
thalictroides
(L.) Brongniart

Paku/pakis rawa (Ceratopteris thalictroides) adalah jenis paku yang mampu hidup di dalam air
tawar maupun di luar air, dan bagian dari suku Pteridaceae. Daun dan tangkainya digunakan
sebagai obat. Paku ini mudah ditemui di perairan yang tenang, air cukup jernih. Dikenal pula
sebagai paku roman dan paku tespong.

Persebaran[sunting | sunting sumber]


Pantropik, dan memiliki tiga tipe bentuk tumbuh.

Kegunaan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Paku ini dapat dimakan, selain itu juga memiliki khasiat obat. Sebagai penghias akuarium atau pot di
taman, tumbuhan ini juga dapat digunakan.

Ceratopteris thalictroides
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Water Hornfern

Ceratopteris thalictroides,
showing typical above-water
foliage

Scientific classification
Kingdom Plantae
:
Division: Pteridophyta
Class:

Pteridopsida

Order:

Polypodiales

Family:

Pteridaceae

Subfamil Ceratopteridoide
y:

ae

Genus:

Ceratopteris

Species:

C. thalictroide
s

Binomial name

Ceratopteris
thalictroides
(L.) Brongniart

The species Ceratopteris thalictroides is a fern species belonging to the genus Ceratopteris, one
of only two genera of theCeratopteridoideae subfamily of the family Pteridaceae.[1] The species
represents a special living form of ferns, and is thus of great botanical interest. The leaf and stem
can also be used medically.
[hide]

Contents

1Common names

2Distribution

3Description

4Ecology

5Uses
o

5.1Culinary

5.2Other

6Cultivation

7See also

8References

9External links

Common namesEdit
It is commonly known as water sprite, Indian fern, water fern, oriental waterfern, and water hornfern.
In the Philippines it is calledpakung-sungay (literally 'antler fern' or 'horn fern').[2]

DistributionEdit
Pan-tropical. Widespread. There are three general types, known as the north type, the south type,
and the third type.

DescriptionEdit
Plants usually rooted in mud, very variable in size and appearance, scales on rhizome peltate, thin,
translucent, pale brown, (under a lens clear with dark cell walls) stipes 3 15 mm diameter in
mature plants, spongy and air filled, sterile fronds pale green, thin, flaccid and spreading, 4 60 cm
long, including a stipe c. half this length, fertile fronds pale green, to brown when over mature, firm,
held erect, 15 100 cm or more long, including stipe to 40 cm long, proliferous or dormant buds with
overlapping dark scales sometimes present in the axils of fertile pinnae (twice seen), sterile axes
obviously winged, pinnae basically broad-ovate or deltoid with a few blunt lobes, sometimes more
deeply incised, the segments 2 - 15 x 10 30 mm, fertile segments linear, 1 - 2 x 10 80 mm.[3]
Recent chromosome counts have shown that the north type and the third type both have
chromosome counts of 2n=156, while the south type has a count of 2n=154, making it definitely a
separate species.

EcologyEdit
Swampy areas, swamp forests, sago (Metroxylon) swamps, marshes, natural and man-made ponds,
mostly in stagnant water bodies or in still pockets along slow flowing rivers, full sun to moderate
shade, from sea level to 1300 m, but mostly less than 500 m altitude. Sometimes massed on or
around logs or other floating vegetation, once recorded in a fresh-water mangrove (Sonneratia)
growing among the finger-like pneumatophores. In some areas Ceratopteris exhibits a degree of
seasonality, reaching maturity and shedding spores during the dry season; plants have lost nearly all
sterile fronds by this stage.[3] The species has been reported to functionally be an annual,
repopulating from spore the next season, but it is clearly of indefinite lifespan in cultivation.

UsesEdit
CulinaryEdit
Fronds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable in Madagascar [4] and New Guinea[citation needed], and raw as
a salad in Micronesia.[citation needed] However, the plant is believed to contain carcinogenic chemicals.[citation
needed]

OtherEdit
Ceratopteris thalictroides is widely used as an aquarium plant, and is prized for its versatility, being
used both as a floating plant and a plant that can be rooted in the substrate. [5]
In the Sepik region of New Guinea fronds are used as a personal decoration.[citation needed]

CultivationEdit
It grows best in soil with a pH reading of 5-9 and in very high amounts of light. It usually grows
quickly.

Ceratopteris thalictroides can benefit (like all aquatic plants) from the addition of CO 2. The plant's
reproductive technique is similar to other ferns: small adventitious plantlets are grown on the mother
plant and are then released when ready.
It can provide useful shade to shyer fish and small fry. The dense roots are said to take nutrients out
of the water helping to prevent the growth of algae.

Riccia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the plant Riccia. For the Italian "comune", see Riccia, Molise.
Riccia

Riccia huebeneriana

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

Division:

Marchantiophyta

Class:

Marchantiopsida

Order:

Marchantiales

Family:

Ricciaceae

Genus:

Riccia
L., 1753

Species

R. atlantica

R. beyrichiana

R. bifurca

R. canaliculata

R. cavernosa

R. crozalsii

R. crystallina

R. fluitans

R. gangetica

R. glauca

R. huebeneriana

R. nigrella

R. rhenana

R. sorocarpa

R. subbifurca

Riccia is a genus of liverworts in the order Marchantiales.[1]

The plants are small and thallose, that is not differentiated into root, stem and leaf. Depending on
species, the thallus may be strap-shaped and about 0.5 to 4 mm wide with dichotomous branches or
may form rosettes or hemirosettes up to 3cm in diameter, that may be gregarious and form intricate
mats.[1][2]
The thallus is dorsiventrally differentiated. Its upper (dorsal) surface is green and chlorophyllbearing, with a mid-dorsal longitudinal sulcus (furrow or groove). Air pores occasionally break
through the dorsal surface, giving the thallus a dimpled appearance.[3]
The lower (ventral) surface has a mid-ventral ridge bearing multicellular scales that originate as a
single row but normally separate into two rows as the thallus widens. The scales are multicellular
and hyaline (glassy) in appearance, or violet due to the pigmentanthocyanin.[1]
Rhizoids are nearly lacking in aquatic forms, but there are usually numerous unicellular rhizoids of
two types on the ventral surface.[1] One type is called smooth and the other type is the pegged or
tuberculated rhizoids; these help in anchorage and absorption. The inner surface of the smooth
rhizoids is smooth while that of the tuberculate rhizoid will have internal cell wall projections.
Plants are usually monoicous, and sexual reproduction is by antheridia and archegonia. Asexual
reproduction occurs by spores, by fragmentation of the rosettes, and by formation of apical tubers.
Spores are large (45 to 200 ) and formed in tetrads.[1]
One of the more than 100 species in this genus is the "slender riccia" (Riccia fluitans), which grows
on damp soil or, less commonly, floating in ponds,[3] and is sometimes used in aquariums.

Eceng gondok
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Belum Diperiksa

Eceng gondok

Eceng gondok (E. crassipes)

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Plantae
Divisi:

Magnoliophyta

Kelas:

Liliopsida

Ordo:

Commelinales

Famili:

Pontederiaceae

Genus:

Eichhornia
Kunth

Spesies:

E. crassipes

Nama binomial

Eichhornia crassipes
(Mart.) Solms

Eceng gondok atau enceng gondok (Latin:Eichhornia crassipes) adalah salah satu
jenis tumbuhan air mengapung. Selain dikenal dengan nama eceng gondok, di beberapa daerah
di Indonesia, eceng gondok mempunyai nama lain seperti di daerah Palembangdikenal dengan
nama Kelipuk, di Lampung dikenal dengan nama Ringgak, di Dayak dikenal dengan nama Ilungilung, di Manadodikenal dengan nama Tumpe.[1] Eceng gondok pertama kali ditemukan secara tidak
sengaja oleh seorang ilmuwan bernama Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, seorang
ahli botani berkebangsaan Jerman pada tahun 1824 ketika sedang melakukan ekspedisi diSungai
Amazon Brasil.[2] Eceng gondok memiliki kecepatan tumbuh yang tinggi sehingga tumbuhan ini
dianggap sebagai gulma yang dapat merusak lingkungan perairan. Eceng gondok dengan mudah
menyebar melalui saluran air ke badan air lainnya.
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

1Deskripsi

2Habitat

3Dampak Negatif

4Penanggulangan

5Pembersih Polutan Logam Berat

6Referensi

7Pranala luar

Deskripsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eceng gondok sedang berbunga

Eceng gondok hidup mengapung di air dan kadang-kadang berakar dalam tanah. Tingginya sekitar
0,4 - 0,8 meter. Tidak mempunyai batang. Daunnya tunggal dan berbentuk oval. Ujung dan
pangkalnya meruncing, pangkal tangkai daun menggelembung. Permukaan daunnya licin dan
berwarna hijau. Bunganya termasuk bunga majemuk, berbentuk bulir, kelopaknya berbentuk tabung.
Bijinya berbentuk bulat dan berwarna hitam. Buahnya kotak beruang tiga dan berwarna hijau.
Akarnya merupakan akar serabut.[1]

Habitat[sunting | sunting sumber]


Eceng gondok tumbuh di kolam-kolam dangkal, tanah basah dan rawa, aliran air yang lambat,
danau, tempat penampungan air dan sungai. Tumbuhan ini dapat beradaptasi dengan perubahan
yang ekstrem dari ketinggian air, arus air, dan perubahan ketersediaan nutrien, pH, temperatur dan
racun-racun dalam air.[3] Pertumbuhan eceng gondok yang cepat terutama disebabkan oleh air yang
mengandung nutrien yang tinggi, terutama yang kaya
akan nitrogen, fosfat dan potasium (LaporanFAO). Kandungan garam dapat menghambat
pertumbuhan eceng gondok seperti yang terjadi pada danau-danau di daerah pantaiAfrika Barat, di
mana eceng gondok akan bertambah sepanjang musim hujan dan berkurang saat kandungan
garam naik pada musim kemarau.[3]

Dampak Negatif[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kolam yang dipenuhi eceng gondok yang sedang berbunga

Akibat-akibat negatif yang ditimbulkan eceng gondok antara lain:

Meningkatnya evapotranspirasi (penguapan dan hilangnya air melalui daun-daun tanaman),


karena daun-daunnya yang lebar dan serta pertumbuhannya yang cepat.

Menurunnya jumlah cahaya yang masuk kedalam perairan sehingga menyebabkan


menurunnya tingkat kelarutan oksigen dalam air (DO: Dissolved Oxygens).

Tumbuhan eceng gondok yang sudah mati akan turun ke dasar perairan sehingga
mempercepat terjadinya proses pendangkalan.

Mengganggu lalu lintas (transportasi) air, khususnya bagi masyarakat yang kehidupannya
masih tergantung dari sungai seperti di pedalaman Kalimantan dan beberapa daerah lainnya.

Meningkatnya habitat bagi vektor penyakit pada manusia.

Menurunkan nilai estetika lingkungan perairan.

Penanggulangan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Karena eceng gondok dianggap sebagai gulma yang mengganggu maka berbagai cara dilakukan
untuk menanggulanginya. Tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan untuk mengatasinya antara lain:

Menggunakan herbisida

Mengangkat eceng gondok tersebut secara langsung dari lingkungan perairan

Menggunakan predator (hewan sebagai pemakan eceng gondok), salah satunya adalah
dengan menggunakan ikan grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) atau ikan koan. Ikan grass
carp memakan akar eceng gondok, sehingga keseimbangan gulma di permukaan air hilang,
daunnya menyentuh permukaan air sehingga terjadi dekomposisi dan kemudian dimakan ikan.
Cara ini pernah dilakukan di danau Kerinci dan berhasil mengatasi eceng gondok di danau
tersebut.[4]

Memanfaatkan eceng gondok tersebut, misalnya sebagai bahan pembuatan kertas, kompos,
biogas[5], perabotan[6], kerajinan tangan, sebagai media pertumbuhan bagijamur merang, dsb.

Pembersih Polutan Logam Berat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sungai yang dipenuhi eceng gondok

Walaupun eceng gondok dianggap sebagai gulma di perairan, tetapi sebenarnya ia berperan dalam
menangkap polutan logam berat. Rangkaian penelitian seputar kemampuan eceng gondok oleh
peneliti Indonesia antara lain oleh Widyanto dan Susilo (1977) yang melaporkan dalam waktu 24
jam eceng gondok mampu menyerap logam kadmium (Cd), merkuri (Hg), dan nikel (Ni), masingmasing sebesar 1,35 mg/g, 1,77 mg/g, dan 1,16 mg/g bila logam itu tak bercampur. Eceng gondok
juga menyerap Cd 1,23 mg/g, Hg 1,88 mg/g dan Ni 0,35 mg/g berat kering apabila logam-logam itu
berada dalam keadaan tercampur dengan logam lain. Lubis dan Sofyan (1986) menyimpulkan
logam chrom (Cr) dapat diserap oleh eceng gondok secara maksimal pada pH 7. Dalam
penelitiannya, logam Cr semula berkadar 15 ppm turun hingga 51,85 persen. [7]

Selain dapat menyerap logam berat, eceng gondok dilaporkan juga mampu menyerap residu
pestisida.

Eichhornia crassipes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other plants known as "water hyacinth", see Eichhornia.

Common water hyacinth

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked) Monocots
:
(unranked) Commelinids
:
Order:

Commelinales

Family:

Pontederiacea
e

Genus:

Eichhornia

Species:

E. crassipes

Binomial name
Eichhornia crassipes
(Mart.) Solms

Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as (common) water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native
to the Amazon basin, and is often considered a highly problematic invasive species outside its native
range.
Contents
[hide]

1Description

2Habitat and ecology

3Invasive species
o

3.1United States

3.2Africa

3.3Asia

3.4Control

3.4.1Chemical control

3.4.2Physical control

3.4.3Biological control
4Uses

4.1Bioenergy

4.2Phytoremediation, waste water treatment

4.3Edibility

4.4Medicinal use

4.5Potential as bioherbicidal agent

4.6Other uses

5Gallery

6References

7External links

Description[edit]
Water hyacinth is a free-floating perennial aquatic plant (or hydrophyte) native to tropical and subtropical South America. With broad, thick, glossy, ovate leaves, water hyacinth may rise above the
surface of the water as much as 1 meter in height. The leaves are 1020 cm across, and float above
the water surface. They have long, spongy and bulbous stalks. The feathery, freely hanging roots are
purple-black. An erect stalk supports a single spike of 8-15 conspicuously attractive flowers, mostly
lavender to pink in colour with six petals. When not in bloom, water hyacinth may be mistaken for
frog's-bit (Limnobium spongia).
One of the fastest growing plants known, water hyacinth reproduces primarily by way of runners
or stolons, which eventually form daughter plants. Each plant can produce thousands of seeds each
year, and these seeds can remain viable for more than 28 years. [1] Some water hyacinths were found
to grow up to 2 to 5 metres a day in some sites inSoutheast Asia.[2] The common water hyacinth
(Eichhornia crassipes) are vigorous growers known to double their population in two weeks.
In their native range these flowers are pollinated by long tongued bees and they can reproduce both
sexually and clonally. The invasiveness of the hyacinth is related to its ability to clone itself and large
patches are likely to all be part of the same genetic form. There are three morphs of water hyacinth,
long medium and short. However, the short morph is restricted to the native range due to founder
events during its distribution.

Habitat and ecology[edit]


Its habitat ranges from tropical desert to subtropical or warm temperate desert to rainforest zones.
The temperature tolerance of the water hyacinth is the following; its minimum growth temperature is
12 C (54 F); its optimum growth temperature is 25-30 C (77-86 F); its maximum growth
temperature is 33-35 C (92-95 F), and its pH tolerance is estimated at 5.0 to 7.5. It does not
tolerate water temperatures >35 C. Leaves are killed by frost and salt water, the latter trait being
used to kill some of it by floating rafts of the cut weed to the sea. Water hyacinths do not grow when
the average salinity is greater than 15% that of sea water. In brackish water, its leaves show
epinasty and chlorosis, and eventually die.[3]
Because of E. crassipes invasiveness, several biological control agents have been released to
control it, including two weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Neochetina bruchiHustache
and Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, and the moth Niphograpta albiguttalis (Warren) (Lepidoptera:
Pyralidae).[4] Neochetina eichhorniae causes "a substantial reduction in water hyacinth production"

(in Louisiana); it reduces plant height, weight, root length, and makes the plant produce fewer
daughter plants. N. eichhorniae was introduced from Argentina to Florida in 1972.[5]
Azotobacter chroococcum, an N-fixing bacteria, is probably concentrated around the bases of
the petioles. But the bacteria do not fix nitrogen unless the plant is suffering extreme N-deficiency.[6]
Fresh plants contain prickly crystals.[3] This plant is reported to contain HCN, alkaloid,
and triterpenoid, and may induce itching.[7] Plants sprayed with 2,4-D may accumulate lethal doses of
nitrates,[8] as well as various other nocive elements in polluted environments. See further down.

Invasive species[edit]
Water hyacinth has been widely introduced in North America, Asia, Australia, Africa and New
Zealand. In many areas it is has become an important and pernicious invasive species. In New
Zealand it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord which prevents it from being propagated,
distributed or sold. In large water areas such as Louisiana, theKerala Backwaters in India, Tonl
Sap in Cambodia and Lake Victoria it has become a serious pest.
When not controlled, water hyacinth will cover lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts
water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen,
often killing fish (or turtles). The plants also create a prime habitat for mosquitos[citation needed], the
classic vectors of disease, and a species of snail known to host a parasitic flatworm which
causes schistosomiasis (snail fever).[9] Directly blamed for starving subsistence farmers in Papua
New Guinea[citation needed], water hyacinth remains a major problem where effective control programs are
not in place. Water hyacinth is often problematic in man-made ponds if uncontrolled, but can also
provide a food source for goldfish, keep water clean [10] [11] and help to provide oxygen[citation needed] to manmade ponds.
Water hyacinth often invades bodies of water that have been impacted by human activities [citation needed].
For example, the plants can unbalance natural lifecycles in artificial reservoirs or in eutrophied lakes
that receive large amounts of nutrients.
Eichhornia crassipes, the Common water hyacinth, has become an invasive plant species on Lake
Victoria in Africa after it was introduced into the area in the 1980s[citation needed].

United States[edit]
The water hyacinth was introduced in 1884 at the World's Fair in New Orleans, also known as
the World Cotton Centennial.[12] The plants had been given away as a gift by a group of visiting
Japanese.[12] Soon after, the water hyacinth was choking rivers, killing fish and stopping shipping in
Louisiana, and an estimated 50 kilograms per square meter choked Florida's waterways. [13] There
were many attempts to eradicate the flower, including one by the U.S. War Department to pour oil
over many of the flowers, but none worked.[12] In 1910, a bold solution was put forth by the New
Foods Society. Their plan was to import and release hippopotamus from Africa into the rivers and

bayous of Louisiana. The hippopotamus would then eat the water hyacinth and also produce meat to
solve another serious problem at the time, the American meat crisis. [14]
Known as the American Hippo bill, H.R. 23621 was introduced by Louisiana Congressman Robert
Broussard and debated by the Agricultural Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. [15] The
chief collaborators in the New Foods Society and proponents of Broussard's bill were
Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated American scout, and Captain Fritz Duquesne, a
South African scout who later became a notorious spy for Germany. Presenting before the
Agricultural Committee, Burnham made the point that none of the animals that Americans ate,
chickens, pigs, cows, sheep, lambs, were native to the U.S., all had been imported by European
settlers centuries before, so why should Americans hesitate to introduce hippopotamus and other
large animals into the American diet? Duquesne, who was born and raised in South Africa, further
noted that European settlers on that continent commonly included hippopotamus, ostrich, antelope,
and other African wildlife in their diets and suffered no ill effects. The American Hippo bill nearly
passed, but fell one vote short.[14]

Africa[edit]
See also: Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria

Water hyacinth at Kisumu Port

The plant was introduced by Belgian colonists to Rwanda to beautify their holdings and then
advanced by natural means to Lake Victoriawhere it was first sighted in 1988.[16] There, without any
natural enemies, it has become an ecological plague, suffocating the lake, diminishing the fish
reservoir, and hurting the local economies. It impedes access to Kisumu and other harbors.
The water hyacinth has also appeared to the north in Ethiopia, where it was first reported in 1965 at
the Koka Reservoir and in the Awash River, where the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power
Authority has managed to bring it under moderate control at the considerable cost of human labor.
Other infestations in Ethiopia include many bodies of water in the Gambela Region, the Blue
Nile from just below Lake Tana into Sudan, and Lake Ellen near Alem Tena.[17]

Asia[edit]
Water hyacinth has also invaded the Tonl Sap lake in Cambodia. One project in Cambodia
(Osmose) is trying to fight it by having local people make baskets from it. [18]

Control[edit]
There are three commonly used control efforts used to suppress water hyacinth infestations. They
are physical, chemical, and biological controls. However, no one control is better than the other
because each has its advantages and disadvantages. The choice of control is dependent on the
specific conditions of each affected location such as the extent of water hyacinth infestation, regional
climate, and proximity to human and wildlife.[19]
Chemical control[edit]
The use of chemical controls is the least used out of the three controls of water hyacinth, because of
its long-term effects on the environment and human health. The use of herbicides requires strict
approval from governmental protection agencies of skilled technician to handle and spray the
affected areas. The use of chemical herbicides is only used in case of severe infiltration of water
hyacinth.[20] However, the most successful use of herbicides is when it is used for smaller areas of
infestation of water hyacinth. This is because in larger areas, more mats of water hyacinths are likely
to survive the herbicides and can fragment to further propagate a large area of water hyacinth mats.
In addition, it is more cost-effective and less laborious than mechanical control. Yet, it can lead to
environmental effects as it can penetrate into the ground water system and can affect not only the
hydrological cycle within an ecosystem but also negatively affect the local water system and human
health. It is also notable that the use of herbicides is not strictly selective of water hyacinths;
keystone species and vital organisms such microalgae can perish from the toxins and can disrupt
fragile food webs.[19] The chemical regulation of water hyacinths can be done using common
herbicides such as 2,4-D, glyphosate, and diquat. The herbicides are sprayed on the water hyacinth
leaves and leads to direct changes to the physiology of the plant.[21] The use of the herbicide known
as 2,4-D leads to the death of water hyacinth through inhibition of cell growth of new tissue and
cellular apoptosis (Jimenez, 2005). It can take almost a two-week period before mats of water
hyacinth are destroyed with 2,4-D. It has been found that up to 150,000 acres of water hyacinth are
treated annually in Louisiana.[22] The herbicide known as diquat is a liquid bromide salt that can
rapidly penetrate the leaves of the water hyacinth and lead to immediate inactivity of plant cells and
cellular processes. For the herbicide glyphosate, it has a low toxicity than the other herbicides;
therefore, it takes longer for the water hyacinth mats to be destroyed (about three weeks). The
symptoms include steady wilting of the plants and a yellow discoloration of the plant leaves that
eventually leads to plant decay.[20]
Physical control[edit]
Physical control is performed by land based machines such as bucket cranes, draglines, or boorm or
by water based machinery such as aquatic weed harvester,[23] dredges, or vegetation shredder.
[24]
Mechanical removal is seen as the best short-term solution to the proliferation of the plant. A
project on Lake Victoria in Africa used various pieces of equipment to chop, collect, and dispose of
1500 hectares of water hyacinth in a 12-month period. It is, however, costly and requires the use of
both land and water vehicles, but it took many years for the lake to become in poor condition and
reclamation will be a continual process. It can have an annual cost from $6 million to $20 million and
is only considered a short-term solution to a long-term problem. Another disadvantage with
mechanical harvesting is that it can lead to further fragmentation of water hyacinths when the plants

are broken up by spinning cutters of the plant-harvesting machinery. The fragments of water
hyacinth that are left behind in the water can easily reproduce asexually and cause another
infestation.[21] However, transportation and disposal of the harvested water hyacinth is a challenge
because the vegetation is heavy in weight.The harvested water hyacinth can pose a health risk to
humans because of the plants propensity for absorbing contaminants, and it be considered toxic to
humans. However, the practice of mechanical harvesting is not effective in large-scale infestations of
the water hyacinth, because this aquatic invasive species grows much more rapidly than it can be
eliminated. In addition, only one or two acres of water hyacinth can mechanically harvested daily
because of the vast amounts of water hyacinths in the environment. Therefore, the process is very
time-intensive.[25]
Biological control[edit]

In 2010 the insect Megamelus scutellaris was released by the Agricultural Research Service as a biological
control for the invasive species Eichhornia crassipes, more commonly known as waterhyacinth.[26]

As chemical and mechanical removal is often too expensive and ineffective, researchers have
turned to biological control agents to deal with water hyacinth. The effort began in the 1970s
when USDA researchers released three species of weevil known to feed on water hyacinth into
the United States, Neochetina bruchi, N. eichhorniae, and the water hyacinth borer Sameodes
albiguttalis. The weevil species were introduced into the Gulf Coast states, such as Louisiana,
Texas, and Florida, where there was thousands of acres of infestation from water hyacinth. It was
found that a decade later in the 1980s that there was a decrease in water hyacinth mats by as much
as 33%. However, because the life cycle of the weevils is only ninety days, it puts a limitation on the
use of biological predation to efficiently suppress water hyacinth growth. [22] These organisms regulate
water hyacinth by limiting water hyacinth size, its vegetative propagation, and seed production. They
also carry microorganisms that can be pathological to the water hyacinth. These weevils eat stem
tissue, which results in a loss of buoyancy for the plant, which will eventually sink. [21] Although
meeting with limited success, the weevils have since been released in more than 20 other countries.
However, the most effective control method remains the control of excessive nutrients and
prevention of the spread of this species.
May 2010 the USDAs Agricultural Research Service released Megamelus scutellaris as a biological
control insect for the invasive waterhyacinth species. Megamelus scutellaris is a
small planthopper insect native to Argentina. Researchers have been studying the effects of the
biological control agent in extensive host-range studies since 2006 and concluded that the insect is
highly host-specific and will not pose a threat to any other plant population other than the targeted

water hyacinth. Researchers also hope that the biological control will be more resilient than existing
biological controls to the herbicides that are already in place to combat the invasive water hyacinth. [27]

Uses[edit]
Bioenergy[edit]
Because of its extremely high rate of development, Eichhornia crassipes is an excellent source of
biomass. One hectare of standing crop thus produce more than 70,000 m 3 ofbiogas.[28] According to
Curtis and Duke, one kg of dry matter can yield 370 liters of biogas, giving a heating value of 22,000
kJ/m3 (580 Btu/ft3) compared to pure methane (895 Btu/ft3)[29]
Wolverton and McDonald report only 0.2 m3 methane per kg, indicating requirements of 6000 MT
biomass/ha to attain the 70,000 m3 yield projected by the National Academy of Sciences
(Washington).[30] Ueki and Kobayashi mention more than 200 MT/ha/yr.[31] Reddy and Tucker found an
experimental maximum of more than a half ton per day.[32]Bengali farmers collect and pile up these
plants to dry at the onset of the cold season; they then use the dry water hyacinths as fuel. They
then use the ashes as fertilizer. In India, a ton of dried water hyacinth yield circa 50 liters ethanol and
200 kg residual fiber (7,700 Btu). Bacterial fermentation of one ton yields 26,500 cu ft gas (600 Btu)
with 51.6%methane, 25.4% hydrogen, 22.1% CO2, and 1.2% oxygen. Gasification of one ton dry
matter by air and steam at high temperatures (800) gives circa 40,000 ft3 (circa 1,100 m3) natural
gas (143 Btu/cu ft) containing 16.6% hydrogen, 4.8% methane, 21.7% CO, 4.1% CO2, and 52.8% N.
The high moisture content of water hyacinth, adding so much to handling costs, tends to limit
commercial ventures.,[30][33] A continuous, hydraulic production system could be designed, which
would provide a better utilization of capital investments than in conventional agriculture, which is
essentially a batch operation.,[3][34]
The labour involved in harvesting water hyacinth can be greatly reduced by locating collection sites
and processors on impoundments that take advantage of prevailing winds.Wastewater treatment
systems could also favourably be added to this operation. The harvested biomass would then be
converted to ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen and/or gaseous nitrogen, and fertilizer. The
resulting byproducts of water and fertilizer can both be used to irrigate nearby cropland.[3]

Phytoremediation, waste water treatment[edit]


The roots of Eichhornia crassipes naturally absorb pollutants, including lead, mercury,
and strontium-90, as well as some organic compounds believed to be carcinogenic, in
concentrations 10,000 times that in the surrounding water.[35] Water hyacinths can be cultivated for
waste water treatment.[3]
Water hyacinth is reported for its efficiency to remove about 6080 % nitrogen (Fox et al. 2008) and
about 69% of potassium from water (Zhou et al. 2007). The roots of water hyacinth were found to
remove particulate matter and nitrogen in a natural shallow eutrophicated wetland (Billore et al.
1998).[36]

Edibility[edit]
The plant is used as a carotene-rich table vegetable in Taiwan. Javanese sometimes cook and eat
the green parts and inflorescence.[3]

Medicinal use[edit]
In Kedah (Malaysia), the flowers are used for medicating the skin of horses. [3] The species is a
"tonic.",[37][38]

Potential as bioherbicidal agent[edit]


Water hyacinth leaf extract has been shown to exhibit phytotoxicity against another invasive
weed Mimosa pigra. The extract inhibited the germination of Mimosa pigra seeds in addition to
suppressing the root growth of the seedlings. Biochemical data suggested that the inhibitiory effects
may be mediated by enhanced hydrogen peroxide production, inhibition of
soluble peroxidase activity, and stimulation of cell wall-bound peroxidase activity in the root tissues
of Mimosa pigra.[39]

Other uses[edit]
In East Africa, water hyacinths from Lake Victoria are used to make furniture, handbags and rope.
[40]
The plant is also used as animal feed and organic fertilizer although there is controversy
stemming from the high alkaline pH value of the fertilizer.[41] Though a study found water hyacinths of
very limited use for paper production,[42] they are nonetheless being used for paper production on a
small scale.
American-Nigerian Achenyo Idachaba has won an award for showing how this plant can be
exploited for profit in Nigeria.[43]

Gallery[edit]

Floating

Flowers

A pond covered with water hyacinth

Inflated petiole

Huge field being populated

Wolffia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wolffia

Each speck is an individual


plant (on human fingers, for
scale)

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order:

Alismatales

Family:

Araceae

Subfamily:

Lemnoideae

Tribe:

Wolffieae

Genus:

Wolffia
Schleid.

Species

9-11, see text

Close up of two different duckweeds: Spirodela polyrrhiza andWolffia globosa. The very tiny Wolffiaplants are
under 2 millimetres (0.079 in) long.

Wolffia is a genus of 9 to 11 species which include the smallest flowering plants on Earth.
Commonly called watermeal or duckweed, these aquatic plants resemble specks
of cornmeal floating on the water. Wolffia species are free-floating thalli, green or yellow-green, and
without roots. The flower is produced in a depression on the top surface of the plant body. It has
one stamen and one pistil. Individuals often float together in pairs or form floating mats with related
plants, such as Lemna and Spirodela species. Most species have a very wide distribution across
several continents. Wolffia species are composed of about 40 percent protein, about the same as
the soybean, making them a potential high-protein human food source. They have historically been
collected from the water and eaten as a vegetable in much of Asia.

Selected species[edit]

Wolffia angusta

Wolffia arrhiza

Wolffia australiana

Wolffia borealis

Wolffia brasiliensis

Wolffia columbiana

Wolffia cylindracea

Wolffia elongata

Wolffia globosa

Wolffia microscopica

Wolffia neglecta

Wolffia arrhiza
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wolffia arrhiza

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Monocots

Order:

Alismatales

Family:

Araceae

Subfamily:

Lemnoideae

Genus:

Wolffia

An 1885 illustration ofWolffia arrhiza.

Species:

W. arrhiza
Binomial name
Wolffia arrhiza
(L.) Horkel ex Wimm.

Wolffia arrhiza is a species of flowering plant known by the common names spotless
watermeal and rootless duckweed, belonging to the Araceae, a family rich in water-loving species,
such as Arum and Pistia. It is the smallest vascular plant on Earth.[1][2][3] It is native to Europe, Africa,
and parts of Asia, and it is present in other parts of the world as a naturalized species.[4][5] It is
an aquatic plant which grows in quiet water bodies such as ponds. The green part of the plant, the
frond, is a sphere measuring approximately one millimeter wide but with a flat top that floats at the
water's surface. It has a few parallel rows of stomata.[2] There is no root. The plant produces a minute
flower fully equipped with one stamen and one pistil. It often multiplies by vegetative reproduction,
however, with the rounded part budding off into a new individual. [2][6] In cooler conditions the plant
becomes dormant and sinks to the bed of the water body to overwinter as a turion.[7] The plant is
a mixotroph which can produce its own energy via photosynthesis or absorb it from the environment
in the form of dissolved carbon.[3]
This tiny plant is a nutritious food. Its green part is about 40% protein by dry weight and its turion is
about 40% starch.[8][9] It contains manyamino acids important to the human diet, relatively large
amounts of dietary minerals and trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc, and vitamin
B12.[9] It has long been used as a cheap food source in Burma, Laos, and Thailand, where it is
known as khai-nam("eggs of the water").[10] The plant is prolific in its reproduction, growing in floating
mats that can be harvested every 3 to 4 days; it has been shown to double its population in less than
four days in vitro.[11]
It is also useful as a form of agricultural and municipal water treatment.[12] It is placed
in effluent from black tiger shrimp farms to absorb and metabolize pollutants.[13] The plants grow
quickly and take up large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from the water.[8] The plants that grow
in the wastewater can then be used as feed for animals, such as carp,[14] Nile tilapia,[15] and chickens.
[7]

Azolla

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas


Belum Diperiksa

Azolla

Azolla caroliniana

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan:

Plantae

Divisi:

Pteridophyta

Kelas:

Pteridopsida

Ordo:

Salviniales

Famili:

Salviniaceae

Genus:

Azolla
Jenis

terdapat tujuh jenis, lihat teks.

Azolla merupakan satu-satunya genus dari paku air mengapung suku Azollaceae. Terdapat tujuh
spesies yang termasuk dalam genus ini. Suku Azollaceae sekarang dianjurkan untuk digabungkan

ke dalam suku Salviniaceae, berdasarkan kajian morfologi dan molekular dari Smith et al. (2006)
(lihat artikel tumbuhan paku).
Azolla dikenal mampu bersimbiosis dengan bakteri biru-hijau Anabaena azollae dan
mengikat nitrogen langsung dari udara. Potensi ini membuat Azolla digunakan sebagai pupuk
hijau baik di lahan sawah maupun lahan kering. Pada kondisi optimal Azolla akan tumbuh baik
dengan laju pertumbuhan 35% tiap hari Nilai nutrisi Azolla mengandung kadar protein tinggi antara
24-30%. Kandungan asam amino essensialnya, terutama lisin 0,42% lebih tinggi dibandingkan
dengan konsentrat jagung, dedak, dan beras pecah (Arifin, 1996) dalam Akrimin 2002.
Tanaman Azolla Sp. memang sudah tidak diragukan lagi konstribusinya dalam memengaruhi
peningkatan tanaman padi. Hal ini telah dibuktikan dibeberpa tempat dan beberapa negara.
Konstribusi terbesar azolla adalah dengan menjaga hasil panen tetap tinggi. Meskipun
penggunaannya sebagai pupuk hijau pada tanaman padi masih dilakukan di China dan Vietnam,
dengan adanya peningkatan biaya tenaga kerja, membuatnya kurang diminati.
Meskipun demikian, seiring dengan perkembangan pupuk hijau, penggunaan azolla ini kini lebih
banyak dimanfaatkan untuk budidaya perikanan. Dengan adanya mindazbesi yang menggabungkan
mina padi dengan azolla, selain menjadikannya sebagai pakan perikanan juga konstribusi dapat
digunakan untuk peningkatan produksi padi.

Jenis[sunting | sunting sumber]


Terdapat tujuh jenis Azolla:
Asia

Azolla japonica Franch. & Sav. dari Jepang

A. filiculoides Lam.

A. pinnata R. Br. dari Asia Tenggara, juga dari Afrika


Afrika

A. nilotica Dcne. ex Mett.


Amerika

A. caroliniana Willd., dari Amerika Utara

A. mexicana Presl., dari Meksiko

A. microphylla Kaulf.

Azolla pinnata
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Azolla pinnata

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division:

Pteridophyta

Class:

Polypodiopsida /
Pteridopsida (disput
ed)

Order:

Salviniales

Family:

Azollaceae

Genus:

Azolla

Species:

A. pinnata
Binomial name
Azolla pinnata
R.Br.

Azolla pinnata is a species of fern known by several common names, including feathered
mosquitofern and water velvet. It is native to much of Africa, Asia from China to Japan, India and
the Philippines, and parts of Australia. It is an aquatic plant, its frond floating upon the surface of the
water. It grows in quiet and slow-moving water bodies, because swift currents and waves break up
the plant.[1]
This is a small fern with a triangular frond measuring up to 2.5 centimeters in length which floats on
the water. The frond is made up of many rounded or angular overlapping leaves each 1 or 2
millimeters long. They are green, blue-green, or dark red in color and coated in tiny hairs, giving
them a velvety appearance.[1] The hairs make the top surface of the leaf water-repellent, keeping the
plant afloat even after being pushed under.[1] A water body may be coated in a dense layer of the
plants, which form a velvety mat that crowds out other plants.[1] The hairlike roots extend out into the
water.[1] The leaves contain the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which is a symbiont that
fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere that the fern can use.[1][2] This gives the fern the ability to grow in
habitats that are low in nitrogen.[2]
The plant reproduces vegetatively when branches break off the main axis,
or sexually when sporocarps on the leaves release spores.[3]
It is present in New Zealand as an introduced species and an invasive weed that has crowded out a
native relative, Azolla rubra.[1] It is a pest of waterways because its dense mats reduce oxygen in the
water.[4] The weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus is used as an agent ofbiological pest control to
manage Azolla filiculoides, and it has been found to attack A. pinnata as well.[5]
Rice farmers sometimes keep this plant in their paddies because it generates valuable nitrogen via
its symbiotic cyanobacteria.[1][3] The plant can be grown in wet soil and then plowed under, generating
a good amount of nitrogen-rich fertilizer.[6] The plant has the ability to absorb a certain amount of
heavy metal pollution, such as lead, from contaminated water.[7] It is 25-30% protein and can be
added tochicken feed.[8][9]

Victoria amazonica
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Queen Victoria's water


lily

Victoria amazonica at
the Adelaide Botanic
Garden, South Australia

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked) Angiosperms
:
Order:

Nymphaeales

Family:

Nymphaeacea
e

Genus:

Victoria

Species:

V. amazonica

Binomial name
Victoria amazonica

(Poepp.) J.C. Sowerby

Synonyms[1][2][3]

Euryale
amazonica

Nymphaea
victoria

Poepp 1836

M.R.Schomb. ex Lindl.

Victoria
regina

R.H.Schomb.

Sep

1837

Victoria
regia

Lindl.

Oct 1837

Victoria amazonica is a species of flowering plant, the largest of the Nymphaeaceae family of water
lilies.
Contents
[hide]

1Description

2Classification

3History

4Gallery

5References

6External links

Description[edit]
The species has very large leaves, up to 3 m in diameter, that float on the water's surface on a
submerged stalk, 78 m in length. The species was once called Victoria regia after Queen Victoria,
but the name was superseded. V. amazonica is native to the shallow waters of the Amazon
River basin, such as oxbow lakes and bayous. It is depicted in the Guyanese coat of arms. The

flowers are white the first night they are open and become pink the second night. They are up to
40 cm in diameter, and are pollinated by beetles. This process was described in detail by
Sir Ghillean Prance and Jorge Arius.[4][5]It is the largest waterlily in the world.

Classification[edit]

Illustration by Fitch, 1851

A member of the genus Victoria placed in the Nymphaeaceae family or, sometimes, in
theEuryalaceae.[6] The first published description of the genus was by John Lindley in October 1837,
based on specimens of this plant returned from British Guiana by Robert Schomburgk. Lindley
named the genus after the newly ascended Queen Victoria, and the species Victoria regia.[1] The
spelling in Schomburgk's description in Athenaeum, published the month before, was given
asVictoria Regina.[2] Despite this spelling being adopted by the Botanical Society of London for their
new emblem, Lindley's was the version used throughout the nineteenth century.[3][7]
An earlier account of the species, Euryale amazonica by Eduard Friedrich Poeppig, in 1832
described an affinity with Euryale ferox. A collection and description was also made by the French
botanist Aim Bonpland in 1825.[1][1][8] In 1850 James De Carle Sowerby[9] recognised Poeppig's
earlier description and transferred its epithet amazonica. The new name was rejected by Lindley.
The current name, Victoria amazonica, did not come into widespread use until the twentieth century.
[3]

History[edit]

"On unbent leaf in fairy guise,


Reflected in the water,

Beloved, admired by hearts and eyes,


Stands Annie, Paxton's daughter..."

Victoria regia, as it was named, was once the subject of rivalry between Victorian gardeners in
England. Always on the look out for a spectacular new species with which to impress their peers,
Victorian "Gardeners"[10] such as the Duke of Devonshire, and the Duke of Northumberland started a
well-mannered competition to become the first to cultivate and bring to flower this enormous lily. In
the end, the two aforementioned Dukes became the first to achieve this, Joseph Paxton (for the
Duke of Devonshire) being the first in November 1849 by replicating the lily's warm swampy habitat
(not easy in winter in England with only coal-fired boilers for heating), and a "Mr Ivison" the second
and more constantly successful (for Northumberland) at Syon House.
The species captured the imagination of the public, and was the subject of several dedicated
monographs. The botanical illustrations of cultivated specimens in Fitch and W.J. Hooker's 1851
work Victoria Regia[11] received critical acclaim in the Athenaeum, "they are accurate, and they are
beautiful".[12] The Duke of Devonshire presented Queen Victoria with one of the first of these flowers,
and named it in her honour. The lily, with ribbed undersurface and leaves veining "like transverse
girders and supports", was Paxton's inspiration forThe Crystal Palace, a building four times the size
of St. Peter's in Rome.[13]

Gallery[edit]

in Botanical garden Brno

Bud of Victoria amazonica

Leaf of Victoria amazonica

Underside of a leaf

in Kobe Kachoen

Flower of Victoria amazonica

Underside of a leaf

Victoria Amazonica in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens

Victoria amazonica inParaense Emlio Goeldi Museum

Teratai
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Teratai

Teratai putih (Nymphaea alba)

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Plantae
Divisi:

Magnoliophyta

Kelas:

Magnoliopsida

Ordo:

Nymphaeales

Famili:

Nymphaeaceae

Genus:

Nymphaea
Spesies

Sekitar 50 species:
Nymphaea alba
Nymphaea amazonium
Nymphaea ampla
Nymphaea blanda
Nymphaea caerulea
Nymphaea calliantha
Nymphaea candida
Nymphaea capensis
Nymphaea citrina
Nymphaea colorata
Nymphaea elegans
Nymphaea fennica
Nymphaea flavovirens
Nymphaea gardneriana
Nymphaea gigantea
Nymphaea heudelotii
Nymphaea jamesoniana
Nymphaea lotus

Nymphaeae lutea
Nymphaea mexicana
Nymphaea micrantha
Nymphaea odorata
Nymphaea pubescens
Nymphaea rubra
Nymphaea rudgeana
Nymphaea stellata
Nymphaea stuhlmannii
Nymphaea sulfurea
Nymphaea tetragona
Nymphaea tuberosa

Teratai (Nymphaea) adalah nama genus untuk tanaman air dari suku Nymphaeaceae.
Dalam bahasa Inggris dikenal sebagaiwater-lily atau waterlily. Di Indonesia, teratai juga digunakan
untuk menyebut tanaman dari genus Nelumbo (lotus). Pada zaman dulu, orang memang sering
mencampuradukkan antara tanaman genus Nelumbo seperti seroja dengan
genus Nymphaea(teratai). Pada Nelumbo, bunga terdapat di atas permukaan air (tidak mengapung),
kelopak bersemu merah (teratai berwarna putih hingga kuning), daun berbentuk lingkaran penuh
dan rimpangnya biasa dikonsumsi.
Tanaman tumbuh di permukaan air yang tenang. Bunga dan daun terdapat di permukaan air, keluar
dari tangkai yang berasal daririzoma yang berada di dalam lumpur pada dasar kolam, sungai atau
rawa. Tangkai terdapat di tengah-tengah daun. Daunberbentuk bundar atau bentuk oval yang lebar
yang terpotong pada jari-jari menuju ke tangkai. Permukaan daun tidak mengandung
lapisan lilin sehingga air yang jatuh ke permukaan daun tidak membentuk butiran air.
Bunga terdapat pada tangkai yang merupakan perpanjangan dari rimpang. Diameter bunga antara
510 cm.
Teratai terdiri dari sekitar 50 spesies yang tersebar dari wilayah tropis hingga daerah subtropis
seluruh dunia. Teratai yang tumbuh di daerah tropis berasal dari Mesir.
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

1Manfaat

2Keunikan

3Sejarah

4Perbedaan dengan Nuphar

5Pranala luar

Manfaat[sunting | sunting sumber]


Teratai menjadi tanaman di kebun-kebun karena bunganya yang indah.
Pelukis Perancis bernama Claude Monet terkenal dengan lukisan bunga teratai.

Keunikan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Teratai merupakan tanaman air yang unik. Teratai yang tumbuh di air yang sangat berlumpur (kotor,
coklat), warna bunganya lebih cemerlang. Warna bunga bila putih lebih putih, bila merah lebih
merah, bila merah muda makin terang warnanya.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]


Pada zaman Mesir kuno, teratai dan lotus banyak tumbuh di pinggir Sungai Nil. Nymphaea
caerulea dan Nymphaea lotus adalah dua spesies yang berasal dari Mesir. Bunga N.
caerulea hanya berumur sehari, mekar di pagi hari dan tenggelam di bawah air di senja hari. Bunga
dari N. lotus mekar pada malam hari dan menguncup di pagi hari. Peninggalan dari kedua jenis
teratai asli Mesir ini ditemukan di makam Ramses II.

Perbedaan dengan Nuphar[sunting | sunting sumber]


Teratai masih satu suku dengan genus Nuphar yang perbedaannya terletak pada besar daun
mahkota. Bunga teratai memiliki daun mahkota yang lebih besar dari daun kelopak, sedangkan
genus Nuphar memiliki daun mahkota yang lebih kecil daripada daun kelopak. Pematangan buah
Teratai terjadi di bawah permukaan air, berbeda dengan pematangan buah dari genus Nupharyang
terjadi di atas permukaan air.

Nymphaea
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nymphaea

Nymphaea 'Peach Glow'

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked) Angiosperms
:
Order:

Nymphaeales

Family:

Nymphaeacea
e

Genus:

Nymphaea
L.

Species

About 36 species, see text[1]

Nymphaea /nmfi/ is a genus of hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae.
The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution. Many species are cultivated as ornamental plants, and
many cultivars have been bred. Some taxa occur as introduced species where they are not native,
[2]
and some are weeds.[3] Plants of the genus are known commonly as water-lilies.[2][4] The genus

name is from the Greek , nymphaia and the Latin nymphaea, which mean "water-lily" and
were inspired by the nymphs of Greekand Latin mythology.[2]
Contents
[hide]

1Description

2Cultivation

3Other Uses

4Taxonomy

5Cultural significance

6Examples

7References

8External links

9Further reading

Description[edit]
Water-lilies are aquatic rhizomatous perennial herbs, sometimes with stolons, as well. The leaves
grow from the rhizome on long petioles. Most of them float on the surface of the water. The blades
have smooth or spine-toothed edges, and they can be rounded or pointed. The flowers rise out of
the water or float on the surface, opening during the day or at night. [2] Many species
of Nymphaea display protogynousflowering. The temporal separation of these female and male
phases is physically reinforced by flower opening and closing, so that the first flower opening
displays female pistil and then closes at the end of the female phase, and reopens with male
stamens.[5] Each has at least 8 petals in shades of white, pink, blue, or yellow. There are
many stamens at the center.[2] Water-lily flowers are entomophilous, meaning they are pollinated by
insects, often beetles.[2] The fruit is berry-like and borne on a curving or coiling peduncle.[2]

Cultivation[edit]
Water-lilies are not only decorative, but provide useful shade which helps reduce the growth
of algae in ponds and lakes.[6] Many of the water-lilies familiar in water
gardening arehybrids and cultivars. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural
Society's Award of Garden Merit:

'Escarboucle'[7] (orange-red)

'Gladstoniana'[8] (double white flowers with prominent yellow stamens)

'Gonnre'[9] (double white scented flowers)

'James Brydon;'[10] (cupped rose-red flowers)

'Marliacea Chromatella'[11]' (pale yellow flowers)

'Pygmaea Helvola'[12] (cupped fragrant yellow flowers)

Other Uses[edit]
Water-lilies have several edible parts. The young leaves and unopened flower buds can be boiled
and served as a vegetable. The seeds, high in starch, protein, and oil, may be popped, parched, or
ground into flour. Potato-like tubers can be collected from the species N. tuberosa.[13]

Taxonomy[edit]

Nymphaea stellata

This is one of several genera of plants known commonly as lotuses. It is not related to
the legume genus Lotus or the Chinese and Indian lotuses of genus Nelumbo. It is closely related
to Nuphar lotuses, however. In Nymphaea, the petals are much larger than the sepals, whereas
in Nuphar the petals are much smaller. The process of fruit maturation also differs,
with Nymphaea fruit sinking below the water level immediately after the flower closes,
and Nuphar fruit remaining above the surface.
Subdivisions of genus Nymphaea:[14]
Subgenus:
Anecphya
Brachyceras
Hydrocallis
Lotos
Nymphaea:
section Chamaenymphaea

section Nymphaea
section Xanthantha
Species

[show]Name common name

Blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea) on an18th Dynasty jar found at Amarna

Cultural significance[edit]

Water-lily by Claude Monet, 1906

For the sacred lotus of Hinduism and Buddhism, see Nelumbo nucifera.
The ancient Egyptians revered the Nile water-lilies, which were known as lotuses. The lotus
motif is a frequent feature of temple column architecture.
The flowers of the Egyptian blue water-lily (N. caerulea) open in the morning and then sink
beneath the water at dusk, while those of the Egyptian white water-lily (N. lotus) open at night
and close in the morning. Egyptians found this symbolic of the separation of deities and of death
and the afterlife. Remains of both flowers have been found in the burial tomb of Ramesses II.
In Roman culture, there was a belief that drinking a liquid of crushed Nymphaea in vinegar for
ten consecutive days turned a boy into a eunuch.

A Syrian terra-cotta plaque from the 14th-13th century B.C.E. shows the
goddess Asherah holding two lotus blossoms. An ivory panel from the 9th-8th century B.C.E.
shows the god Horus seated on a lotus blossom, flanked by two cherubs.[15]
The French Impressionist painter Claude Monet is known for his many paintings of water-lilies in
the pond in his garden at Giverny.[16]
Nymphaea nouchali is the national flower of Bangladesh[17] and Sri Lanka.[18]

Examples[edit]

Nymphaea alba

Nymphaea colorata

Nymphaea gigantea

Nymphaea nouchali

Nymphaea 'Attraction'

Nymphaea laydekeri purpurata

Nymphaea mexicana

Nymphaea capensis

Nymphaea candida

Oryza sativa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oryza sativa

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order:

Poales

Family:

Poaceae

Genus:

Oryza

Species:

O. sativa

Binomial name
Oryza sativa
L.

Oryza sativa, inflorescence

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in
English as rice. Oryza sativa is a grasswith a genome consisting of 430Mb across 12 chromosomes.
It is renowned for being easy to genetically modify, and is a model organism for cereal biology.
Contents
[hide]

1Classification

2Nomenclature and taxonomy

3List of the cultivars

4History of domestication and cultivation


o

4.1Origins

4.2Continental East Asia

4.3South Asia

4.4Korean peninsula and Japanese archipelago

4.5Southeast Asia

5See also

6References

7External links

Classification[edit]
Oryza sativa contains two major subspecies: the sticky, short-grained japonica or sinica variety, and
the nonsticky, long-grained indicavariety. Japonica varieties are usually cultivated in dry fields, in
temperate East Asia, upland areas of Southeast Asia, and high elevations in South Asia,
while indica varieties are mainly lowland rices, grown mostly submerged, throughout tropical Asia.
Rice occurs in a variety of colors, including: white, brown, black, purple, and red rices.[1] Black rice
(also known as purple rice) is a range of rice types, some of which are glutinous rice. Varieties
include Indonesian black rice and Thai jasmine black rice.
A third subspecies, which is broad-grained and thrives under tropical conditions, was identified
based on morphology and initially calledjavanica, but is now known as tropical japonica. Examples of

this variety include the medium-grain 'Tinawon' and 'Unoy' cultivars, which are grown in the highelevation rice terraces of the Cordillera Mountains of northern Luzon, Philippines.[2]
Glaszmann (1987) used isozymes to sort O. sativa into six
groups: japonica, aromatic, indica, aus, rayada, and ashina.[3]
Garris et al. (2004) used simple sequence repeats to sort O. sativa into five groups: temperate
japonica, tropical japonica and aromaticcomprise the japonica varieties,
while indica and aus comprise the indica varieties.[4]

Nomenclature and taxonomy[edit]


Rice has been cultivated since ancient times and oryza is a classical Latin word for
rice. Sativa means "cultivated".

O. sativa

Rice stem cross section magnified 400 times

A: Rice with chaff


B: Brown rice
C: Rice with germ
D: White rice with bran residue
E: Musenmai (Japanese:), "Polished and ready to boil rice", literally, non-wash rice
(1): Chaff
(2):Bran
(3): Bran residue
(4): Cereal germ
(5): Endosperm
This section
requires expansion.
(December 2009)

List of the cultivars[edit]

Rice grains collection of IRRI

Further information: List of rice varieties


This section
requires expansion.
(December 2009)

History of domestication and cultivation[edit]


Origins[edit]
Debates on the origins of the domesticated rice are numerous. In 2011, genetic evidence shows that
all forms of Asian rice, both indicaand japonica, spring from a single domestication that occurred
8,20013,500 years ago in China of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon.[5] A 2012 study , through a map of
rice genome variation, indicated that the domestication of rice occurred in the Pearl River valley
region of China. From East Asia, rice was spread to South and Southeast Asia. [6] Before this
research, the commonly accepted view, based on archaeological evidence, is that rice was first
domesticated in the region of the Yangtze River valley in China.[7][8][9]
The precise date of the first domestication is unknown, but depending on the molecular clock
estimate, the date is estimated to be 8,200 to 13,500 years ago. This is consistent with known
archaeological data on the subject.[10]

Aerial view of terrace rice fields inYuanyang, Yunnan Province, southernChina

An older theory, based on one chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions, Londo et al. (2006) had
proposed that O. sativa rice was domesticated at least twiceindica in eastern India, Myanmar,
and Thailand; and japonica in southern China and Vietnamthough they concede that
archaeological and genetic evidence exist for a single domestication of rice in the lowlands of China.
[11]

Because the functional allele for nonshattering, the critical indicator of domestication in grains, as
well as five other single-nucleotide polymorphisms, is identical in both indica and japonica,
Vaughan et al. (2008) determined a single domestication event for O. sativahappened in the region
of the Yangtze River valley.[12]

Continental East Asia[edit]


Rice appears to have been used by the early Neolithic populations of Lijiacun and Yunchanyan.
[13]
Evidence of possible rice cultivation inChina around 11,500 BP has been found, but whether the
rice was indeed being cultivated, or instead was being gathered as wild rice is still questioned.[14]

Zhao (1998) argues that collection of wild rice in the Late Pleistocene had, by 6400 BC, led to the
use of primarily domesticated rice.[15]Morphological studies of rice phytoliths from the Diaotonghuan
archaeological site clearly show the transition from the collection of wild rice to the cultivation of
domesticated rice. The large number of wild rice phytoliths at the Diaotonghuan level dating from
12,00011,000 BP indicates that wild rice collection was part of the local means of subsistence.
Changes in the morphology of Diaotonghuan phytoliths dating from 10,0008,000 BP show that rice
had by this time been domesticated.[16] Analysis of Chinese rice residues from Pengtoushan, which
were carbon 14 dated to 82007800 BCE, show that rice had been domesticated by this time. [17]
In 1998, Crawford and Shen reported the earliest of 14 AMS or radiocarbon dates on rice from at
least 9 Early to Middle Neolithic sites are no older than 7000 BC, that rice from the Hemudu and
Luojiajiao sites indicates that rice domestication likely began before 5000 BC, but that most sites in
China from which rice remains have been recovered are younger than 5000 BC. [13]

South Asia[edit]

Paddy fields in the Indian state ofTamil Nadu

Wild Oryza rice appeared in the Belan and Ganges valley regions of northern India as early as 4530
BC and 5440 BC, respectively,[18]although many believe it may have appeared earlier.
The Encyclopdia Britannicaon the subject of the first certain cultivated riceholds that: [19]
Many cultures have evidence of early rice cultivation, including China, India, and the civilizations of
Southeast Asia. However, the earliest archaeological evidence comes from central and eastern
China and dates to 70005000 BC.
Denis J. Murphy (2007) further details the spread of cultivated rice from India into Southeast Asia:[20]
Several wild cereals, including rice, grew in the Vindhyan Hills, and rice cultivation, at sites such as
Chopani-Mando and Mahagara, may have been underway as early as 7000 BP. The relative
isolation of this area and the early development of rice farming imply that it was developed
indigenously.
Chopani-Mando and Mahagara are located on the upper reaches of the Ganges drainage system,
and it is likely that migrants from this area spread rice farming down the Ganges valley into the fertile
plains of Bengal, and beyond into south-east Asia.

Rice was cultivated in the Indus Valley civilization.[21] Agricultural activity during the second
millennium BC included rice cultivation in theKashmir and Harrappan regions.[18] Mixed farming was
the basis of Indus valley economy.[21]
According to Zohary and Hopf (2000, p. 91), O. sativa was recovered from a grave at Susa in Iran
(dated to the first century AD) at one end of the ancient world, while at the same time rice was grown
in the Po valley in Italy. In northern Iran, in Gilan province, many indicarice cultivars including
'Gerdeh', 'Hashemi', 'Hasani', and 'Gharib' have been bred by farmers. [22]

Korean peninsula and Japanese archipelago[edit]


Mainstream archaeological evidence derived from palaeoethnobotanical investigations indicate dryland rice was introduced to Korea andJapan sometime between 3500 and 1200 BC. The cultivation
of rice then occurred on a small scale, fields were impermanent plots, and evidence shows that in
some cases domesticated and wild grains were planted together. The technological, subsistence,
and social impact of rice and grain cultivation is not evident in archaeological data until after
1500 BC. For example, intensive wet-paddy rice agriculture was introduced into Korea shortly before
or during the Middle Mumun pottery period (circa 850550 BC) and reached Japan by the
final Jmon or initial Yayoi periods circa 300 BC.[13][23]
In 2003, Korean archaeologists alleged they discovered burnt grains of domesticated rice in Soro-ri,
Korea, which dated to 13,000 BC. These antedate the oldest grains in China, which were dated to
10,000 BC, and potentially challenge the mainstream explanation that domesticated rice originated
in China.[24] The findings were received by academia with strong skepticism, and the results and their
publicizing has been cited as being driven by a combination of nationalist and regional interests. [25]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Using water buffalo to plough rice fields in Java; Indonesia is the world's third-largest paddy rice producer, and
its cultivation has transformed much of the country's landscape.

Traditional medicinal rice ofNiyamgiri Hills, India

Medicinal rice of Chhattisgarh used as immune booster

Rice is the staple for all classes in contemporary Southeast Asia, from Myanmar to Indonesia. In
Indonesia, evidence of wild Oryza rice on the island of Sulawesi dates from 3000 BCE. The evidence
for the earliest cultivation, however, comes from eighth-century stone inscriptions from Java, which
show kings levied taxes in rice. Divisions of labor between men, women, and animals that are still in
place in Indonesian rice cultivation, can be seen carved into the ninth-century Prambanan
temples in Central Java. In the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Indonesian islands saw rice as a
new prestige food served to the aristocracy during ceremonies and feasts. Rice production in
Indonesian history is linked to the development of iron tools and the domestication of water
buffalo for cultivation of fields and manure for fertilizer. Once covered in dense forest, much of the
Indonesian landscape has been gradually cleared for permanent fields and settlements as rice
cultivation developed over the last 1500 years.[26]
In the Philippines, the greatest evidence of rice cultivation since ancient times can be found in
the Cordillera Mountain Range of Luzon in the provinces of Apayao, Benguet, Mountain
Province and Ifugao. The Banaue Rice Terraces (Tagalog: Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banaue)
are 2,000- to 3,000-year-old terraces that were carved into the mountains by ancestors of the Batad
indigenous people. The terraces are commonly thought to have been built with minimal equipment,
largely by hand. The terraces are located about 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above sea level and cover
10,360 km2 (about 4,000 mi2) of mountainside. They are fed by an ancient irrigation system from the
rainforests above the terraces.
Evidence of wet-rice cultivation as early as 2200 BC has been discovered at both Ban Chiang and
Ban Prasat in Thailand.

By the 19th century, encroaching European expansionism in the area increased rice production in
much of Southeast Asia, and Thailand, then known as Siam. British Burma became the world's
largest exporter of rice, from the turn of the 20th century to the 1970s, when
neighbouring Thailand exceeded Burma. In recent years, Vietnam has been a strong exporter, as
well, occasionally eclipsing Thailand. While China, India, and Indonesia remain the top rice
producers, they are also some of the top rice consumers.

See also[edit]

Black rice

Oryza glaberrima

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

Traceability of genetically modified organisms

Padi
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Untuk kegunaan lainnya, lihat Padi (disambiguasi).

Padi

Padi dari Koehler's Book of

Medicinal Plants

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan:

Plantae

Divisi:

Magnoliophyt
a

(tidak

Monokotil

termasuk):
(tidak

Commelinids

termasuk):
Ordo:

Poales

Famili:

Poaceae

Genus:

Oryza

Spesies:

O. sativa

Nama binomial
Oryza sativa

Padi yang mendekati masa panen

Lahan padi di California, Amerika

Mesin penanam padi di Jepang

Padi (bahasa latin: Oryza sativa L.) merupakan salah satu tanaman budidaya terpenting
dalam peradaban. Meskipun terutama mengacu pada jenis tanaman budidaya, padi juga digunakan
untuk mengacu pada beberapa jenis dari marga (genus) yang sama, yang biasa disebut

sebagai padi liar. Padi diduga berasal dari India atau Indocina dan masuk ke Indonesia dibawa oleh
nenek moyang yang migrasi dari daratan Asia sekitar 1500 SM. [1]
Produksi padi dunia menempati urutan ketiga dari semua serealia, setelah jagung dan gandum.
Namun, padi merupakan sumber karbohidrat utama bagi mayoritas penduduk dunia.
Hasil dari pengolahan padi dinamakan beras.
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

1Ciri ciri Padi

2Reproduksi

3Genetika dan pemuliaan


o

3.1Keanekaragaman genetik

3.2Keanekaragaman budidaya

3.2.1Padi gogo

3.2.2Padi rawa
3.3Keanekaragaman tipe beras/nasi

3.3.1Padi pera

3.3.2Ketan

3.3.3Padi wangi
4Aspek budidaya

4.1Hama dan penyakit

5Pengolahan gabah menjadi nasi

6Produksi padi dan perdagangan dunia

7Aspek budaya dan bahasa

8Lihat pula

9Referensi

10Pranala luar

Ciri ciri Padi[sunting | sunting sumber]


Padi termasuk dalam suku padi-padian atau poaceae. Terna semusim,berakar serabut,batang
sangat pendek,struktur serupa batang terbentuk dari rangkaian pelepah daun yang saling
menopang daun sempurna dengan pelepah tegak,daun berbentuk lanset,warna hijau muda hingga
hijau tua,berurat daun sejajar,tertutupi oleh rambut yang pendek dan jarang,bagian bunga tersusun
majemuk,tipe malai bercabang,satuan bunga disebut floret yang terletak pada satu spikelet yang
duduk pada panikula,tipe buah bulir atau kariopsis yang tidak dapat dibedakan mana buah dan
bijinya,bentuk hampir bulat hingga lonjong,ukuran 3mm hingga 15mm,tertutup oleh palea dan
lemma yang dalam bahasa sehari-hari disebut sekam,struktur dominan padi yang biasa dikonsumsi
yaitu jenis enduspermium.

Reproduksi[sunting | sunting sumber]


Setiap bunga padi memiliki enam kepala sari (anther) dan kepala putik (stigma) bercabang dua
berbentuk sikat botol.Kedua organ seksual ini umumnya siap bereproduksi dalam waktu yang
bersamaan.Kepala sari kadang-kadang keluar dari palea dan lemma jika telah masak. Dari segi
reproduksi,padi merupakan tanaman berpenyerbukan sendiri,karena 95% atau lebih serbuk sari
membuahi sel telur tanaman yang sama. Setelah pembuahan terjadi,zigot dan inti polar yang telah
dibuahi segera membelah diri.Zigot berkembang membentuk embrio dan inti polar menjadi
endosperm.Pada akhir perkembangan,sebagian besar bulir padi mengadung pati dibagian
endosperm.Bagi tanaman muda,pati dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber gizi.

Genetika dan pemuliaan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Satu set genom padi terdiri atas 12 kromosom. Karena padi adalah tanaman diploid, maka
setiap sel padi memiliki 12 pasang kromosom (kecuali sel seksual).
Padi merupakan organisme model dalam kajian genetika tumbuhan karena dua alasan:
kepentingannya bagi umat manusia dan ukuran kromosom yang relatif kecil, yaitu 1.6~2.3
108 pasangan basa (base pairs, bp)[2]. Sebagai tanaman model, genom padi telah disekuensing,
seperti juga genom manusia.
Perbaikan genetik padi telah berlangsung sejak manusia membudidayakan padi. Dari hasil tindakan
ini orang mengenal berbagai macam ras lokal, seperti 'Rajalele' dari Klaten atau 'Pandanwangi'
dari Cianjur di Indonesia atau 'Basmati Rice' dari India utara. Orang juga berhasil mengembangkan
padi lahan kering (padi gogo) yang tidak memerlukan penggenangan atau padi rawa yang mampu
beradaptasi terhadap kedalaman air rawa yang berubah-ubah. Di negara lain dikembangkan pula
berbagai tipe padi.
Pemuliaan padi secara sistematis baru dilakukan sejak didirikannya IRRI di Filipina sebagai bagian
dari gerakan modernisasi pertanian dunia yang dijuluki sebagai Revolusi Hijau. Sejak saat itu
muncullah berbagai kultivar padi dengan daya hasil tinggi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan

dunia. Dua kultivar padi modern pertama adalah 'IR5' dan 'IR8' (di Indonesia diadaptasi menjadi
'PB5' dan 'PB8'). Walaupun hasilnya tinggi tetapi banyak petani menolak karena rasanya tidak enak
(pera). Selain itu, terjadi wabah hamawereng coklat pada tahun 1970-an.
Ribuan persilangan kemudian dirancang untuk menghasilkan kultivar dengan potensi hasil tinggi
dan tahan terhadap berbagai hamadan penyakit padi. Pada tahun 1984 pemerintah Indonesia
pernah meraih penghargaan dari PBB (FAO) karena berhasil meningkatkan produksi padi hingga
dalam waktu 20 tahun dapat berubah dari pengimpor padi terbesar dunia menjadi negara
swasembada beras. Prestasi ini tidak dapat dilanjutkan dan baru kembali pulih sejak tahun 2007.
Hadirnya bioteknologi dan rekayasa genetika pada tahun 1980-an memungkinkan perbaikan
kualitas nasi. Sejumlah tim peneliti di Swiss mengembangkan padi transgenik yang mampu
memproduksi toksin bagi hama pemakan bulir padi dengan harapan menurunkan penggunaan
pestisida. IRRI, bekerja sama dengan beberapa lembaga lain, merakit "Padi emas" (Golden Rice)
yang dapat menghasilkan provitamin A pada berasnya, yang diarahkan bagi
pengentasan defisiensi vitamin A di berbagai negara berkembang. Suatu tim peneliti
dari Jepang juga mengembangkan padi yang menghasilkan toksin bagi bakteri kolera[3]. Diharapkan
beras yang dihasilkan padi ini dapat menjadi alternatif imunisasikolera, terutama di negara-negara
berkembang.
Sejak tahun 1970-an telah diusahakan pengembangan padi hibrida, yang memiliki potensi hasil
lebih tinggi. Karena biaya pembuatannya tinggi, kultivar jenis ini dijual dengan harga lebih mahal
daripada kultivar padi yang dirakit dengan metode lain.
Selain perbaikan potensi hasil, sasaran pemuliaan padi mencakup pula tanaman yang lebih tahan
terhadap berbagai organisme pengganggu tanaman (OPT) dan tekanan (stres) abiotik (seperti
kekeringan, salinitas, dan tanah masam). Pemuliaan yang diarahkan pada peningkatan kualitas nasi
juga dilakukan, misalnya dengan perancangan kultivar mengandung karoten (provitamin A).

Keanekaragaman genetik[sunting | sunting sumber]


Hingga sekarang ada dua spesies padi yang dibudidayakan manusia secara massal: Oryza
sativa yang berasal dari Asia dan O. glaberrima yang berasal dari Afrika Barat.
Pada awal mulanya O. sativa dianggap terdiri dari
dua subspesies, indica dan japonica (sinonim sinica). Padi japonica umumnya berumur panjang,
postur tinggi namun mudah rebah, lemmanya memiliki "ekor" atau "bulu" (Ing. awn), bijinya
cenderung membulat, dan nasinya lengket. Padi indica, sebaliknya, berumur lebih pendek, postur
lebih kecil, lemmanya tidak ber-"bulu" atau hanya pendek saja, dan bulir cenderung oval sampai
lonjong. Walaupun kedua anggota subspesies ini dapat saling membuahi, persentase
keberhasilannya tidak tinggi. Contoh terkenal dari hasil persilangan ini adalah kultivar 'IR8', yang
merupakan hasil seleksi dari persilangan japonica (kultivar 'Deegeowoogen' dariFormosa)
dengan indica (kultivar 'Peta' dari Indonesia). Selain kedua varietas ini, dikenal varietas
minor javanica yang memiliki sifat antara dari kedua tipe utama di atas. Varietas javanica hanya
ditemukan di Pulau Jawa.

Kajian dengan bantuan teknik biologi molekular sekarang menunjukkan bahwa selain dua
subspesies O. sativa yang utama, indica dan japonica, terdapat pula subspesies minor tetapi
bersifat adaptif tempatan, seperti aus (padi gogo dari Bangladesh), royada (padi pasang-surut/rawa
dari Bangladesh), ashina (padi pasang-surut dari India), dan aromatic(padi wangi dari Asia Selatan
dan Iran, termasuk padi basmati yang terkenal). Pengelompokan ini dilakukan
menggunakan penanda RFLP dibantu dengan isozim.[4] Kajian menggunakan penanda
genetik SSR terhadap genom inti sel dan dua lokus pada genom kloroplas menunjukkan bahwa
pembedaan indica dan japonica adalah mantap, tetapijaponica ternyata terbagi menjadi tiga
kelompok khas: temperate japonica ("japonica daerah sejuk" dari Cina, Korea, dan Jepang), tropical
japonica ("japonica daerah tropika" dari Nusantara), dan aromatic. Subspesies aus merupakan
kelompok yang terpisah.[5]
Berdasarkan bukti-bukti evolusi molekular diperkirakan kelompok besar indica dan japonica terpisah
sejak ~440.000 tahun yang lalu dari suatu populasi spesies moyang O. rufipogon.
[5]
Domestikasi padi terjadi di titik tempat yang berbeda terhadap dua kelompok yang sudah terpisah
ini. Berdasarkan bukti arkeologi padi mulai dibudidayakan (didomestikasi) 10.000 hingga 5.000
tahun sebelum masehi.[6]

Keanekaragaman budidaya[sunting | sunting sumber]


Padi gogo[sunting | sunting sumber]
Di beberapa daerah tadah hujan orang mengembangkan padi gogo, suatu tipe padi lahan kering
yang relatif toleran tanpa penggenangan seperti di sawah. Di Lombok dikembangkan sistem padi
gogo rancah, yang memberikan penggenangan dalam selang waktu tertentu sehingga hasil padi
meningkat.Biasanya di daerah yang hanya bisa bercocok tanam padi gogo menggunakan model
Tumpang Sari. Sistem Tumpang sari yaitu dalam sekali tanam tidak hanya menanam padi, akan
tetapi juga tanaman lain dalam satu lahan. Padi gogo biasanya di tumpang sari dengan jagung atau
Ketela Pohon.
Padi rawa[sunting | sunting sumber]
Padi rawa atau padi pasang surut tumbuh liar atau dibudidayakan di daerah rawa-rawa. Selain di
Kalimantan, padi tipe ini ditemukan di lembah Sungai Gangga. Padi rawa mampu membentuk
batang yang panjang sehingga dapat mengikuti perubahan kedalaman air yang ekstrem musiman.

Keanekaragaman tipe beras/nasi[sunting | sunting sumber]


Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Beras
Padi pera[sunting | sunting sumber]
Padi pera adalah padi dengan kadar amilosa pada pati lebih dari 20% pada berasnya. Butiran
nasinya jika ditanak tidak saling melekat. Lawan dari padi pera adalah padi pulen. Sebagian besar
orang Indonesia menyukai nasi jenis ini dan berbagai jenis beras yang dijual di pasar Indonesia
tergolong padi pulen. Penggolongan ini terutama dilihat dari konsistensi nasinya.

Ketan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Ketan (sticky rice), baik yang putih maupun merah/hitam, sudah dikenal sejak dulu. Padi ketan
memiliki kadar amilosa di bawah 1% pada pati berasnya. Patinya didominasi olehamilopektin,
sehingga jika ditanak sangat lekat.
Padi wangi[sunting | sunting sumber]
Padi wangi atau harum (aromatic rice) dikembangkan orang di beberapa tempat di Asia, yang
terkenal adalah ras 'Cianjur Pandanwangi' (sekarang telah menjadi kultivar unggul) dan 'rajalele'.
Kedua kultivar ini adalah varietas javanica yang berumur panjang.
Di luar negeri orang mengenal padi biji panjang (long grain), padi biji pendek (short grain), risotto,
padi susu umumnya menggunakan metode silsilah. Salah satu tahap terpenting dalam pemuliaan
padi adalah dirilisnya kultivar 'IR5' dan 'IR8', yang merupakan padi pertama yang berumur pendek
namun berpotensi hasil tinggi. Ini adalah awalrevolusi hijau dalam budidaya padi. Berbagai kultivar
padi berikutnya umumnya memiliki 'darah' kedua kultivar perintis tadi. tes

Aspek budidaya[sunting | sunting sumber]


Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Bercocok tanam padi
Teknik budidaya padi telah dikenal oleh manusia sejak ribuan tahun yang lalu. Sejumlah sistem
budidaya diterapkan untuk padi.

Budidaya padi sawah (Ing. paddy atau paddy field), diduga dimulai dari daerah lembah
Sungai Yangtse di Tiongkok.

Budidaya padi lahan kering, dikenal manusia lebih dahulu daripada budidaya padi sawah.

Budidaya padi lahan rawa, dilakukan di beberapa tempat di Pulau Kalimantan.

Budidaya gogo rancah atau disingkat gora, yang merupakan modifikasi dari budidaya lahan
kering. Sistem ini sukses diterapkan di Pulau Lombok, yang hanya memiliki musim hujan
singkat.

Setiap sistem budidaya memerlukan kultivar yang adaptif untuk masing-masing sistem. Kelompok
kultivar padi yang cocok untuk lahan kering dikenal dengan nama padi gogo.
Secara ringkas, bercocok tanam padi mencakup persemaian, pemindahan atau penanaman,
pemeliharaan (termasuk pengairan, penyiangan, perlindungan tanaman, serta pemupukan), dan
panen. Aspek lain yang penting namun bukan termasuk dalam rangkaian bercocok tanam padi
adalah pemilihan kultivar, pemrosesan biji dan penyimpanan biji.

Hama dan penyakit[sunting | sunting sumber]


Hama-hama penting

Penggerek batang padi putih ("sundep", Scirpophaga innotata)

Penggerek batang padi kuning (S. incertulas)

Wereng batang punggung putih (Sogatella furcifera)

Wereng coklat (Nilaparvata lugens)

Wereng hijau (Nephotettix impicticeps)

Lembing hijau (Nezara viridula)

Walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius)

Ganjur (Pachydiplosis oryzae)

Lalat bibit (Arterigona exigua)

Ulat tentara/Ulat grayak (Spodoptera litura dan S. exigua)

Tikus sawah (Rattus argentiventer)


Penyakit-penyakit penting

blas (Pyricularia oryzae, P. grisea)

hawar daun bakteri ("kresek", Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)

Pengolahan gabah menjadi nasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mesin huler gabah beras.

Setelah padi dipanen, bulir padi atau gabah dipisahkan dari jerami padi. Pemisahan dilakukan
dengan memukulkan seikat padi sehingga gabah terlepas atau dengan bantuan mesin pemisah
gabah.

Gabah yang terlepas lalu dikumpulkan dan dijemur. Pada zaman dulu, gabah tidak dipisahkan lebih
dulu dari jerami, dan dijemur bersama dengan merangnya. Penjemuran biasanya memakan waktu
tiga sampai tujuh hari, tergantung kecerahan penyinaran matahari. Penggunaan mesin pengering
jarang dilakukan. Istilah "Gabah Kering Giling" (GKG) mengacu pada gabah yang telah dikeringkan
dan siap untuk digiling. (Lihat pranala luar). Gabah merupakan bentuk penjualan produk padi untuk
keperluan ekspor atau perdagangan partai besar.
Gabah yang telah kering disimpan atau langsung ditumbuk/digiling, sehingga beras terpisah
dari sekam (kulit gabah). Beras merupakan bentuk olahan yang dijual pada tingkat konsumen. Hasil
sampingan yang diperoleh dari pemisahan ini adalah:

sekam (atau merang), yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar

bekatul, yakni serbuk kulit ari beras; digunakan sebagai bahan makanan ternak, dan

dedak, campuran bekatul kasar dengan serpihan sekam yang kecil-kecil; untuk makanan
ternak.

Beras dapat dikukus atau ditim agar menjadi nasi yang siap dimakan. Beras atau ketan yang ditim
dengan air berlebih akan menjadi bubur. Pengukusan beras dapat juga dilakukan dengan
pembungkus, misalnya dengan anyaman daun kelapa muda menjadi ketupat, dengan
daun pisang menjadi lontong, atau dengan bumbung bambu yang disebut lemang (biasanya
dengan santan). Beras juga dapat diolah menjadi minuman penyegar (beras kencur) atau obat balur
untuk mengurangi rasa pegal (param).

Produksi padi dan perdagangan dunia[sunting | sunting sumber]


Bagian ini memerlukan aktualisasi
Negara produsen padi terkemuka adalah Republik Rakyat Tiongkok (28% dari total produksi
dunia), India (21%), dan Indonesia (9%). Namun hanya sebagian kecil produksi padi dunia yang
diperdagangkan antar negara (hanya 5%-6% dari total produksi dunia). Thailand merupakan
pengekspor padi utama (26% dari total padi yang diperdagangkan di dunia)
diikuti Vietnam (15%) dan Amerika Serikat (11%). Indonesia merupakan pengimpor padi
terbesar dunia (14% dari padi yang diperdagangkan di dunia) diikuti Bangladesh(4%),
dan Brasil (3%).Produksi padi Indonesia pada 2006 adalah 54 juta ton , kemudian tahun 2007
adalah 57 juta ton (angka ramalan III), meleset dari target semula yang 60 juta ton akibat
terjadinya kekeringan yang disebabkan gejala ENSO.

Produsen padi terbesar 2011


(juta metrik ton)

Republik Rakyat Tiongkok

201

India

158

Indonesia

66

Bangladesh

51

Vietnam

42

Thailand

35

Myanmar

29

Filipina

17

Brasil

13

Pakistan

Total Dunia

723

Sumber:
Organisasi Pangan dan Pertanian (FAO)[http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx

Semanggi
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Belum Diperiksa

Untuk kegunaan lain dari Semanggi, lihat Semanggi (disambiguasi).


Artikel ini bukan mengenai klover, sejenis tanaman untuk pakan ternak yang juga sering disebut
sebagai semanggi.

Marsilea

Marsilea drummondii L.

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan:

Plantae

Divisi:

Pteridophyta

Kelas:

Pteridopsida

Ordo:

Salviniales

Famili:

Marsileaceae

Genus:

Marsilea L.
Species

sekitar 35 spesies, di antaranya

M. crenata

M. quadrifolia

M. drummondii

M. macrocarpa

M. exarata

Semanggi adalah sekelompok paku air (Salviniales) dari marga Marsilea yang
di Indonesia mudah ditemukan di pematang sawahatau tepi saluran irigasi.
Morfologi tumbuhan marga ini khas, karena bentuk entalnya yang menyerupai payung yang
tersusun dari empat anak daun yang berhadapan. Akibat bentuk daunnya ini, nama "semanggi"
dipakai untuk beberapa jenis tumbuhan dikotil yang bersusunan daun serupa, seperti klover.
Semua anggotanya heterospor: memiliki dua tipe spora yang berbeda kelamin.
Daun tumbuhan ini (biasanya M. crenata) biasa dijadikan bahan makanan yang dikenal
sebagai pecel semanggi, khas dari daerahSurabaya. Organ penyimpan spora (disebut
sporokarp) M. drummondii juga dimanfaatkan oleh penduduk asli Australia (aborigin) sebagai
bahan makanan. Semanggi M. crenata diketahui mengandung fitoestrogen (estrogen tumbuhan)
yang berpotensi mencegahosteoporesis.[1] Tumbuhan ini juga berpotensi sebagai
tumbuhan bioremediasi, karena mampu menyerap logam berat Cd dan Pb. Kemampuan ini
perlu diwaspadai dalam penggunaan daun semanggi sebagai bahan makanan, terutama bila
daunnya diambil dari lahan tercemar logam berat.

Sagittaria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Katniss" redirects here. For the Hunger Games character, see Katniss Everdeen.

Arrowhead
Duck potato

S. sagittifolia
1885 illustration[1]

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order:

Alismatales

Family:

Alismataceae

Genus:

Sagittaria
L.

Type species

Sagittaria sagittifolia
L.

Synonyms[2]

Sagitta

Diphorea

Drepachenia

Lophiocarpus

Guett.

Raf.

Raf.

(Kunth)

Miq., illegitimate

Lophotocarpus

T.Dura

nd

Hydrolirion

H.Lv.

Sagittaria is a genus of about 30[3] species of aquatic plants whose members go by a variety of
common names, including arrowhead,duck potato, katniss, Omodaka ( in Japanese), swan
potato, tule potato, and wapato (or wapatoo). Most are native to South,Central, and North
America, but there are also some from Europe, Africa, and Asia.[3][2]
Contents
[hide]

1Description

2Species
o

2.1Formerly placed here

3References

4External links

Description[edit]

Sagittaria sagittifolia flowers

Omodaka

Sagittaria plant stock (the perennial rhizome) is a horizontal creeper (stoloniferous) and obliquely
obovate, the margins winged, with apical or ventral beak; in other words, they are a small, dry, oneseeded fruit that do not open to release the seed, set on a slant, narrower at the base, with winged
edges, and having a "beaked" aperture (one side longer than the other) for sprouting, set above or
below the fruit body.
One of the names for this plant is derived from the edible underwater tuber that the plant produces.
In late fall or early spring, disturbing the aquatic mud in which the plant grows will cause its small
tubers to float to the surface where they can be harvested, and then boiled.

Species[edit]

Wapato bulb

Crisps (chips) made from tuber

Accepted species:[2][4][5]
1. Sagittaria aginashii Makino - Japan, Korea, Primorye
2. Sagittaria ambigua J.G.Sm. Missouri Arrowhead - from Oklahoma to Indiana
3. Sagittaria australis (J.G.Sm.) Small Appalachian Arrowhead - southeastern US from Louisiana
to Florida and as far north as Iowa and New Jersey
4. Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush Shortbeak Arrowhead - central US (Great Plains,
Mississippi and Ohio Valleys, Great Lakes); also Virginia and Saskatchewan; naturalized in
California
5. Sagittaria chapmanii (J.G.Sm.) C.Mohr - from Texas to the Carolinas
6. Sagittaria cristata Engelm Crystal arrowhead - Great Lakes region
7. Sagittaria cuneata E.P.Sheld. Wapato, Northern Arrowhead, Swamp Potato - most of Canada
including Yukon and Northwest Territories; Alaska; western and northeastern USA
8. Sagittaria demersa J.G.Sm. Chihuahuan arrowhead - New Mexico, northeastern Mexico
9. Sagittaria engelmanniana J.G.Sm. Engelmann's arrowhead - eastern US from Mississippi to
Vermont
10.Sagittaria fasciculata E.O.Beal Bunched Arrowhead - North and South Carolina
11. Sagittaria filiformis J.G.Sm. Threadleaf Arrowhead - eastern US from Alabama to Maine
12.Sagittaria graminea Michx. Grassy Arrowhead, Grass-leaved Arrowhead - Cuba; much of
eastern and central USA; eastern Canada; naturalized in Washington State and in Vietnam
13.Sagittaria guayanensis Kunth Guyanese Arrowhead - widespread across Latin America, the
West Indies, China, India, Southeast Asia; introduced into Louisiana

14.Sagittaria intermedia Micheli in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle - Greater Antilles, Colombia,
southern Mexico
15.Sagittaria isoetiformis J.G.Sm. Quillwort Arrowhead - Cuba, from Florida, Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi, Carolinas
16.Sagittaria kurziana Glck Springtape or Strap-leaf Sagittaria - Florida; naturalized in Mariana
Islands
17.Sagittaria lancifolia L. Bulltongue Arrowhead - southeastern USA from Texas to Delaware;
West Indies; Latin America from southern Mexico to Brazil
18.Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Duck-potato, Broad-leaved Arrowhead, Wapato - widespread across
most of North America, the West Indies and northern South America; naturalized in Hawaii,
the western Himalayas and parts of Europe
19.Sagittaria lichuanensis J.K.Chen, X.Z.Sun & H.Q.Wang - southern China
20.Sagittaria longiloba Engelm. ex J.G. Sm. Longbarb Arrowhead - southern Great Plains, Arizona,
New Mexico, California, Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela
21.Sagittaria lunata C.D.Preston & Uotila - Sweden, Finland, northern Russia (S. natans S.
sagittifolia)
22.Sagittaria macrocarpa J.G.Sm. Large-fruited Arrowhead - North and South Carolina
23.Sagittaria macrophylla Zucc. Papa de agua - Mexico
24.Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl. California Arrowhead widespread across much of
USA, Mexico and South America
25.Sagittaria natans Pall. - widespread across northern Europe and Asia from Sweden to
Kamchatka; Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Japan, Korea
26.Sagittaria papillosa Buchenau Nipplebract Arrowhead - Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Arkansas, Oklahoma
27.Sagittaria planitiana G.Agostini - Brazil, Venezuela
28.Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G.Sm. Delta Arrowhead, Delta Duck-potato - south-central
USA with scattered populations in southeast, the Ohio Valley and Washington State; also
Mexico and Panama; naturalized in South Australia, Italy, Java, Caucasus
29.Sagittaria potamogetifolia Merr. - southern China
30.Sagittaria pygmaea Miq. Pygmy arrowhead - China, Japan, Korea, Himalayas, Thailand,
Vietnam
31.Sagittaria rhombifolia Cham. - Costa Rica; widespread across much of South America

32.Sagittaria rigida Pursh. Canadian Arrowhead - Canada from Quebec to Saskatchewan;


common in northeastern and north-central USA from Arkansas and Nebraska east to
Virginia and New England; scattered populations in California, Idaho and Washington State;
naturalised in Great Britain
33.Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Arrowhead - widespread across most of Europe; Siberia, Caucasus,
Turkey
34.Sagittaria sanfordii Greene Valley Arrowhead - endemic to California
35.Sagittaria secundifolia Kral Little River Arrowhead - Georgia and Alabama
36.Sagittaria sprucei Micheli in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle - Colombia, Peru, Venezuela,
northern Brazil
37.Sagittaria subulata L. Buchenau Narrow-leaved Arrowhead - eastern USA from Louisiana to
Massachusetts; naturalized in Great Britain, Azores and Java
38.Sagittaria tengtsungensis H.Li - Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Yunnan
39.Sagittaria teres S.Watson Slender Arrowhead - northeastern USA
40.Sagittaria trifolia L. Threeleaf Arrowhead - widespread across much of Asia including
Siberia, China, Japan, India, Iran, Indonesia, Philippines, etc.; also Ukraine and European
Russia; naturalized in Fiji and Polynesia

Formerly placed here[edit]

Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart.) J.F.Macbr. (as S. palaefolia Nees & Mart.)

Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.) Miq. (as S. obtusifolia L.)

Wiesneria triandra (Dalzell) Micheli (as S. triandra Dalzell)[4]

Scirpus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scirpus

Scirpus atrovirens

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Monocots

(unranked):

Commelinids

Order:

Poales

Family:

Cyperaceae

Genus:

Scirpus
L.

Species
About 120; see text
Synonyms[1]

Chamaeschoenus Ehrh.

Leiophyllum Ehrh.

Dichismus Raf.

Diplarinus Raf.

Seidlia Opiz

Actaeogeton Steud.

Blepharolepis Nees

Nemocharis Beurl.

Taphrogiton Montandon

Maximoviczia A.P.Khokhr.

Maximowicziella A.P.Khokh
r.

Scirpus is a genus of aquatic, grass-like species in the family Cyperaceae (the sedges), many with
the common names club-rush orbulrush (see also bulrush for other plant genera so-named). Other
common names are deergrass or grassweed. They have grass-like leaves, and clusters of small
spikelets, often brown. Some species (e.g. S. lacustris) can reach a height of 3 m, while others
(e.g. S. supinus) are much smaller, only reaching 2030 cm tall.
The genus has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, found on every continent
except Africa and Antarctica.[1] Many species are common in wetlands and can produce dense
stands of vegetation, along rivers,[2][3] in coastal deltas[4] and in ponds and potholes.[5] Although
flooding is the most important factor affecting its distribution, drought, ice scour, grazing, fire and
salinity also affect its abundance.[6] It can survive unfavourable conditions like prolonged flooding, or
drought, as buried seeds[7]
Scirpus species are often planted to inhibit soil erosion and provide habitat for other wildlife. They
are also used in some herbal remedies; the plant's rhizomes are collected in the autumn and winter
and dried in the sun before use.
The taxonomy of the genus is complex, and under review by botanists. Recent studies
by taxonomists of the Cyperaceae have resulted in the creation of several new genera, including the
genera Schoenoplectus and Bolboschoenus; others (including Blysmus, Isolepis,Nomochloa,
and Scirpoides) have also been used. At one point this genus held almost 300 species, but many of
the species once assigned to it have now been reassigned, and it now holds an estimated 120
species.
Scirpus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species,
including Batrachedra cuniculata.
Selected species
(This list is incomplete, and may include some species now assigned to other genera.)

Scirpus ancistrochaetus northeastern bulrush

Scirpus atrocinctus black-girdle bulrush

Scirpus atrovirens woolgrass bulrush

Scirpus bicolor

Scirpus campestris salt marsh bulrush

Scirpus cespitosus deergrass

Scirpus congdonii Congdon's bulrush

Scirpus cyperinus - cottongrass bulrush

Scirpus diffusus

Scirpus divaricatus spreading bulrush

Scirpus expansus Woodland beakrush

Scirpus flaccidifolius reclining bulrush

Scirpus fluitans floating club-rush

Scirpus fluviatilis - river bulrush

Scirpus georgianus Georgia bulrush

Scirpus grossus Greater club-rush, Giant bulrush

Scirpus hattorianus bulrush

Scirpus lineatus drooping bulrush

Scirpus longii Long's bulrush

Scirpus mariqueter

Scirpus microcarpus small-fruit bulrush

Scirpus mucronatus

Scirpus nevadensis Nevada bulrush

Scirpus olneyi Olney bulrush = Schoenoplectus americanus

Scirpus pacificus Pacific Coast bulrush

Scirpus pallidus pale bulrush

Scirpus paludosus salt marsh bulrush

Scirpus pedicellatus stalked bulrush

Scirpus pendulus pendulous bulrush

Scirpus polyphyllus leafy bulrush

Scirpus pumilus dwarf deergrass

Scirpus pungens sharp club-rush

Scirpus radicans

Scirpus robustus salt marsh bulrush

Scirpus supinus dwarf club-rush

Scirpus sylvaticus wood club-rush

Scirpus triqueter triangular club-rush


Selected species in a broader view of the genus

Bolboschoenus maritimus sea club-rush

Isolepis cernua slender club-rush

Isolepis setacea bristle club-rush

Schoenoplectus acutus tule

Schoenoplectus hudsonianus alpine deergrass

Schoenoplectus lacustris common club-rush

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

Scirpoides holoschoenus round-headed club-rush

Alisma
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alisma
water-plantains

Alisma plantago-aquatica

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order:

Alismatales

Family:

Alismataceae

Genus:

Alisma
L.

Species

see text

Alisma is a genus of flowering plants in the family Alismataceae, members of which are commonly
known as water-plantains. The genus consists of aquatic plants with leaves either floating or
submerged, found in a variety of still water habitats around the world (nearly worldwide). [1]
[2]
The flowers are hermaphrodite, and are arranged in panicles, racemes, or umbels. Alisma flowers
have six stamens, numerous free carpels in a single whorl, each with 1 ovule, and subventral styles.
The fruit is an achene with a short beak.
The nineteenth century British art and social critic John Ruskin believed that the particular curve of
the leaf-ribs of Alisma represented a model of 'divine proportion' and helped shape his theory
of Gothic architecture.[3]
Copg Phdraig ("leaf of Patrick") is the Irish name for the water-plantain. It is reputed to ward off
fairies.
Water plantains are perennial plants. These herbs are usually emergent plants 0.1 1 m high. They
have broad leaves that can be either tapered or rounded at the base. When submerged, the plant
produces ribbon-like leaves. Inflorescences are highly branched. They produce whorls of perfect
flowers either white or pinkish. The fruits are flat-sided nutlets 2.5 3 mm in length. These herbs
usually flower in late May to early September, but thiscan vary with conditions. [4]
Water-plantains are wetland plants and found in saturated soils and shallow water as well
as marshes, wooded swamps, shrub swamps and flooded farmland. When introduced to an area,
water plantain can rapidly reproduce.

Species and subspecies[edit]


The following taxa are recognized as of May 2014:[2]

Alisma bjoerkqvistii Tzvelev - Russia

Alisma canaliculatum A.Braun & C.D.Bouch - eastern Asia

Alisma gramineum Lej. - Europe, Asia, North Africa; minor naturalization in North America

Alisma juzepczukii Tzvelev - Russia

Alisma lanceolatum Withering - Europe, Asia, North Africa; naturalized in Australia, New
Zealand, California etc.
Alisma nanum D.F.Cui - Xinjiang

Alisma orientale

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. - Europe, Asia, Africa

Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale (Sam.) Sam.

Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. plantago-aquatica

Alisma rhicnocarpum Schotsman - western Europe

Alisma subcordatum Raf. eastern North America

Alisma triviale Pursh - North America

Alisma wahlenbergii (Holmb.) Juz. Baltic Sea region

Lembang (tumbuhan)
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Lembang

Ampet, Typha angustifolia


dari Wotgalih, Yosowilangun, Lu
majang

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan:

Plantae

(tidak

Angiosperma

termasuk):

(tidak

Monokotil

termasuk):
(tidak

Commelinids

termasuk):
Ordo:

Poales

Famili:

Typhaceae

Genus:

Typha

Spesies:

T.
angustifoli
a

Nama binomial
Typha angustifolia
L.[1]

Sinonim[2][3]

Massula
angustifolia

(L.) Dulac

Typha
angustifolia subsp.java
nica

(Schnizl. ex Rohrb.)

Graebn.

Typha

domingensis

Pers.

Typha elatior

Typha
foveolata

Pobed.

Typha glauca
Vianna(Nama

Boenn.

Seg.-

tidak sah)

Typha
gracilis

Rchb.

(Nama

tidak sah)

Typha media

C.C.Gmel.

Typha minor

Curtis

Typha pontica

Klok. fil.

& A. Krasnova

Untuk pengertian yang lain, lihat Lembang (disambiguasi).


Lembang atau embet (Typha angustifolia L.) adalah sejenis tumbuhan serupa rumput besar yang
menghuni rawa-rawa, terutama dekatpantai namun juga di pegunungan. Ia dikenal dengan namanama daerah seperti lmbang (Btw.); wawalingian, asiwung raja
mantri (Sd.);embt (Jw.); ampt (Md.); taktnas (Tim.)[4]. Dalam bahasa Inggris, tumbuhan ini
disebut lesser bulrush, narrowleaf cattail, atau lesser reedmace. Dalam bahasa Aceh, disebut bak
dah atau sering disebut batang obor.
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

1Pengenalan

2Ekologi dan sebaran

3Manfaat

4Catatan kaki

5Pranala luar

Pengenalan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pelat botani

Tumbuhan rawa serupa rumput yang menahun, tegak, kekar, tinggi 1,5-3 m, dengan batang
membulat.Daun bentuk garis, agak meruncing, 8-22 cm 6-16 mm, terbagi dalam banyak ruang
dan tumbuh dalam seludang.[5] Perbungaan tersusun dalam rupa bulir berbentuk cerutu; bungabunga jantan terkumpul di bagian ujung sepanjang 1530 cm, dan bunga-bunga betina
mengelompok serupa cerutu yang lebih pendek, dipisahkan oleh tangkai yang telanjang sepanjang
0,512 cm. Di antara bunga-bunga itu terdapat rambut-rambut panjang seperti wol.[6] Bunganya
yang jantan sama panjangnya dengan bunga betina, tapi lebih kurus dan ramping. Adapun akarnya,
ada pada sisi dasar daun. Ia berbentuk rimpangyang rebah. Panjangnya 70 cm dengan diameter 2
cm. Perbanyakan dilakukan dengan rimpang, atau rumpunnya. Di alam liar, bijinya diterbangkan
oleh angin, sehingga membentuk tanaman baru.[5]

Ekologi dan sebaran[sunting | sunting sumber]


Tanaman lembang banyak ditemui di Bawean, Madura, dan Karimunjawa, namun sayang tanaman
ini tak begitu dikenali.[7] Umumnya lembang tumbuh di paya-paya dataran rendah dan di
perairan payau; namun didapati pula di rawa-rawa pegunungan hingga ketinggian 1.725 m dpl. Di
belakang pantai, lembang kerap berasosiasi dengan vegetasi mangrove. Umum dijumpai, namun
sering melimpah secara lokal saja. Tanaman ini acapkali suka menggerombol. [6]
Marga Typha, tidak terkecuali lembang, menyebar di kawasan tropika, ke utara hingga
lingkar kutub dan ke selatan hingga sekitar 35LS. Di Asia Tenggara, embet tercatat
dari Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Kamboja, Malaysia, Singapura, Brunei, Indonesia, Timor
Timur danPapua Nugini. Di Indonesia didapati di pulaupulau Sumatera, Jawa, Karimunjawa, Bawean, Madura, Kangean dan Papua.[6]

Manfaat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tumbuh di rawa bercampur dengan eceng gondok

Tangkai-tangkainya, di Pekalongan, dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan anyaman. Daun-daunnya untuk


membuat tikar dan topi. Tangkai dan daunnya, dahulu, di Aceh digunakan untuk membuat kipas
tradisional. Rambut-rambut bunganya, dulu, di sekitar Jakarta dipakai sebagai
pengganti kapuk untuk mengisi jok kereta. Tongkol buahnya yang belum masak betul digunakan
sebagai sumbu mesiu. Tunas-tunasnya yang muda diambil untuk sayuran.[4]
Embet juga tidak jarang ditanam sebagai tanaman hias di kolam-kolam halaman rumah[4]. Biasa
dipadukan dengan eceng gondok atau selada air. Tanaman semacam ini dari famili Typhaceae
dapat pula digunakan sebagai ornamen rangkaian bunga potong.[5] Belakangan ini embet mulai
dimanfaatkan sebagai tanaman filter untuk meningkatkan efektivitas rawa buatan sebagai bagian
dari instalasi pengolah air limbah industri[8][9]

Neptunia (plant)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Neptunia

Neptunia lutea

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order:

Fabales

Family:

Fabaceae

Subfamily:

Mimosoideae

Tribe:

Mimoseae

Genus:

Neptunia
Lour.

Neptunia is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae.

Selected species[edit]

Neptunia amplexicaulis Domin[1]

Neptunia dimorphantha Domin[1]

Neptunia gracilis Benth.[1]

Neptunia lutea

Neptunia major (Benth.) Windler[1]

Neptunia monosperma F.Muell. ex Benth.[1]

Neptunia pubescens

Neptunia oleracea

Ranunculus aquatilis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ranunculus aquatilis

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Eudicots

Order:

Ranunculales

Family:

Ranunculaceae

Genus:

Ranunculus

Species:

R. aquatilis
Binomial name

Ranunculus aquatilis
L.

Ranunculus aquatilis (common water-crowfoot, white water-crowfoot) is a plant species of the


genus Ranunculus, native throughout most of Europe and western North America, and also
northwest Africa.[1]
This is an aquatic plant, growing in mats on the surface of water. It has branching thread-like
underwater leaves and toothed floater leaves. In fast flowing water the floaters may not be grown.
The flowers are white petaled with yellow centres and are held a centimetre or two above the water.
The floater leaves are used as props for the flowers and are grown at the same time. [2]