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Chapter 1

The Nature of Strategic Management

Strategic Management:
Concepts & Cases
Fred David

M. Irhas Effendi

Ch 1 -1
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Themes in the Text
•Global Considerations –
Berdampak pada hampir semua keputusan strategis

•E-commerce –
menjadi perangkat manajemen strategis yang vital.

•Natural environment –
Telah menjadi isu penting.

Ch 1 -2
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Strategic Management –
Defined

Seni & ilmu tentang perumusan,


implementasi dan evaluasi
keputusan-keputusan lintas fungsi
yang memungkinkan organisasi
mampu mencapai tujuannya.

Ch 1 -3
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Strategic Management

In essence, the strategic plan is a


company’s game plan.

Ch 1 -4
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Strategic Management
mencapai keberhasilan
melalui integrasi --

Management Marketing

Finance/Accounting Production/Operations

Research & Development MIS

Ch 1 -5
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Pengertian Strategi
 Berasal dari bahasa Yunani Strategia atau Strategos yang berarti
Jenderal (Steiner dan Minner, 1982)
 Peter Drucker (1954) yang beranggapan bahwa strategi suatu
organisasi adalah jawaban terhadap pertanyaan “Apakah bisnis
kita? Dan apakah yang seharusnya menjadi bisnis kita ?”

Setelah Drucker ini berbagai definisi strategi muncul antara lain :

 Chandler (1962) yang mendefinisikan strategi sebagai ........... the


determination of the basic longterm goals and objectives of
enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation
of recources necessary for carrying out these goal.

 Kemudian Andrews (1965, 1971) yang menggabungkan konsep


Drucker dan Chandler : ................Strategy is the pattern objectives,
purposes, or goals and major policies and plans for achieving these
goals, stated in such a way as to define what busiiness the company
is in or is to be in and the kind of company it is or is to be .................

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Pengertian Manajemen Strategi

 Jauch dan Glueck (1991) menjelaskan bahwa manajemen


strategis (Strategic management) merupakan arus keputusan
dan tindakan yang mengarah pada perkembangan suatu
strategi atau strategi-strategi yang efektif untuk membantu
mencapai tujuan perusahaan
 Steiner (1979) menjelaskan perencanaan strategis dari
berbagai aspek pengertian : penentuan kegiatan pada waktu
yang akan datang, suatu proses, falsafah. dan struktur
 Dess dan Miller (1993) mengartikan manajemen strategik
sebagai suatu proses yang mengkombinasikan tiga aktivitas
utama yang saling terkait, yakni : strategic analysis, strategy
formulation, dan strategy implementation
 David (1998) mendefinisikan manajemen strategis sebagai
suatu seni dan pengetahuan untuk merumuskan,
mengimplementasikan dan mengevaluasi keputusan lintas
fungsional yang membuat organisasi mampu mencapai
objektifnya

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Evolusi Manajemen Strategi 1900-an
Sampai Dengan 1970-an (Aaker, 1992)
BUDGETING LONG- STRATEGIC STRATEGIC
/CONTROL RANGE PLANNING MANAGEMENT
PLANNING

MANAGEMENT Control Anticipate Change Cope with


EMPHASIS deviations growth and strategic strategic
and manage manage thrust and surprise and
complexity complexity capability fast-developing
threats/opportun
ities
ASSUMPTION The past Past trends will New trends Planning cycles
repeats continue and inadequate to
discontinuitie deal with rapid
s are changes
predictable
THE PROCESS Periodic Real Time
TIME PERIOD From 1900’s From 1950’s From 1960’s From mid-
ASSOCIATED 1970’s
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WITH SYSTEM
Empat Pendekatan Kerangka Kerja Strategi
Tahun 1980 (Porter)
Hingga Tahun 1997 (Chakravarthy)
PORTER HAMEL dan D’AVENI (pertengahan 1990- CHAKRAVARTHY
(1980) PRAHALAD an) (1997)
(awal 1990-an)

INDUSTRY - Low - Low - Low Complexity - High Complexity


CONTEXT Complexity Complexity - High Rate Change - High Rate Change
-Static - Moderate
Rate Change
CONCEPTOF - Fit Strategy - Competitive - Shift Rules of the games - Repeat First Mover
STRATEGY to Industry Innovation - Use Signal to Influence - Manage Network
Structure (Changing Future Dynamic Effect
the rules of - Simultaneous and - Go with the Flow
the games) Sequential Strategic
Thrusts

PRIMARY - Strategic - Strategic - Stakeholder Satisfaction - Guiding Philosophy


DRIVER OF Plan Based Intent - Strategic Soothsaying - Context Awereness
STRATEGY on
Competitor
Analysis
BASIS OF - Entry and - Core - Speed - Organizational
COMPETITIVE Mobility Competence - Surprise Capabilities
ADVANTAGE Barriers (Leveraging) (diversifying and
strengthening core
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Comprehensive strategic management model
External
Audit

Chapter 3

Long-Term Generate, Implement Implement Measure &


Vision
Objectives Evaluate, Strategies: Strategies: Evaluate
&
Select Mgmt Issues Marketing, Performance
Mission
Strategies Fin/Acct,
R&D, CIS
Chapter 2 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9

Internal
Audit

Chapter 4

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Strategy Formulation

Vision & Mission

External Opportunities & Threats

Internal Strengths & Weaknesses

Long-Term Objectives

Alternative Strategies

Strategy Selection

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Level Of Strategy
TOP
TOPMANAGER
MANAGER
CORPORATE STRATEGY
Dimanakah kita akan bersaing ?
STAFF
STAFF

STRATEGY BUSINESS UNIT BUSINESS


BUSINESS BUSINESS
BUSINESS BUSINESS
BUSINESS
Bagaimana cara bersaing ? UNIT
UNITII UNIT
UNITIIII UNIT
UNITIII
III

FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY MARKETING


MARKETING FINANCE
FINANCE HRD
HRD

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Issues in Strategy
Formulation

Bisnis
Bisnisbaru
baruyang
yangakan
akan
dimasuki
dimasuki
Bisnis
Bisnisyang
yangditinggalkan
ditinggalkan
Alokasi
Alokasisumberdaya
sumberdaya
Ekspansi
Ekspansidan
dan
diversifikasi
diversifikasi
Keputusan
Keputusanmasuk
masukpasar
pasar
internasional
internasional
Merger
Mergeratau
ataupatungan
patungan
Menghindari
Menghindari
pengambilalihan
pengambilalihanpesaing
pesaing

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Strategy Implementation

Annual Objectives

Policies

Employee Motivation

Resource Allocation

Ch 1 -14
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Strategy
Implementation

Action
ActionStage
Stageof
ofStrategic
Strategic
Management
Management––

Most
Mostdifficult
difficultstage
stage
Mobilization
Mobilizationof of
employees
employees&&managers
managers
Interpersonal
Interpersonalskills
skills
critical
critical
Consensus
Consensuson ongoal
goal
pursuit
pursuit

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Strategy Evaluation

Internal Review

External Review

Performance Metrics

Corrective Actions

Ch 1 -16
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Strategy
Evaluation
Final
FinalStage
Stageof
ofStrategic
Strategic
Management
Management

Subject
Subjecttotofuture
future
modification
modification
Today’s
Today’ssuccess
successnono
guarantee
guaranteeofoffuture
futuresuccess
success
New
New&&different
differentproblems
problems
Complacency
Complacencyleadsleadsto
to
demise
demise

Ch 1 -17
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Integrating Intuition and
Analysis

The strategic management process


attempts to organize quantitative and
qualitative information under conditions of
uncertainty.
Berusaha untuk mengelola informasi kuantitatif
dan kualitatifyang mungkin untuk mengambil
keputusan dalam kondisi ketidakpartian

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Integrating Intuition and
Analysis

Intuition is based on:


 Past experiences

 Judgment

 Feelings

Intuition is Useful for decision making


 Conditions of great uncertainty

 Conditions with little precedent

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Integrating Intuition & Analysis

Intuition & Judgment

Involve Management at all levels

Influence all Analyses

Ch 1 -20
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Integrating Intuition & Analysis

Analytical Thinking

Intuitive Thinking

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Adapting to Change

Organizations must monitor events


 On-going process
 Internal and external events

 Timely changes

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Achieving Sustained
Competitive Advantage

1. Adapting to change in external trends,


internal capabilities and resources

2. Effectively formulating, implementing &


evaluating strategies

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Adapting to Change

Rate & magnitude of change


increasing dramatically

E-commerce

Demographics

Technology

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Penyusun Strategi (Strategist)

 Leader
 CEO
 Presdir
 Dewan Direksi
 Komisaris dll

Ch 1 -25
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Key Terms

Vision Statement –
What do we want to become? Ingin
menjadi apa kita?

Mission Statement –
What is our business?Apakah
bisnis Kita?

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Apa itu Visi ?

 Ingin menjadi seperti apakah kita di waktu yang


akan datang?
 Masa depan yang realistis, dapat dipercaya dan
menarik untuk organisasi
 Tujuan kemana Organisasi akan dibawa, sebuah
masa depan yang lebih baik dan lebih berhasil
dibanding sekarang
Visi SKPD adalah gambaran arah pembangunan atau kondisi masa depan
yang ingin dicapai SKPD melalui penyelenggaraan tugas dan fungsi dalam
kurun waktu 5 (lima) tahun yang akan datang (Permendagri 54 Lampi IV)

Visi adalah rumusan umum mengenai keadaan yang diinginkan pada


akhir periode perencanaan (UU 25 2002)
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Key Terms

Opportunities and Threats (External)

 Kondisi yang berada di luar organisasi dan


relative tidak dapat dikendalikan oleh satu
organisasi

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Key Terms

Opportunities & Threats (External)


Analysis of Trends:
• Economic
• Social
• Cultural
• Demographic/Environmental
• Political, Legal, Governmental
• Technological
• Competitors

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Key Terms
Opportunities & Threats

Environmental Scanning (Industry Analysis)

 Process of conducting research and


gathering and assimilating external
information

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Key Terms
Opportunities & Threats

Prinsip dasar dari Manajemen Strategi

Take
Takeadvantage
advantageof
of
External
ExternalOpportunities
Opportunities
Strategy Formulation

Avoid/minimize
Avoid/minimizeimpact
impactof
of
External
ExternalThreats
Threats

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Key Terms

Strengths & Weaknesses (Internal)

 Kegiatan organisasi yang dapat


dikendalikan yang dilakukan sangat
baik atau buruk

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Key Terms

Strengths & Weaknesses (Internal)

Typically located in functional areas of the firm


• Management
• Marketing
• Finance/Accounting
• Production/Operations
• Research & Development
• Computer Information Systems

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Key Terms
Strengths & Weaknesses
Assessing the Internal Environment

Financial Ratios

Performance Metrics
Internal Factors
Industry Averages

Survey Data

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Key Terms

Long-term Objectives

 Mission-driven pursuit of specified results


more than one year out.
 Hasil spesifik yang ingin dicapai organisasi
dalam rangka menjalankan misinya. Jangka
panjang : antara 2 sampai dengan 5 tahun

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Key Terms

Long-term Objectives

Essential for ensuring the firm’s success


• Provide direction
• Aid in evaluation
• Create synergy
• Focus coordination
• Basis for planning, motivating, and
controlling

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Key Terms

Strategies

 Bagaimana tujuan jangka panjang yang


dicapai

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Key Terms

Strategies
Some Examples
• Geographic expansion
• Diversification
• Acquisition
• Market penetration
• Retrenchment
• Liquidation
• Joint venture

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Key Terms

Annual Objectives

 Short-term milestones that firms must


achieve to attain long-term objectives

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Key Terms

Policies (Kebijakan)

 Dimana/bagaimana tujuan tahunan akan


dicapai

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Strategic Management Model

Strategic Management Process

 Dynamic & Continuous


 More formal in larger organizations

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Strategic Management Model

1. Identify Existing --

• Vision
• Mission
• Objectives
• Strategies

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Strategic Management Model

2. Audit external environment


3. Audit internal environment
4. Establish long-term objectives
5. Generate, evaluate & select
strategies
6. Implement selected strategies
7. Measure & evaluate performance

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Benefits of Strategic
Management

• Proactive in shaping firm’s future

• Initiate and influence firm’s activities


• Formulate better strategies
•Systematic, logical, rational

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Benefits of Strategic
Management

Financial Benefits

• Improvement in sales
• Improvement in profitability
• Productivity improvement

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Benefits of Strategic
Management

Non-Financial Benefits

• Improved understanding of competitors strategies


• Enhanced awareness of threats
• Reduced resistance to change
• Enhanced problem-prevention capabilities

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Benefits of Strategic
Management (Greenley)

1. Identification of Opportunities
2. Objective view of management problems
3. Improved coordination & control
4. Minimizes adverse conditions & changes
5. Decisions that better support objectives

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Benefits of Strategic
Management (Greenley – cont’d)

6. Effective allocation of time & resources


7. Internal communication among personnel
8. Integration of individual behaviors
9. Clarify individual responsibilities
10. Encourage forward thinking

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Benefits of Strategic
Management (Greenley – cont’d )

11. Encourages favorable attitude toward


change
12. Provides
discipline and formality to the
management of the business

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Why Some Firms Do No
Strategic Planning

 Struktur penghargaan rendah


 Pemadam kebakaran
 Buang waktu
 terlalu mahal
 Kemalasan

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Why Some Firms Do No
Strategic Planning

 Takut gagal
 Terlalu percaya
 Pengalaman buruk sebelumnya
 Kepentingan diri sendiri
 Takut yang tidak diketahui
 kecurigaan

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Business Ethics & Strategic
Management

Business Ethics defined --

 Principles of conduct within organizations


that guide decision making and behavior.

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Business Ethics & Strategic
Management

Good business ethics –

 Prerequisite for good strategic management

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Business Ethics & Strategic
Management

Code of business ethics –

 Provides basis on which policies can be


devised to guide daily behavior and
decisions in the workplace

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Business Ethics & Strategic
Management

Business practices always considered unethical –

 iklan yang menyesatkan


 pelabelan menyesatkan
 Membahayakan lingkungan
 insider trading
 Dumping produk cacat di pasar luar negeri
 Produk yang buruk atau keamanan layanan

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Natural Environment
Perspective

ISO used to gain strategic advantage

 ISO 9000 focuses on quality control


 > 1.5 million companies incorporate ISO

Ch 1 -56
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Natural Environment
Perspective

ISO 14000 standards

 Voluntary standards
 ISO 14001 standard for Environmental
Management System
 Firms minimize harmful effects on
environment

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The Nature of Global
Competition

Strategy implementation may be difficult

 Cultural differences
 Norms
 Values
 Work ethic

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Advantages of International
Operations (cont’d)

Less intense competition


Lower taxes
Economies of scale

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Disadvantages of International
Operations

Difficult communications
Underestimate foreign competition
Cultural barriers to effective management
Complications arising from currency
differences

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