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Indonesia Perlu Patenkan Ikan Arwana

Super Red
09-05-2008
Pontianak - Pemerintah dan asosiasi disarankan agar
segera mematenkan ikan Arwana Super Red (sclerofages
formosus) sebagai satwa endemik Taman Nasional Danau
Sentarum dan Sungai Kapuas, Kalimantan Barat, sehingga
tidak diklaim sebagai satwa negara lain.

"Asosiasi dibentuk dulu, baru ikan arwananya dipatenkan


agar tidak diakui oleh daerah lain dan negara lain. Karena ikan arwana jenis Arwana Super
Red merupakan endemik dari TNBK dan Sungai Kapuas," kata Darori, seusai membuka
Kontes Ikan Arwana se-ASEAN, di Pontianak, Kamis.

Ia mengharapkan, pematenan ikan arwana jenis Super Red dilakukan oleh asosiasi
penggemar ikan itu sendiri, karena kalau hanya pemerintah yang giat mempatenkan ikan
tersebut, bisa saja penangkaran ikan arwana yang menjual bebas ikan itu.

Seperti tertuang dalam Kepres No. 43 tahun 1978, Lembar Negara No. 51 tahun 1978
menjelaskan hewan yang dilindungi di Pulau Kalimantan dan Sumatera, jenis ikannya terdiri
dari arwana Super Red, Golden Red, Banjar Red, arwana jenis Green (hijau), serta satu-
satunya ikan arwana jenis Super Red hanya ditemukan di TNBK dan Sungai Kapuas.

Sebagai ikan purbakala, Arwana memiliki bentuk serta penampilan cantik dan unik. Tubuhnya
memanjang, ramping, dan "stream-line", sedangkan gerakan berenangnya amat anggun.

Selain itu, proses ikan Arwana saat berkembang biak juga mengandung nilai filosofi yang
tinggi. Arwana betina tugasnya hanya bertelur. Kemudian, induk jantan memeram dan
memelihara telur-telur itu di dalam mulut selama 40 hingga 50 hari sampai menetas.

Darori datang ke Pontianak terkait dengan "The International Arwana Exhibition and Contest"
yang diikuti sekitar 100 peserta di Pontianak Convention Center, 7 - 11 Mei 2008.

Meski Sungai Kapuas merupakan asal ikan Arwana jenis Super Red, namun event itu
merupakan yang pertama kalinya di Kalbar. Pemilik atau pengoleksi ikan menampilkan
sebanyak seratus ekor Arwana Super Red adu kemolekan, untuk memperoleh hadiah utama
berupa mobil Grand Livina.

Juri kontes berasal dari Indonesia, Jepang, Taiwan, Singapura dan Malaysia.

Ketua Panitia The International Arwana Exhibition and Contest, Gunawan Lim mengatakan,
dengan diadakanya kontes dan perlombaan ikan arwana jenis Super Red di Pontianak,
diharapkan bisa menarik minta wisatawan daerah maupun luar negeri berkunjung ke Kota
Pontianak guna menyaksikan ikan arwana endemik Kalbar.

"Saya bersyukur, pelaksanaan kontes dan perlombaan mencari ikan arwana yang menarik
dan unik bisa berjalan dengan lancar," ujarnya.
kan Arwana merupakan ikan yang tergolong satwa langka Indonesia dengan habitat
asli dari kalimantan dan juga irian. Ikan ini mempunyai bentuk tubuh yang khas,
berkesan gagah dan sedikit angkuh, dilengkapi dengan sungut pada mulutnya dan
sisik yang besar dengan susunannya yang harmonis, membuat keindahan dari ikan ini
sangat menonjol. Ikan ini berenang dengan tenang sehingga jika diletakkan dalam
akuarium akan membuatnya benar benar terlihat sebagai ikan yang anggun.

Ada beberapa jenis ikan arwana, seperti arwana Silver, Gold, Super Red dan
sebagainya. Namun yang mempunyai harga jual tertinggi ataupun paling diminati
oleh penggemar ikan naga ini adalah jenis Super Red. Jenis ini dipercaya membawa
keberuntungan (hokie) bagi pemiliknya dan pembawa kekayaan sekaligus dapat
menaikkan status sosial sang pemilik terutama jika memiliki Arwana dengan
spesifikasi khusus yang harganya bisa mencapai ratusan juta rupiah.

Pada awalnya ikan ini dikenal sangat sulit untuk berkembang biak diluar habitat
aslinya, namun pada perkembangannya ikan ini dapat berkembang biak pada tambak
ataupun kolam-kolam buatan dengan air yang telah diatur keasaman ataupun suhunya.
Hal ini memungkinkan penangkaran dapat dilakukan jauh dari habitat asli ikan ini.

Ikan Arwana pada tempat penangkaran ini dapat bertelur sebanyak kurang lebih 100 -
150 butir. Telur-telur arwana ini disimpan dalam mulut Arwana jantan. Ketika masih
kecil telur Arwana berbentuk bulatan merah dengan jentik kecil seperti berudu
menempel pada bulatan tersebut. Setelah beberapa minggu berudu tersebut membesar
dan bulatan merah yang berfungsi sebagai makanan makin mengecil dan akhirnya
menghilang.

Ikan hasil tangkaran tersebut setelah ukurannya mencukupi dipasangi dengan


Microchip sebagai tanda pengenal dan identitas arwana tersebut. Perusahaan
penangkar lalu mengeluarkan sertifikat yang mana mencantumkan nomer dari ID
Microchip yang terpasang pada ikan tersebut sebagai legalitas dari ikan untuk para
pemiliknya.

Ikan Arwana hasil dari tangkaran ini sangat banyak peminatnya dari dalam ataupun
luar negeri. Sehingga umumnya perusahaan penangkar ikan arwana bertindak
sekaligus sebagai eksportir ikan arwana ini. Pada tahun 2007, PT Arwana Indonesia
telah mengeksport ikan arwana ke Singapura.
Asian arowana refers to four species of freshwater fish in the genus Scleropages.
Some sources differentiate these varieties into multiple species,[2][3] while others
consider the different strains to belong to a single species, Scleropages formosus.[4]
They have several other common names, including Asian bonytongue, dragon fish,
and a number of names specific to different varieties.

Native to Southeast Asia, Asian arowanas inhabit blackwater rivers, slow-moving


waters flowing through forested swamps and wetlands. Adults feed on other fish,
while juveniles feed on insects.[5]

These popular aquarium fish have special cultural significance in areas influenced by
Chinese culture. The name dragon fish stems from their resemblance to the Chinese
dragon. This popularity has had both positive and negative effects on their status as
endangered species.

Evolution and taxonomy


Like all members of Osteoglossidae, Asian arowanas are highly adapted to fresh
water and are incapable of surviving in the ocean. Therefore, their spread throughout
the islands of southeast Asia suggests they diverged from other osteoglossids before
the continental breakup was complete. Genetic studies have confirmed this
hypothesis, showing that their ancestor of the Asian arowanas diverged from the
ancestor of the Australian arowanas, S. jardinii and S. leichardti, about 140 million
years ago, during the Early Cretaceous period. This divergence took place in the
eastern margin of Gondwanaland, with the ancestors of Asian arowanas carried on the
Indian subcontinent or smaller landmasses into Asia. The morphological similarity of
all Scleropages species shows that little evolutionary change has taken place recently
for these ancient fish.[6]

The first description of these species was published between 1839 and 1844 (1844 is
the date commonly cited) by German naturalists Salomon Müller and Hermann
Schlegel, under the name Osteoglossum formosum, although later this species was
placed in Scleropages with the name S. formosus.[7]

Super red arowana in a public aquarium.

Several distinct, naturally occurring colour varieties are recognised, each found in a
specific geographic region. They include the following:
• The green is the most common variety, found in Vietnam, Myanmar,
Thailand, Cambodia, and Malaysia.
• The silver Asian (not to be confused with the silver arowana, Osteoglossum
bicirrhosum) is considered part of the green variety by some. It has two
subvarieties, the "grey tail silver" or "Pinoh arowana," and the "yellow tail
silver," each found in a different part of the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
• The red-tailed golden is found in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
• The gold crossback, blue Malayan, or Bukit Merah blue is native to the
state of Pahang and Bukit Merah area in Perak, Malaysia.
• The red, super red, blood red, or chili red is known only from the upper part
of the Kapuas River in western Borneo, Indonesia.

In 2003, a study[2] was published which proposed breaking S. formosus into four
separate species. This classification was based on both morphology and genetics, and
includes the following species:

• Scleropages formosus was redescribed to include the strain known as the


green arowana. The gold crossback, which was not part of the study, was
included in this species by default.
• Scleropages macrocephalus described the silver Asian arowana.
• Scleropages aureus described the red-tailed golden arowana.
• Scleropages legendrei described the super red arowana.

Other researchers dispute this reclassification, arguing that the published data are
insufficient to justify recognizing more than one Southeast Asian species of
Scleropages.[8]

[edit] Description

Asian arowana scales are large (most over 2 cm in length) and have a delicate net
pattern.

Asian arowanas grow up to 90 cm (35 in) total length.[9] Like all Scleropages, Asian
arowanas have long bodies; large, elongate pectoral fins; dorsal and anal fins located
far back on the body; and a much larger caudal fin than that of their South American
relative, the silver arowana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum. The mouth is oblique with a
very wide gape. The prominent lower jaw has two barbels at its tip. The gill rakers are
stout. Asian arowanas bear teeth on many bones of the mouth, including the jaws,
vomer, palatines, pterygoids, parasphenoid, and tongue.[10]
Asian arowana scales are large, cycloid, and, in some varieties, metallic coloured,
with a distinctive mosaic pattern of raised ribs.[11][2] The lateral scales are arranged in
horizontal rows numbered from the most ventral (first level) to the most dorsal (fifth
level), with dorsal scales designated the sixth level.[12]

Asian arowanas are distinguished from Australian congenerics S. jardinii and S.


leichardti by having fewer (21-26) lateral line scales (versus 32-36 for the Australian
species), longer pectoral and pelvic fins, and a longer anterior snout.[2]

Green arowanas are dark green on the back, silvery or golden green on its sides, and
silvery or whitish on its ventral surface, with dark greenish or bluish patches visible
through the lateral scales. In mature fish, the top of the eye and the head behind the
eye are bright emerald.[2]

Both grey-tailed and yellow-tailed silver Asian arowanas are dark grey on the back
and silver on the sides, with dark ring patches on the lateral scales and a silvery or
whitish belly. In yellow-tailed specimens, the fin membranes are yellowish with dark
grey rays. In grey-tailed specimens, the fins are uniform dark grey.[2]

Red-tailed golden arowana. Although the scales are golden, the anal and caudal fins
are reddish-brown.

Mature red-tailed golden arowanas have brilliant metallic gold lateral scales, gill
covers, bellies, and pectoral and pelvic fin membranes, although the back is dark. In
juveniles the areas destined to develop golden colour start out metallic silver. The anal
fin and the bottom portion of the caudal fin are light brown to dark red.[2]

Mature gold crossback arowanas are distinguished from the red-tailed golden
arowanas by having metallic gold crossing the back completely. This variety also
lacks the reddish fins of the red-tailed golden.[13]

In mature super red arowanas, the gill covers, lateral scales, and fin membranes of
these fishes are metallic red, with the exact hue varying from gold-tinged to deep red.
The back is dark brown. In juveniles, the darker the dorsal colouration, the deeper the
red will be on maturity.[2]

[edit] Behaviour
Asian arowanas are paternal mouthbrooders. They are slow to reach sexual maturity
and difficult to breed in captivity, with successful spawnings typically taking place in
large outdoor ponds rather than in aquaria.[14]

Two breeders reported success using a garden pond measuring 18 feet (5.5 m) by
18 feet (5.5 m) by 3.5 feet (1.1 m) deep, with pH maintained between 6.5 and 7.0. The
fish were over five years old. The successful harvest took place after the third
spawning; in the first two spawnings, the male swallowed the eggs, possibly due to
improper water quality.[15]

[edit] Relationship with humans


[edit] Cultural beliefs

Asian arowanas are considered "lucky" by many people, particularly those from Asian
cultures. This reputation derives from the species' resemblance to the Chinese dragon,
considered an auspicious symbol.[16] The large metallic scales and double barbels are
features shared by the Chinese dragon, and the large pectoral fins are said to make the
fish resemble "a dragon in full flight."[17]

In addition, positive Feng Shui associations with water and the colours red and gold
make these fishes popular for aquariums. One belief is that while water is a place
where chi gathers, it is naturally a source of yin energy and must contain an
"auspicious" fish such as an arowana in order to have balancing yang energy.[18]
Another is that a fish can preserve its owner from death by dying itself.[19]

[edit] Conservation

The Asian arowanas are listed as endangered by the 2006 IUCN Red List, with the
most recent evaluation taking place in 1996.[1] International trade in these fishes is
controlled under the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), under which it was placed on Appendix I, the most
restrictive category, in 1975.[20] S. formosus is one of only eight fish species listed on
Appendix I.[21] There are a number of registered CITES breeders in Asia and the
specimens they produce can be imported into several nations. Other nations restrict or
prohibit possession of Asian arowanas; for example, the United States has listed this
species under the Endangered Species Act, and therefore it cannot be possessed in that
country without a permit.[22]

Declining habitat is a major threat. For example, Asian arowanas are now uncommon
in the Malay Peninsula, where they were once widely distributed, due to
environmental destruction.[23] Inclusion in the IUCN Red List was originally based not
on biological reasons but on practical ones: though widely distributed throughout
southeast Asia, they have been harvested heavily by aquarium collectors. However,
habitat loss is likely a greater threat than aquarium collecting.[24]

There is no recent evaluation of conservation status by IUCN.[1] Additionally,


considering the current confusion as to number of species as well as the wide
distribution, conservation status needs to be reconsidered. All strains are probably
endangered, but some more critically than others.[2]

The Asian arowana's high value as aquarium fish has impacted its conservation. Its
popularity has soared since the late 1970s, and hobbyists may pay thousands of U.S.
dollars for one of these animals.[25][26]

Beginning in 1989, CITES began allowing Asian arowanas to be traded, provided


certain criteria were met, most notably that they were bred in captivity on a fish farm
for at least two generations.[27] The first of these farms was in Indonesia.[26] Later, the
Singapore government's Agri-food and Veterinary Authority (then called the Primary
Production Department) and a local fish exporter collaborated in a captive breeding
program. Asian arowanas legally certified by CITES for trade became available from
this program in 1994.[27]

Captive-bred arowanas that are legal for trade under CITES are documented in two
ways. First, fish farms provide each buyer with a certificate of authenticity and a birth
certificate. Second, each specimen receives an implanted microchip, called a Passive
Integrated Transponder (PIT), which identifies individual animals.[26]

Genetic fingerprinting has been used to assess the genetic diversity of a captive
population at a Singapore fish farm in order to improve the management of this
species.[28] DNA markers that distinguish among different strains and between sexes
have been identified, allowing aquaculturists to identify these characteristics in
immature animals.[29]

[edit] Care in captivity

Because they can grow up to 90 centimetres (36 inches) long, Asian arowanas require
a large aquarium. They are territorial and may be kept with other Scleropages only in
a very large aquarium, provided all fish are of similar size. Like other arowanas, they
need a tight-fitting cover to prevent jumping.[30] The water should be well-filtred, soft,
and slightly acidic, and maintained at a temperature between 24-30° C (75-86° F).[30]

Asian arowanas are carnivorous and should be fed a high-quality diet of meaty food,
such as shrimp and crickets. They are surface feeders and prefer to take food in the
upper parts of the water column. Aquarists recommend live foods and meaty prepared
foods. Examples of appropriate live foods include mealworms, crickets, shrimps,
feeder fish, small frogs, and earthworms. Prepared foods include prawns (shrimp),
lean pork, frozen fish food, and pelleted food.[31]