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Elektronika Daya

Pekik Argo Dahono

Elektronika Daya
Disiplin ilmu yang mempelajari penggunaan teknologi elektronika dalam konversi energi (daya) elektrik. Mengapa energi (daya) elektrik perlu dikonversikan? Hampir semua peralatan listrik bekerja kurang efisien atau tidak bisa bekerja pada sumber energi (daya) elektrik yang tersedia. Banyak pembangkit energi (daya) elektrik nonkonvensional mempunyai bentuk yang tidak kompatibel dengan sumber energi (daya) elektrik lainnya.
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Konverter Daya
Daya masukan
Konverterdaya

Daya keluaran
Beban

Pengukuran

Pengukuran

Pengendali

Acuan
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Klasifikasi Konverter Daya


Konverter DC-ke-DC (Chopper) Konverter AC-ke-DC (Penyearah) Konverter DC-ke-AC (Inverter) Konverter AC-ke-AC (Cycloconverter/Matrix)

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Konverter Sinyal dan Daya


Konverter Sinyal
Sinyal masuk

Konverter Daya
Daya masuk
Daya keluar

Sinyal keluar

Daya masuk

Sinyal masuk

Efficiency is the key


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Regulator tegangan
R1 Rv
Vi Io Vo Vi Io

Ro

R2

Ro

Vo

Efficiency is very low No ripples on the input and output sides


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Switching Regulator
Ii Io
Vi Vo 0 TON Ts

Vi

Vo

Load
Io 0

Ii 0

T Efficiency is very high Vo ON Vi Ts Ripples on the input and output sides

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Linear and Switching Power Supplies

Linear

Switching

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Switching Mode Power Supplies


Advantages: High efficient and small size DC filter capacitor is working at high voltage (Energy stored is high) The reactive component requirements are small. Disadvantages: Control is more complicated EMC problems
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Power Supply Comparison


Power Density
Linear Power Supply <0.12 W/cm3

Efficiency
<40%

SMPS

6W/cm3

>95%

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Power Electronic Applications in Power Generation


Excitation system Automatic Voltage Regulator Variable Speed Power Generation (Hydro, Wind, Microturbine gas) Power Conditioners for Renewable Power Generation (Fuel cells, solar cells) Energy Storage
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Excitation System in Brushless AC Generator


D1
D3 D5

Rotor

D2

D4

D6

Stator

Exciter

Main generator

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Renewable Energy System


Solar Cells DC/DC DC/DC

Fuel Cells Exhaust Fuel Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Modules

Energy Storages

DC/DC

AC/DC

BUS DC

Micro Hydro Electric Power

Generatr

DC/AC

Utilitas AC/DC DC/AC AC Loads

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Rote Island Hybrid Power System

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Power Electronic Applications in Power Transmission


High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Static VAR Compensators Series Compensation Phase Shifters Dynamic Braking Flexible AC Transmission System High-Speed Circuit Breakers
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Static VAR Compensator

Improving power factor Reducing voltage drop and losses Increasing maximum power transfer Improving damping factor
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HVDC Transmission System


DC Line
AC System AC System

Converter
Two - terminals dc system

Converter

Asynchronous links Suitable for long distance transmission and underground cable transmission Improving damping factor
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Power Electronic Applications in Power Distribution


Static VAR Compensators Power Conditioners Active Filters Unified Power Conditioners Dynamic Voltage Restorers High-Speed Circuit Breakers Light High-Voltage Direct-Current Distribution Power conditioners for distributed power generation
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Active Filter
is

AC source

Ls
if

ih

es

Active filter

Harmonic source

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Power Electronic Applications in Transportation Industries


High-Speed Trains Electric vehicles Elevators Airplanes Ships Unmanned vehicles
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PWM Inverter for Electric Traction


Pantograph
PWM Inverter

Traction Motors

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Shinkansen

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Electric Traction

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Electric Traction

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Diesel Electric Locomotive

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Toyota Prius

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Ford Escape

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Toyota Siena

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Honda Accord

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Hybrid Vehicles
parallel

Split

Series

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Power Electronic Applications in Industries


Rolling mills Variable speed pump systems Cement kilns Rolling ball mills Robotics Electrolysis
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Variable Speed Drive Applications


FLOW REFERENCE SET-POINT CONTROLLER MOTORIZED VALVE STARTER

SENSOR MOTOR

Fixed Speed

PUMP

FLOW REFERENCE

SET-POINT CONTROLLER

VSD
CONTROLLER

SENSOR MOTOR PUMP

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Variable Speed Drives


Smoothing inductor

AC source
Smoothing capacitor

AC Motor

vout

Controlled rectifier

Square - wave inverter

AC source
Smoothing capacitor

AC Motor

vout

Uncontrolled rectifier

PWM inverter

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Variable Speed Pumping System


80 VALVE OPERATION WITH STANDARD EFFICIENTMOTOR

Head/Press ure

Pipe characteristic 2

70

Pipe characteristic 1
H2
INPUT KW

60

H1
Pump characteristic 1

50 ADJUSTABLE SPEED OPERATION WITH ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTOR

40

30

H3

20

Pump characteristic 2
10

Q2

Q1 Flow

0 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700

FLOW (GPM)

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Power Electronic Applications in Home Appliances


Microwave heating Air conditioners Refrigerators Toasters Cookers Vacuum cleaners Wash machines
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Power Electronic Applications in Information Industries


DC power supplies Distributed power supplies Power conditioners Uninterruptible power supplies Battery chargers Voltage Regulator Modules
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Is power electronics new technology?


Power electronics have been developed since the beginning of 20th century when mercury arc and vacuum tubes technology was emerged. Power conversion has been known for a long time by using a combination of electrical machinery. Power electronics development has grown very fast since the introduction of thyristor or SCR (Semiconductor controlled rectifier) in nineteen fifties.
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Interdiciplinary nature of power electronics


Signal processing

Control theory

Circuit theory

Electronics

Solid - state physics

Power Electronics

Power systems

Computer

Electric machines

Electromagnetics

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Current Challenges
Voltage regulator modules for microprocessors Embedded inverter for motor drives Intelligent power ICs Flexible AC power transmission systems Custom power distribution system Unified power conditioners Renewable energy power generation system
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Microprocessor operating voltages

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Laptop Power Supply System

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Matriks saklar

S1 Vi u Load

S3

S2

S4

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Penyearah tak terkendali

Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3
S1

S2

S2

S4

S3

S4

v uv

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Penyearah terkendali

Vi

S1

S1 Vi u Load

S3
S2

S3

S4

S2

S4

v uv

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AC regulator

Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3

S1
S2

S3

S2

S4
S4

vuv
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Phase-Controlled AC-AC Cycloconverter


S1 S3

ei

Beban

vo

S2

S4

ei t S1 & S 4

S 2 & S3

Fundamenta l component

vo

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Konverter DC-ke-DC
Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3
S1

S2

S3

S2

S4
S4

v uv

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Inverter PWM
Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3

S1

S2

v
S3

S4

S2

S4
v uv

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Understanding Power Electronic Circuits


Consider all power semiconductor switches as ideal switches Ideal switches have no voltage drop, no leakage current, and transition times are zero. Practical considerations are given in detailed design. Background on signal electronics is useful to understand power electronics.
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The End

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