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UTILITAS

Smt genap
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Ion exchange is the giving and receiving of
ions between an ion exchange material and a
process liquid
For water treatment applications, the ion
exchange material is a resin and the process
fluid is water
It takes place as the process liquid flows
through the ion exchange material
As process water passes through the unit,
undesirable ions are exchanged for the mobile
(and more desirable) ions in the resin
When the ion exchange resin bed can no
longer remove undesirable ions, it is
exhausted. It must then be regenerated before
it is able to remove ions again.
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ZEOLITE (ALUMINOSILIKAT SINTETIK)
MERUPAKAN PENUKAR ION YANG PERTAMA
KALI DIGUNAKAN
GREENSAND (BAHAN ALAMI) PENGGANTI
ZEOLITE
SULFONATED STYRENE DIVINYLBENZENE
STRONG ACID CATION EXCHANGER
SULFONATED COAL CATION EXCHANGER
(CARBONACEOUS ZEOLITE)
DLL

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SAC (STRONG ACID CATION)
WAC (WEAK ACID CATION)
SBA (STRONG BASE ANION)
WBA (WEAK BASE ANION)
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Dapat menukarkan kation di air yang terikat
dengan anion kuat maupun lemah
Aplikasinya di proses softening dan
demineralisasi total
Ada yang menggunakan siklus Na untuk
proses softening atau siklus H untuk proses
dekationisasi
Gugus fungsinya adalah sulfonat





Na
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Gugus fungsi dari amonium
kuartener
Ada dua tipe
Tipe I, seperti gambar di
sebelah
Tipe II, salah satu gugus
metil digantikan oleh
golongan alkohol
Tipe I lebih stabil dan memiliki kemampuan menukar lebih
banyak anion lemah
Tipe II efisiensi regenerasi dan kapasitanya lebih besar
dibanding tipe I
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GUGUS FUNGSI IALAH GRUP
KARBOKSILAT (COOH)
DIGUNAKAN DALAM SOFTENING,
DEALKALISASI AIR SANGAT SADAH,
ALKALINITAS TINGGI,
BEKERJASAMA DENGAN SAC SIKLUS
Na DALAM SISTEM POLISHING
BERSAMA DENGAN SAC DIGUNAKAN
DALAM DEMINERALISASI TOTAL

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GUGUS FUNGSINYA AMINA PRIMER,
SEKUNDER DAN TERSIER
REAKSI PERTUKARANNYA
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SOFTENING
DEMINERALISASI
DEALKALISASI
POLISHER KONDENSAT
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DIPAKAI BILA BIAYA DEMINERALISASI TIDAK
TERJANGKAU
SPLIT STREAM DEALKALIZATION
SODIUM ZEOLITE/CHLORIDE ANION
DEALKALIZATION
WEAK ACID CATION DEALKALIZATION
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In a split stream dealkalizer, a portion of the raw water
flows through a sodium zeolite softener. The remainder
flows through a hydrogen-form strong acid cation unit
(hydrogen zeolite).
The effluent from the sodium zeolite is combined with the
hydrogen zeolite effluent. The effluent from the hydrogen
zeolite unit contains carbonic acid, produced from the raw
water alkalinity, and free mineral acids.
When the two streams are combined, free mineral acidity
in the hydrogen zeolite effluent converts sodium carbonate
and bicarbonate alkalinity in the sodium zeolite effluent to
carbonic acid
Carbonic acid is unstable in water. It forms carbon dioxide
gas and water. The blended effluents are sent to a
decarbonator or degasser, where the carbon dioxide is
stripped from the water by a countercurrent stream of air.
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Strong base anion resin in the chloride form
can be used to reduce the alkalinity of a
water. Water flows through a zeolite softener
and then an anion unit, which replaces the
carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and nitrate
ions with chloride ions
The chloride anion dealkalizer reduces
alkalinity by approximately 90% but does not
reduce total solids. When the resin nears
exhaustion, treated water alkalinity
increases rapidly, signaling the need for
regeneration.
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Weak acid resins are similar in operation to
strong acid cation resins, but only exchange
for cations that are associated with alkalinity
The carbonic acid (H2CO3) formed is
removed by a decarbonator or degasser as in
a split stream system.
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Ion exchange dealkalization systems produce
hardness-free, low-alkalinity water at a
reasonable cost, and with a high degree of
reliability. They are well suited for
processing feedwater for medium-pressure
boilers, and for process water for the
beverage industry. Split stream and weak
acid cation systems also reduce the total
dissolved solids.
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dealkalizers do not remove all of the
alkalinity and do not affect the silica content
of a water
dealkalizers require the same influent purity
as other ion exchange processes; filtered
water that is low in potential foulants must
be used
the water produced by a dealkalization
system using a forced draft decarbonator
becomes saturated with oxygen, so it is
potentially corrosive

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In a counterflow regenerated cation exchanger,
the regenerant flows in the opposite direction of
the service flow. As a result, the most highly
regenerated resin is located where the service
water leaves the vessel. The highly regenerated
resin removes the low level of contaminants that
have escaped removal in the top of the bed. This
results in higher water purity than co-current
designs can produce. To maximize contact
between the acid and resin and to keep the most
highly regenerated resin from mixing with the
rest of the bed, the resin bed must stay
compressed during the regenerant introduction.
This compression is usually achieved in one of
two ways:
1. a blocking flow of water or air is used
a. the acid flow is split, and acid is introduced at both
the top and the bottom of the vessel
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A mixed bed exchanger has both cation and anion resin
mixed together in a single vessel. As water flows through
the resin bed, the ion exchange process is repeated many
times, "polishing" the water to a very high purity.
During regeneration, the resin is separated into distinct
cation and anion fractions. The resin is separated by
backwashing, with the lighter anion resin settling on top of
the cation resin. Regenerant acid is introduced through the
bottom distributor, and caustic is introduced through
distributors above the resin bed.
The regenerant streams meet at the boundary between the
cation and anion resin and discharge through a collector
located at the resin interface. Following regenerant
introduction and displacement rinse, air and water are
used to mix the resins. Then the resins are rinsed, and the
unit is ready for service.


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