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INTRODUCTION

ENGINEERING MATERIAL
(MATERIAL TEKNIK)

KLASIFIKASI material untuk keperluan


teknik
LOGAM

LOGAM
FERRO

KLASIFIKASI MATERIAL

(ENGINEERING MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION)

LOGAM
NON FERRO

NON
LOGAM

Besi (Fe)
Baja karbon
Besi cor
Baja paduan

Baja tahan karat


Baja perkakas
Baja Mangan
Baja Nickel
Baja Si
Baja Chrom
dll

Aluminium (Al)
Tembaga (Cu)
Nickel (Ni)
Magnesium (Mg)
Titanium (Ti)
Cobalt (Co)
Seng (Zn)
Cadmium (Cd)
Timbal (Pb)
Zirkonium (Zr)
dll

Polimer Polimer alam


Polimer Buatan
Keramik ( high Temperature Material)
Komposit - MMC (Metal Matrix Composite)
- Advanced Material
- FRP (Fiber reinforced Plastic)

Logam (Metal)

Sifat logam:
Daya hantar listrik dan panas baik
Kekuatan relatif tinggi
Kekakuan (stiffness) yang tinggi
Ulet
Mampu bentuk yang baik
Tahan terhadap impak
MENGKILAP BILA DI GOSOK

Metalic bonding

Polimer
Sifat polimer:
Daya hantar listrik dan panas
rendah
Kekuatan relatif rendah
Elastisitas tinggi
Ulet
Mampu bentuk yang baik

Ionic bond

Covalent bond

Keramik
Sifat:
Kuat
Keras
Sangat getas
Sifat hantar listrik & panas rendah

Komposit
Material yang terdiri dari dua atau lebih
material.
Sifat:

Ringan
Kuat
Ulet
Kekuatannya lebih tinggi dari material matriksnya

Komponen:
Matriks : material induk
Reinforcing agent: material
penguat

Jenis komposit
Komposit matrik logam (MMC):
digunakan untuk komponen tertentu yang sifat
mekaniknya rendah.
Komposit matrik polimer (PMC) :
kekerasan dan kekuatan rendah tetapi keuletannya tingi
sehingga dengan penguat logam kekuatan dan
kekerasannya meningkat

Komposit matrik keramik (CMC):


kekerasan dan kegetasannya tinggi sehingga
dengan penguat logam tingkat keuletannya
meningkat.

Contoh komposit

semikondukt
or
Banyak digunakan dibidang elektronika
Sifat:
Sangat getas
Daya hantar listriknya dapat di kontrol
Mengubah sinar listrik ke cayaha dan sebaliknya

Aplikasi dalam bidang elektronika


Transistor
Dioda
Intergrated Circuit (IC)

Properties of material (sifat


material)

Sifat Mekanik
Sifat Fisis
Sifat Kimia
Sifat Taknologi

Sifat mekanik
Sifat logam yang dikaitkan dengan
kelakuan logam tersebut jika dibebani
dengan beban mekanik.
Contoh:
Kekuatan tarik (tensile strength).
Kekerasan (hardness)
Kekuatan geser (shear strength)

Harga yang diperoleh merupakan hasil


pengujian spesimen di laboratorium
(dilakukan pada kondisi tertentu).

Modes of loading and states of stress

The definitions of stress, strain and elastic


moduli

Tensile stressstrain curves for ceramics, metals and


polymers

Pure Tension
stress

strain

Elastic
response

stress
strain
Elastic
response

Pure Compression

Fnormal
Ao
l lo
lo

e E

Fshear

Pure Shear

Ao

tan

e G
Pure Torsional Shear
23

Common States of Stress


Simple tension: cable

Ao = cross sectional
Area (when unloaded)

Ao

Ski lift

Simple shear: drive shaft

Ac
M

2R

Fs

Ao

Fs

Ao

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Note: = M/AcR here.


24

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. A unidirectional force is applied to a specimen in the tensile


test by means of the moveable crosshead. The cross-head movement
can be performed using screws or a hydraulic mechanism

gauge
length

Test Specimen Standard

Properties Obtained from the Tensile


Test
Elastic limit
Tensile strength, Necking
Hookes law
Poissons ratio
Modulus of resilience (Er)
Tensile toughness
Ductility

Figure Tensile stress-strain curves for


different materials. Note that these
are qualitative

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.


Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. The stress-strain curve for an


aluminum alloy

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. (a) Determining the 0.2% offset yield strength in gray cast ion,
and (b) upper and lower yield point behavior in a low-carbon steel

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. Comparison of the


elastic behavior of steel and
aluminum. For a given stress,
aluminum deforms elastically
three times as much as does
steel

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a


trademark used herein under license.

cup-and-cone fracture in Al
Figure. Localized deformation of a ductile material during
a tensile test produces a necked region

brittle fracture

(Ultimate) Tensile Strength, TS


Maximum possible engineering stress in tension.

TS
F = fracture or
ultimate
strength

engineering
stress

Typical response of a metal

strain
engineering strain

Neck acts
as stress
concentrator

Metals: occurs when necking starts.


Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are
aligned and about to break.
34

Deformation Process During


Test

Hardness of Materials
Hardness test - Measures the resistance of a material to
penetration by a sharp object.
Macrohardness - Overall bulk hardness of materials
measured using loads >2 N.
Microhardness Hardness of materials typically measured
using loads less than 2 N using such test as Knoop
(HK).
Nano-hardness - Hardness of materials measured at 1
10 nm length scale using extremely small (~100 N)
forces.

Kekerasan juga didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan suatu material untuk


menahan beban identasi atau penetrasi (penekanan). Didunia teknik,
umumnya pengujian kekerasan menggunakan 4 macam metode
pengujian kekerasan, yakni :
1. Brinnel (HB / BHN)
2. Rockwell (HR / RHN)
3. Vikers (HV / VHN)
4. Micro Hardness (Namun jarang sekali dipakai-red)

Hardness
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression.
--better wear properties.

e.g.,
10mm sphere

apply known force


(1 to 1000g)

D
most
plastics

measure size
of indent after
removing load
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.

brasses easy to machine


Al alloys steels
file hard

cutting
tools

nitrided
steels
diamond

increasing hardness
Adapted from Fig. 7.18.

40

GAMBAR MACAM-MACAM MEDIA PENGUJIAN

BRINELL

ROCKWELL

Untuk pengujian Vickers, belum dilakukan / dipraktikumkan.

VICKERS

42

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. Indentors for the Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests

Pengujian kekerasan Brinell merupakan pengujian standard secara industri, tetapi karena
penekannya terbuat dari bola baja yang berukuran besar dan beban besar, maka bahan lunak
atau keras sekali tidak dapat diukur kekerasannya.
Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test Block
Hardness Scale

Part No:

Penetrator

Load

Ranges

Material

15N Scale

S15N10

N Diamond

15 Kg

All

Steel

30N Scale

S30N10

N Diamond

30 Kg

All

Steel

45N Scale

S45N10

N Diamond

45 Kg

All

Steel

15T Scale

S15T10

1/16" Ball

15 Kg

All

Brass

30T Scale

S30T10

1/16" Ball

30 Kg

All

Brass

45T Scale

S45T10

1/16" Ball

45 Kg

All

Brass

15W Scale

S15W10

1/8" Ball

15 Kg

All

Brass

30W Scale

S30W10

1/8" Ball

30 Kg

All

Brass

45W Scale

S45W10

1/8" Ball

45 Kg

All

Brass

15X Scale

S15X10

1/4" Ball

15 Kg

All

Brass

30X Scale

S30X10

1/4" Ball

30 Kg

All

Brass

45X Scale

S45X10

1/4" Ball

45 Kg

All

Brass

15Y Scale

S15Y10

1/2" Ball

15 Kg

All

Brass

30Y Scale

S30Y10

1/2" Ball

30 Kg

All

Brass

45Y Scale

S45Y10

1/2" Ball

45 Kg

All

Brass

Sedangkan pengujian Rockwell cocok untuk semua material yang keras dan yang lunak,
penggunaannya sederhana dan penekanannya dapat dilakukan dengan leluasa. Tabel di
bawah menunjukkan bagaimana memilih skala rockwell.
Beban
Skala

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
K
L
M
P
R
S
V

Penekan

Kerucut Intan 120


Bola Baja 1,588 mm (1/6)
Kerucut Intan 120
Kerucut Intan 120
Bola Baja 3,175 mm (1/8)
Bola Baja 1,588 mm (1/6)
Bola Baja 1,588 mm (1/6)
Bola Baja 3,175 mm (1/8)
Bola Baja 3,175 mm (1/8)
Bola Baja 6,35 mm (1/4)
Bola Baja 6,35 mm (1/4)
Bola Baja 6,35 mm (1/4)
Bola Baja 12,7 mm (1/2)
Bola Baja 12,7 mm (1/2)
Bola Baja 12,7 mm (1/2)

Awal

Utama

Jumlah

Skala
Kekerasan

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

50
90
140
90
90
50
140
50
140
50
90
140
50
90
140

60
100
150
100
100
60
150
60
150
60
100
150
60
100
150

100
130
100
100
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130

Warna Angka

Hitam
Merah
Hitam
Hitam
Merah
Merah
Merah
Merah
Merah
Merah Merah
Merah
Merah
Merah
Merah

Pada Tabel ditunjukkan skala kekerasan A, B dan C adalah untuk bahan logam, skala A dapat
dipakai untuk bahan sangat keras seperti Karbida tungsen. Skala D dan di bawahnya dipakai
untuk batu gerinda sampai plastik.
Pengujian Rockwel superfisial mempergunakan beban yang ringan untuk memperbaiki ketelitian
dari penekan dengan cara penggunaan yang sama, juga dapat mengukur kekerasan permukaan
dari bahan yang dikeraskan kulitnya.
Gambar di bawah ini menunjukkan ukuran perbandingan dari penekanan pada pengujian bahan
yang sama dengan berbagai pengujian kekerasan.
Brinell
Bola Baja 10 mm
Beban 300 Kg
Rockwell
Penekan C, 150 Kg

Rockwell
Penekan N, 30 Kg

Permukaan

Vickers

Knoop

Contoh Sifat mekanik: Kekerasan

Strain Rate Effects and Impact


Behavior
Impact test - Measures the ability of a material to absorb
the sudden application of a load without breaking.
Impact energy - The energy required to fracture a
standard specimen when the load is applied suddenly.
Impact toughness - Energy absorbed by a material,
usually notched, during fracture, under the conditions of
impact test.
Fracture toughness - The resistance of a material to
failure in the presence of a flaw.

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. The impact test: (a) The Charpy and Izod tests, and (b)
dimensions of typical specimens

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. Results from a


series of Izod impact
tests for a supertough nylon
thermoplastic
polymer
MATERIAL YANG
DUCTILE DAPAT
MENJADI BRILTTLE
BILA BERADA PADA
TEMOPERATUR
NEGATIF

Charpy Test Specimens

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure. The Charpy Vnotch properties for a


BCC carbon steel and a
FCC stainless steel. The
FCC crystal structure
typically leads top
higher absorbed
energies and no
transition temperature

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure.The area contained within the


true stress-true strain curve is related
to the tensile toughness. Although
material B has a lower yield strength, it
absorbs a greater energy than material
A. The energies from these curves may
not be the same as those obtained from
impact test data

Sifat fisis
Sifat fisik suatu bahan adalah
kemampuan suatu
Metal or alloy
bahan/material ditinjau dari titanium
sifat fisiknya.
cast iron
Contoh:
steel - stainless
Kerapatan massa (density) iron
copper
Titik leleh (melting point) silver
Penampilan (appearance) lead

kg/cu.m
4.500
6.800 7.800
7.480 8.000
7.850
8.930
10.490
11.340

uranium

18.900

gold

19.320

tungsten

19.600

plutonium

19.800

platinum

21.400

Sifat kimia
Ketahanan suatu material terhadap
reaksi kimia yang terjadi di
sekitarnya
Contoh :
Ketahanan terhadap karat (corrosion
resistance)
Ketahanan terhadap panas
Flammability

Sifat fisis: struktur mikro

SIFAT KIMIA: Korosi


Korosi : Peristiwa
perusakan atau degradasi
material logam akibat
bereaksi secara kimia
dengan lingkungan

Macam-macam Korosi

Pitting corrosion

Sifat teknologi
Kemampuan suatu material untuk
diproses lebih lanjut.
Contoh:
Mampu mesin (machineability)
Mampu las (weldability)
Mampu bentuk (formingability)

SCC (stress crack corrosion)

Sifat teknologi: weldability