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REAKTOR ALIR

TANGKI
BERPENGADUK
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Fogler, H.S., 1994, Elements of Chemical Reaction


Engineering, 2 nd. Edition, Pretice-Hall of India, New
Delhi
Levenspiel, O., 1999, Chemical Reaction Engineering,
3 th. Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Smith, J.M., 1985, Chemical Engineering Kinetics , 3
th. Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, New Delhi.
Sri Warnijati Agra, 1985, Ringkasan Reaktor Kimia bag.
I , Fakultas Teknik UGM, Yogyakarta
Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor
CSTR adalah reaktor
model berupa tangki
berpengaduk dan
diasumsikan pengaduk
yang bekerja dalam tanki
sangat sempurna
sehingga konsentrasi tiap
komponen dalam reaktor
seragam sebesar
konsentrasi aliran yang
keluar dari reaktor
Prinsip Kerja
satu atau lebih reagen
fluida dimasukkan pada
tangki sebuah reaktor
yang dilengkapi dengan
kipas atau impeller
impeller mengaduk
cairan untuk
memastikan cairan Reactor CSTR. Check of a condition of the case.
tersebut tercampur rata
ada waktu suatu cairan
berada di dalam tabung
tersebut sebelum keluar
Beberapa aspek penting
dalam CSTR
Dalam keadaan tetap ( steady state ), fluida yang
masuk harus sama dengan fluida yang keluar,
sebaliknya tangki akan menjadi meluap atau kosong
( unsteady state ). Jika reaktor dalam keadaan
unstedy state , model persamaan diturunkan dari
deferensiasi neraca massa dan energi.
Semua kalkulasi yang dilakukan CSTR diasumsikan
sebagai pencampuran sempurna
Untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih banyak dalam
waktu yang sama, dapat dilakukan dengan
memparalelkan atau memasang seri CSTR ini
RATB kecil yang jumlahnya tak terhingga beroperasi
secara seri ekivalen sebuah PFR
Keuntungan:
Suhu dan
komposisi
campuran dalam
reaktor sama
Volume reactor
besar, maka
waktu tinggal juga
besar, berarti zat
pereaksi lebih
lama bereaksi di
reactor.
Keuntungan CSTR
Operasi dalam keadaan tetap menyebabkan
peralatan produk lebih stabil
Penggunaan energi yang kualitasnya meningkat
Produktivitas yang lebih tinggi dalam reduksi
pada periode tidak aktif (pengisian, pemanasan,
pendinginan, dan pengosongan).
Campuran lebih rata karena penggunaan teknik
pengadukan (stiring). Suhu dan komposisi
campuran dalam reaktor sama
Kerugian:

Tidak effisien untuk reaksi fase gas dan


reaksi yang bertekanan tinggi.
Kecepatan perpindahan panas lebih
rendah dibanding RAP
Untuk menghasilkan konversi yang sama,
volume yang dibutuhkan RATB lebih besar
dari RAP.
Kerugian CSTR
Rata-rata reaksi volumetrik yang lebih
rendah akan menghasilkan produktivitas
rendah.
Tidak sesuai untuk keseluruhan emulsi
proses polimerisasi pada tahap pertama
penggunaan CSTR
Timbul endapan di dasar akibat gaya
sentrifugal CSTR
Tidak dapat merubah grade dari RTD
profile sesering mungkin karena dapat
mengurangi fleksibilitas reaktor
Biaya tinggi, semakin besar CSTR yang
digunakan atau semakin banyak CSTR
kecil yang digunakan semakin besar
biaya yang dikeluarkan
Waktu menunggu (proses) yang lebih
lama
Tidak effisien untuk reaksi fase gas dan
reaksi yang bertekanan tinggi.
Kecepatan perpindahan panas lebih
rendah dibanding RAP
Cao, Vao A+BC

Cc, Vf
CSTR

Cbo, Vbo
V
CSTR Reactor for Liquid Phase
Reaction
Reactor operates at
outlet conditions.
Reactant supply in:
Reactor is well-
Liquid flow rate = v m3/s
mixed, hence
Concentration = C0 mol/m3
concentration of
reactant throughout
is = C

Remaining reactant out:


Volume of reactor = V m3 Liquid flow rate = v m3/s
Concentration = C mol/m3
Reactor operates at steady-state - variables do not change with t
Reaktor Teraduk Sempurna (Mixed Flow Reactor)

CA0
FA0 Konsentrasi di dalam reaktor = Konsentrasi keluar reaktor
v0 = Waktu lewat
XA0 = Waktu yang dibutuhkan reaktan melalui reaktor
CAf
CAf FA
vf
XAf

Neraca massa reaktan A :


Masuk Keluar Hilang bereaksi = Akumulasi
Laju molar A masuk (mol/waktu) : FA0 ( 1- XA0 ) = FA0
Laju molar A keluar (mol/waktu) : FA = FA0 ( 1- XAf )
Kehilangan selama reaksi (mol/waktu) : (-rA) V
FA0 ( 1- XA0 ) - FA0 ( 1- XAf ) - (-rA) V = 0
FA0 (XA0 - XAf ) = (-rA) V

V

v0 Untuk konstan dan XA0 = 0 :

V X Af X A0 V XA C A0 C A

FA0 C A0 rA FA0 C A0 rA C A0 ( rA )
Design Equations

FA,in FA,out rAV 0

XA
FAO FA
FAO
ATAU DITULIS
KEMBALI X A FAO FA,in FA,exit
DISUBTITUSIKAN DAN
DIPEROLEH :
FAO X A
V
rA
F
V AO X A
FAO/-rA rA

v The CSTR volume is


defined by the outlet
XA
conversion, owing to
dilution of reactant.
summarize:
Mole Balance Design
Equation
BATCH 1 dN A
rA T , C
N AO dX A
rA
V dt V dt

RAP dFA
rA T , C FAO
dX A
rA
dV dV

RATB 0 FA,in FA,out rA T , C V V


FAO X A
rA
Bentuk
sesuai soal

Lihat satuan
Konstantaa
kecepatan

lihat lev
hal 86-87

-Grafik
--Numerik
-- Analitik
MFR vs. PLUG FLOW Isothermal
vCA0 X A
MFR V
rA

1/rA Kurva laju reaksi

XA
XA
dX A
PLUG FLOW
V vCA0
0
rA
MFR
AB rA kCA C A C A0 kCA
2A B rA kC 2
A

1 1 4kCA0
C A C A0 kC 2
CA
2k
A

Order 2, reversible, densitas konstan


k1
A+B C+D Feed: CA0, CB0, CC0 = 0, CD0 = 0
k2
C A0 C A C B 0 C B CC CC 0 CD CD 0

a b c d

C A0 C A CB 0 CB CC CD
MFR
rA rf rr k1C ACB k 2CC CD

Neraca Massa
C A C A0 rA
C A C A0 k1C ACB k2CC CD

Substitusi
CB = CA - CA0 + CB0
CC = CD = CA0 - CA


CA CA0 k1CA CA CA0 CB0 k2 CA0 CA
2

Selesaiakan untuk CA
Damkhler number is a dimensionless number that can give a quick
estimate of the degree of conversion that can be achieved in CSTR.

First order :

Second order :

Da = 0.1 or less, usually give less than 10% conversion.


Da = 10.0 or greater, usually give greater than
90% conversion.
The elementary liquid phase reaction
2 A ----- B
is carried out isothermally in a CSTR. Pure
A enters at a volumetric flow rate of 25
dm3/s and at a concentration of 0.2 mol/dm3.
What CSTR volume is necessary to
achieve a 90% conversion when k = 10
dm3/(mol*s)?
Mole Balance
Rate Law
Stoichiometry liquid phase (v = vo)
Combine
Evaluate at X = 0.9,

V = 1125 dm3
Space Time
Soal-1
Direncanakan untuk mengganti sebuah
RATB yang ada dengan RATB yang
bervolum dua kali. Untuk umpan yang
sama dan dengan kecepatan umpan
yang sama pula, 10 mol A/liter, tentukan
konversi baru ? Kinetika reaksi sebagai
berikut :
A ------ R
-rA = CA1,5 dan konversi awal 70 %
Soal-2
Suatu umpan aqueous A dan B ( 400
liter/menit, 100 mmol A/liter, 200 mmol
B/liter) diubah menjadi produk dalam
sebuah RATB. Dengan kinetika reaksi
sbb:
A + B -----R
-rA = 200 CA CB mol/(liter.min )
Hitung volum reactor untuk memperoleh
konversi A, 99,9 %.
Soal-3
Suatu umpan gas murni A ( 1 mol/liter)
dimasukkan dalam sebuah RATB yang
bervolum 2 liter dan bereaksi sbagai
berikut :
2 A ------ R
-rA = 0,05 CA2 mol/(liter.det)
Hitung kecepatan umpan (liter/min) untuk
memperoleh konsentrasi keluar reactor
CA= 0,5 mol/liter.
Soal-4
Reaktan gas A terdekomposisi sebagai
berikut :
A ----- 3 R
-rA = ( 0,6 min-1) CA
Hitung konversi A dalam umpan yang
terdiri 50% A dan 50% inert ( denga Vo =
180 liter/min, CAo = 300 mmol/liter) jika
dimasukkan dalam RATB yang bervolum
1 m3.
Suatu reaksi A + B <k1k2> M + N, fasa cair
dijalankan dalam sebuah RATB yang volumnya 240 L.
Umpan A dan B masing2 masuk reaktor dengan laju alir
yang sama dengan perbandingan konsentrasi awal = 7 :
4 dan jumlah konsentrasi awal umpan adalah 2,2 mol/L.
Tidak ada zat M dan N di umpan. Jika konversi atas
dasar reaktan yang sedikit adalah 75% dan harga k1
dan k2 masing-masing 7 dan 3 L/mol.men, Hitung:
a. Laju alir volumetris untuk masing-masing reaktan
b. Space time dan space velocity
c. Gambarkan skema kondisi diatas
Perbandingan MFR vs. PFR (reaksi order n)

100
n=2
A produk
n V
C A0 v n=1 rA kCAn
MFR
10
n V
C A0 v n=0.5
PFR

1
0.01 0.1 1.0
(1-XA)
catatan
(1) n#0 VMFR > VPFR
(2) n=0 VMFR = VPFR
(3) XA,rendah type aliran sedikit berpengaruh
Perbandingan Reaktor tunggal
Untuk reaktor dengan berubah

-rA = k CAn

XAf dX 1 XAf 1 A X A
n
P C A0 A
dX A
XAi rA k C A0 0 1 X A
n -1 n

X Af X Af 1 A X Af n
M C A0
rA k C A0 n -1 1 X Af n
1 A X Af
n
X Af
M 1 X Af
X
X Af M
C A0 n>0 1
P rA Af 1 X

1 X dX A
A Af
P
0 Af
atau
VM
C A 0 n 1 M
A maka
M
dan VM

VP


C A 0 n 1 P P VP
CSTR Vs. PFR ?

For a given duty the ratio of sizes of CSTR &


PFR will depend on:
extent of reaction
stoichiometry
form of the rate equation
For the simple nth-order rate law

For mixed flow reactor, Eq.5.11 gives


For plug flow reactor, Eq.5.17 gives
With constant density, or =0, this expression integrates to
Multiple reactors:
The reactors may or may not be of the
same type
They may be connected either in series or
parallel

Issues involved:
How many reactors ??
What type of reactors ??
Series / parallel arrangement ??
Sizes of each reactor ??
In what order they must be connected ??
Inter-stage feed injection ??
42
Types of staged reactors

Reactor battery Vertically staged Compartmented

43
Multiple reactors in parallel:

PFRs in parallel

CSTRs in parallel 44
Plug Flow Reactors in Series and/or in parallel

Consider N plug flow reactors


connected in series, and let X1, X2, ,
XN be the fractional conversion of
component A leaving reactor
1,2,,N.
for the N reactors in series

Hence, N plug flow reactors in series with a


total volume V gives the same conversion
as a single plug flow reactor of volume V.
CSTR VS Plug Flow
A combination of PFRs giving a particular final conversion have the
same volume as a single PFR which gives the same total conversion.
A series of CSTRs can be useful to reduce the overall volume:
V V 1/rA
1 2
0 XAi XAf V2
V1

XAi XAf XA
Other rate expressions 1/r
Rate low at low
rA=kCAn - as n increases, PFR
conversion due to
more favourable low CB
zero order reactions are
reactor independent
autocatalytic reactions VCSTR VPFR
A B rA=kCACB X
XIN XCSTR XOUT
The reactor setup shown in Fig. E6.1
consists of three plug flow reactors in two
parallel branches. Branch D has a reactor
of volume 50 liters followed by a reactor of
volume 30 liters. Branch E has a reactor of
volume 40 liters. What fraction of the feed
should go to branch D?

Figure E6.1
Multiple reactors in parallel: RAP
Fluid streams which meet must have
the same composition
Space time () must be same for
each parallel line
Any other way of feeding will be less
efficient ??

Produksi optimum ?

50
For the optimum hook up of plug flow
reactors connected in parallel or in any
parallel-series combination, we can treat
the whole system as a single plug flow
reactor of volume equal to the total volume
of the individual units if the feed is
distributed in such a manner that fluid
streams that meet have the same
composition. Thus, for reactors in parallel
V/F must be the same for each parallel line.
Any other way of feeding is less efficient.
Now for reactors in parallel V/F must be
identical if the conversion is to be the
same in each branch. Therefore
Example:
50 lit 30 lit
F

40 lit

What should be the flow in each parallel line for


optimum results.
2F/3
80 lit

40 lit
F/3 53
Questions
CSTRs in series
Issues involved are:
1. Designing the CSTR battery
How many reactors ??
Sizes of each ??
In what order to connect ??
What is optimum ??

2. Rating the given CSTR battery


Exit conversion ??
Algebraic method
Graphical method
55
TWO CSTRs in SERIES:

F
V1 AO X 1 0
rA

F
V1 AO X 2 X 1
FAO/-rA rA

x1 x2
v1 v2

v1 v2 The total volume of the


two CSTRs is less than if
x1 x2
we just had one huge
XA
CSTR.
CSTRs in Series

First-order, no volume change


Single CSTR, CA =
Effluent [A] of reactor 1, CA1 =
Effluent [A] of reactor 2, CA2 =
Effluent [A] of reactor n, CAn =
CSTR in Series (Cont.)
Menentukan Sistem Terbaik untuk Konversi Tertentu

Konversi tertentu
Ukuran minimum ?
2 reaktor teraduk seri

K L K L
N M
1 1
N M
r r
C0 X1 X2
F0

X1 X2 X1 X1 X2 X1

K L
N M Garis g
1
X2 X1 C0

r
F0

X1 X2 X1

K, L, M, N dimaksimumkan
Sebuah RATB dipakai untuk mereaksikan A
menjadi produk dengan konversi 90%. Reaksi
yang terjadi adalah order 2. Direncanakan akan
memasang satu reaktor tambahan dengan
ukuran sama yang disusun seri dengan reaktor
pertama. Jika kondisi operasi sama, berapa
konversi setelah keluar reaktor kedua?
Jika konversi keluar reaktor kedua = 90%,
berapa perbandingan volume RATB 2 terhadap
RATB 1? (Note: cari dulu kCo.t dengan bantuan
grafik).
CSTRs in series (Design Problem)
The shaded area is the saving with 2 CTSRs when
compared to 1 CSTR

The conversion from the exit of the first reactor


influences the amount of saving.
What is the optimum saving and what is the corresponding
conversion
62
Equal-size mixed flow reactors
in series

Though the concentration is uniform


in each reactor, there is, nevertheless,
a change in concentration as fluid
moves from reactor to reactor.
N TANKS IN SERIES:

, F
V1 AO X 1 0
rA
F
Vn AO X n X n 1
FAO/-rA rA

XA

x1 x2 Xn-1 Xn

X1 X2
V1 V2 Xn-1
Vn-1 Vn Xn
Reaktor Teraduk disusun Seri (Ukuran Sama)

X0 X1 Xi-1 Xi Xn-1 XN
C0 C1 C i-1 Ci Cn-1 CN

Neraca massa komponen A pada reaktor i :

FAi-1 FAi (-rA)Vi = 0


FA0 (1-Xi-1) FA0 (1-Xi) (-rA)Vi = 0

(rA )Vi
X i - X i-1
FA0

C A0 Vi C A0 (X i X i1 )
i
FAo rA


V
1 = 2 = 3, = i = N
vo
Reaktor Teraduk disusun Seri (Ukuran Sama)

Untuk reaksi orde 1 :


-rA = k CA0
X i X i1 C Ai C Ai1

k (1 X i ) kC Ai
C Ai1
1 ki
C Ai
C A0 1 C C C
A0 A1 ......... AN1 (1 ki ) n
C AN 1 X Ai C A1 C A 2 C AN

C A0
(1 ki ) N
C AN
1/ N
CA0
1
i
CAN
k
N CA0
1/ N
Nreaktor Ni 1
k CAN
Reaktor Teraduk disusun Seri (Ukuran Sama)

Jika N, maka
N CA0
1/ N
N lim 1
N k CAN
CA, masuk
CA0 1/ N
1
CAN
lim
N k/N
1 C Plug flow
ln A0
k C AN N=5

= P N = 1, Mixed flow

CA, keluar
1 C Volume reaktor
N P ln A0
k C AN
Stepwise drop of conversion

The larger the number of units in series, the


closer should the behavior of the system
approach plug flow.
In the limit, for N

this equation reduces to the plug flow equation


Second-order reactions

A series of N equal-size mixed flow reactors for


elementary second-order reactions
CA0
CA1
CA2
CSTRs in series, 1st order rxn, isothermal
FA1 X FA1 FA2 v0 C A1 C A2
V
mole balance rA2 rA2 rA2

rate laws rA2 k2C A2


Stoichiometry CA2 CA1 (1 X )
C A1 C A0 C A0
combination C A2
1 2 k 2 1 2 k 2 1 1k1 1 k 2
C A0 C A0
... C An
1 k 1 Da
n n

1
X 1 C An C A0 (1 X )
1 k n
CSTRs in series
constant flow rate
conversion as a function of the number of
tanks in series Two equal-sized CSTRs in
series will give a higher conversion than
two CSTRs in parallel of the same size
when the reaction order is greater than
zero.
EXAMPLE 6.2 MIXED FLOW REACTORS IN SERIES

At present 90% of reactant A is converted into


product by a first-order reaction in a single mixed
flow reactor. We plan to place a second reactor
similar to the one being used in series with it.

(a) For the same treatment rate as that used at


present, how will this addition affect the
conversion of reactant?

(b) For the same 90% conversion, by how much


can the treatment rate be increased
SOLUTION
For the first-order reaction in one mixed flow reactor

For =0

0.9
k 9
1 0.9
Two mixed flow reactor in series
C0 1 C0 C1
(1 k ) 2

C2 1 X 2 C1 C2

1 1
X 2 1 1 0.99
(1 k ) 2
(1 9) 2
Find the treatment rate for the same conversion

C0 1 C0 C1
(1 k ) 2

C2 1 X 2 C1 C2
X2=0.9
1 1
k ' 1 1 2.162
1 X 2 1 0.9

k ' k
V v0 ' k 9
4.16
v0 ' v0 k ' 2.162
Questions
Mixed flow reactors of different
sizes in series
Two questions:

How to find the outlet conversion


from a given reactor system?
How to find the best setup to
achieve a given conversion
Finding the conversion in
a given system
Consider three mixed flow reactors
in series with volumes, feed rates,
concentrations, space-times (equal to
residence times), and volumetric flow
rates as shown in Fig.6.7
Reaktor Teraduk disusun Seri (ukuran Berbeda)

C0 C1 C2 C3
F0 F1 F2 F3

F1 C1 F2 C 2 F3 C 3

F0 C 0 F0 C 0 F0 C 0

a. Menentukan konversi pada sistem tertentu


b. Menentukan Sistem Terbaik untuk Konversi Tertentu
86
Reactors of different types in series

CSTR - PFR PFR - CSTR

Concentration
Profiles
87
What arrangement is better ??
What is the criteria that need to be adopted ??

88
For =0, in the first reactor

Similarly, for the ith reactor we may write


a. Menentukan konversi pada sistem tertentu

V1 C 0 C1
1
v (r )

1 (r )
-r

1 C1 C 0

(r)1 1
Untuk reaktor ke i : slope
C1 C 0 1

1 (r )

i C i C i1
Point M Point P
and C1 and C2

Can be repeated as many times as needed


Eldridge and Piret Method
Graphical method to find the number of tanks required to
obtain a given conversion
F0 Vi
ri ( xi xi 1 ) xi 1 xi (ri )
Vi F0
For a second order reaction: -ri = k C02(1-xi)2
xi 1 xi kC0 i (1 xi ) 2
Given the kinetics (order and k) and i values, the
number of tanks required can be calculated.

Plot a graph taking xi-1 as abcissa and xi as


coordinate based on the above equation

Plot a 45 degree line. 92


CSTRs in Parallel

V FA0
Vi , FA0i
n n
V FA0 X i

n n rAi
This result shows that conversion achieved in
any one of the reactors in parallel is identical
to what would be achieved if the reactant were
fed in one stream to one large reactor of
volume V!!
FA01
FA0
FA02 CSTRs in parallel, isothermal
.
. Xi
Vi FA0i
mole balance rAi
same T, V, v
X 1 X 2 ... X n X
rA1 rA2 ... rAn rA

V FA0 X
total volume
total molar flow rate n n rA

FA0 X
V
rA
CSTRs in parallel
constant conversion and rate of reaction in each
tank
The sum of the volume of the tanks equals the total
volume of a single large CSTR.
The conversion achieved in any one of the reactors in
parallel is identical to what would be achieved if the
reactant were fed in one stream to one large reactor of
volume V.
Considering the degree of mixing and the room required,
a large tank might not be appropriate.
Because the compositions of mixtures leaving a CSTR
are those within the reactor, the reaction driving forces,
usually the reactant concentrations, are necessarily low.
Therefore, except for reaction orders zero- and negative,
a CSTR requires the largest volume of the reactor types
to obtain desired conversions. However, the low driving
force makes possible better control of rapid exothermic
and endothermic reactions. When high conversions of
reactants are needed, several CSTRs in series can be
used. Equally good results can be obtained by dividing a
single vessel into compartments while minimizing back-
mixing and short-circuiting. The larger the number of
CSTR stages, the closer the performance approaches
that of a tubular plug-flow reactor.
Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactors in series are
simpler and easier to design for isothermal operation
than are tubular reactors. Reactions with narrow
operating temperature ranges or those requiring close
control of reactant concentrations for optimum selectivity
benefit from series arrangements. If severe heat-transfer
requirements are imposed, heating or cooling zones can
be incorporated within or external to the CSTR. For
example, impellers or centrally mounted draft tubes
circulate liquid upward, then downward through vertical
heat-exchanger tubes. In a similar fashion, reactor
contents can be recycled through external heat
exchangers.
The CSTR configuration is widely used in industrial
applications and in wastewater treatment units (i.e.
activated sludge reactors).
What specifically causes a CSTR in
series to have a higher conversion than
a CSTR in parallel? The CSTR is always
operating a the lowest concentration, the
exit concentration. When say two CSTRs
are in series, the first operates at a higher
concentration, therefore the rate is greater,
therefore the conversion is greater. The
second reactor in series builds on the
conversion in the first reactor. The
conversion in the parallel scheme is the
same as the conversion to the first reactor
to the series scheme.
When are reactors in parallel used since it
seems as though reactors in series would
always achieve higher conversion? The PBRs
in parallel are ued when there would otherwise
be a large pressure drop in one long reactor or
identically several PBRs connected in series.

Since two equal CSTR in series give a higher


conversion than two in parallel, are reactors
in parallel ever used to increase conversion?
Not for a CSTR, only a PFR/PBR when there is
a significant pressure drop.
Reactors in series
To achieve the same overall conversion, the total
volume for two CSTRs in series is less than that
required for one CSTR.
-1/rA

The overall conversion of two PFRs in series is


the same as one PFR with the same total X
volumn.
-1/rA

CSTRs in series :A PFR can be modelled using a


number of CSTR in series
X
useful in modelling catalyst decay in a packed-bed
reactor
modelling transit heat effects in PFRs.
Questions
Example 2-4 From example 2-2 & 2-3, to achieve a conversion of
80% with the entering molar flow rate FA0 = 0.4 mol/s and the same
feed conditions, The CSTR volume was 6.4 m3 and the PFR volume
was 2.165 m3

For isothermal reactions greater than zero order, the CSTR volume will usually be
greater than the PFR volume for the same conversion and reaction conditions
(temperature, flow rate, etc.)
Example 2-5 For the two CSTRs in series, 40% conversion is
achieved in the first reactor. What is the volume of each of the two
reactors necessary to achieve 80% overall conversion of the entering
species
(a) CSTRA? design equation
Example 2-6 calculate the reactor volumes V1 and V2 for the plug-
flow sequence when the intermediate conversion is 40% and the final
conversion is 80%. The entering molar flow rate is the same as in the
previous example, 0.4 mol/s.

PFR design equation


dX
FA0 rA
dV
Example 2-7 The isomerization of butanenC4H10iC4H10 was
carried out adiabatically in the liquid phase. The reactor scheme
shown in Figure E2-7.1 is used. Calculate the volume of each of the
reactors for an entering molar flow rate of n-butane of 50 kmol/hr.
Contoh soal 1
Asam asetat dihidrolisis dalam tiga reaktor alir tangki
berpengaduk yang dipasang seri. Aliran umpan masuk
rektor pertama ( V = 1 liter ) pada kecepatan 400
cm3/min. Reaktor ke dua dan ke tiga mempunyai volum
berturut-turut 2 dan 1,5 liter. Reaksi order satu tidak
bolak-balik dan konstanta kecepatan reaksi k = 0,158
min-1. Hitung konversi hidrolisis yang keluiar dari reaktor
ke tiga ? Cao = 1 mol/liter

Tugas : 1. jika yg 1,5 liter dipasang ditengah


2. Jika susunannya berturut-turut 2, 1,5 dan 1
3. jika susunannya berturut-turut 2, 1 dan 1,5
1, 2 dan 3 gunakan dengan persamaan spt diatas.
4. gunakan dengan persamaan order satu/grafik( gbr 6.8
Lev)
Persamaan perancangan untuk seri, reaktor dalam
keadaan steady state,
Vi =FAo (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i
Dengan :
Vi = volum reaktor i
FAo = kecepatan aliran molar A masuk reaktor pertama
XA,i = fraksional konversi A dalam reaktor i
XA,i-1 = fraksional konversi A dalam reaktor i-1
Untuk reaksi order satu , -rA,i = kCA,i = kCAo(1 - XA,i)
v = kecepatan alir volumetrik A = 400 cm3/min = 0.4
lit/min
Untuk reaktor pertama :: (V = 1 lit)
(-rA)1 = (kCA)1 = k CA,1 = k CAo ( 1- XA,1)
CAo= FAo / v
i.e., FAo = v CAo
XA,i-1 = XA,0 = 0
Untuk itu,
Vi =FAo (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i
1 = 0.4 (XA,1 - 0) / (0.158 x ( 1 - XA,1 ) )
XA,1 = 0.283
Untuk reaktor ke dua : (V = 2 lit)
(-rA)2 = (kCA)2 = k CA,2 = k CAo ( 1- XA,2)
Karena itu,
(-rA)2 = k CAo ( 1- XA,2)
XA,1 = 0.283
FAo = v CAo
Vi =FAo (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i
2 = 0.4 (XA,2 - 0.283) / ( k ( 1- XA,2) )
5 k = (XA,2 - 0.283) / ( 1- XA,2)
0.79 - 0.79 XA,2 = XA,2 - 0.283
1.073 = 1.79 XA,2
XA,2 = 0.60
Untuk reaktor ke tiga: (V = 1.5 lit)
(-rA)3= (kCA)3 = k CA,3 = k CAo ( 1- XA,3)
XA,2 = 0.6
FAo = v CAo
Vi =FAo (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i
1.5 = 0.4 (XA,3 - 0.60) / ( k ( 1- XA,3) )
0.5925 = (XA,3 - 0.60) / ( 1- XA,3)
0.5925 - 0.5925 XA,3 = XA,3 - 0.60
1.1925 = 1.5925 XA,3
XA,3 = 0.749
Fraksi hidrolisis ( konversi ) yang keluar dari
reaktor ke tiga = 0.749
Contoh soal 2
Dua reaktor tangki berpengaduk tersedia dalam pabrik
kimia, satu mempunyai volum 100 m3 dan yang lain
bervolum 30 m3. Diharapkan reaktor-reaktor ini dapat
digunakan sebagai dua tahap RATB untuk
menjalankan reaksi fasa cairan tidak bolak-balik, A +
B ---- produk,. Dua reaktan sebagai umpan berada
dalam jumlah ekuimolar, CAo = CBo = 1.5 gmol/lit.
Kecepatan volumetrik adalah 20 lit/min. Reaksi
adalah order satu terhadap A dan B atau total order
dua. Konstanta kecepatan reaksi 0.011 lit/(gmol.min).
Untuk memperoleh konversi yang tinggi, tangki
mana yang diletakkan pada pertama ?
Dengan susunan ini, hitung konversi yang diperoleh
pada kondisi stedy state ?
Tugas : 9. jika konversi keluar reaktor ke dua 96%,
berapa total volume minimal yang diperlukan ? ( lihat
susunan RATB kecil-besar )
Jawab :
-rA = -dCA/dt = k CACB
i.e.,
-rA = k (CAo - CAoXA) (CBo - CBoXB)
Jumlah A dan B yang bereaksi pada saat t adalah sama
dan diberikan oleh CAoXA = CBoXB
Dan untuk soal ini diketahui CAo = CBo , karena itu,
-rA,i = k CAo2(1 - XA,i)2
Diambil reaktor terkecil sebagai reaktor pertama ,
volum (V1)= 30 m3
Persamaan perancangan untuk RATB seri adalah,
ti/CAo = (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i
dengan CAo = konsentrasi awal A masuk reaktor
pertama = 1.5 gmol/lit
Kecepatan alir Volumetrik (v) = 20 lit/min
t1 = V1/v = 30 x 1000 /20 = 1500 min
1500/ CAo = (XA,i - XA,i-1)/ k CAo2(1 - XA,i)2
1500 = (XA,1 - 0)/ (0.011 CAo(1 - XA,1)2)
1500 = XA,1/(0.011 x 1.5 x (1 - XA,1)2
24.75 = XA,1/(1 - XA,1)2
24.75(1 - 2XA,1 + XA,12) = XA,1
24.75 - 50.5 XA,1 + 24.75 XA,12 = 0
XA,1 = 0.82
Untuk reaktor ke dua , t2 = V2/v = 100 x 1000 /20 = 5000
min
5000/ CAo = (XA,2 - 0.82)/ k CAo2(1 - XA,2)2
5000 x 0.011 x 1.5 = (XA,2 - 0.82)/ (1 - XA,2)2
82.5 (1 - 2XA,2 + XA,22) = XA,2 - 0.82
83.32 - 166 XA,2 + 82.5 XA,22 = 0
XA,2 = 0.96
Jika reaktor disusun yang terbesar dipasang
sebagai reaktor pertama.
Untuk reaktor pertama,
t1 = V1/v = 1000 x 1000 /20 = 5000 min
5000/ CAo = (XA,1 - 0)/ k CAo2(1 - XA,1)2
5000 = XA,1/(0.011 x 1.5 x (1 - XA,1)2
82.5 = XA,1/(1 - XA,1)2
82.5(1 - 2XA,1 + XA,12) = XA,1
82.5 - 166 XA,1 + 82.5 XA,12 = 0
XA,1 = 0.90
Untuk reaktor ke dua , t2 = V2/v = 30 x 1000 /20 =
1500 min
1500/ CAo = (XA,2 - 0.90)/ k CAo2(1 - XA,2)2
1500 x 0.011 x 1.5 = (XA,2 - 0.90)/ (1 -
XA,2)2
24.75 (1 - 2XA,2 + XA,22) = XA,2 - 0.90
25.65 - 50.5 XA,2 + 24.75 XA,22 = 0
XA,2 = 0.92
Dari perhitungan diatas, reaktor
bervolum terkecil dipasang sebagai
reaktor pertama. Dan konversi total
pada pemasangan ini adalah 96%.
Lihat soal 2
5. Jika ratb pertama ( kecil-besar) diganti dengan RAP
yang volumenya sama, hitung konversi yang keluar dari
masing-masing reaktor?( x1 = 0.96 dan x2 = 0.98 )
6. Jika ratb kedua ( kecil-besar) diganti dengan RAP yang
volumenya sama, hitung konversi yang keluar dari
masing-masing reaktor?( 0,82; 0,989 )
7. Susunan reaktor soal 5 dibalik, RATB-RAP ?( 0.90:0,97 )
8. Susunan reaktor soal 6 dibalik, RATB-RAP ? 0,988 :
0,99 )
9. Konversi akhir 2 reaktor tersebut dalam soal 2 adalah
96 %, hitung volum total RATB minimal ?
10. Jika ke dua volume reaktor sama ( mis :30 atau 100
m3 ) hitung konversi yang keluar reaktor ?
11. Seperti soal no 10, hitunglah dengan menggunakan
gambar 6.5/gambar 6.6 ( levenspiel )
10. Jika ke dua volume reaktor sama ( mis :30
atau 100 m3 ) hitung konversi yang keluar
reaktor ?
11. Seperti soal no 10, hitunglah dengan
menggunakan gambar 6.5/gambar 6.6 (
levenspiel )
12. Contoh 2.5 diatas hitung vol minimum nya
serta hitung konversi keluar reaktor pertama
13. contoh 2.6 (diatas hitung vol minimum nya
serta hitung konversi keluar reaktor pertama)
dan 2.7 hitung susunan yg memberikan vol
minimum nya
Example 4-2 Close to 12.2 billion metric tons of ethylene glycol (EG) were
produced in 2000, which ranked it the twenty-sixth most produced chemical
in the nation that year on a total pound basis. About one-half of the ethylene
glycol is used for antifreeze while the other half is used in the manufacture of
polyesters. In the polyester category, 88% was used for fibers and 12% for the
manufacture of bottles and films. The 2004 selling price for ethylene glycol
was $0.28 per pound. It is desired to produce 200 million pounds per year of
EG. The reactor is to be operated isothermally. A 1 lb mol/ft3 solution of
ethylene oxide (EO) in water is fed to the reactor (shown in Figure E4-2.1)
together with an equal volumetric solution of water containing 0.9 wt% of the
catalyst H2SO4. The specific reaction rate constant is 0.311 min-1, as
determined in Example 4-1.
A B C
catalyst

The specified ethylene glycol (EG) production rate:


(a) If 80% conversion is to be achieved, determine the necessary CSTR
volume.
A B C
catalyst

CSTR Design equation

Rate law
Stoichiometry

Combinatio
n:
(b) If two 800-gal reactors were arranged in parallel, what is the
corresponding conversion?
CSTR Design equation

Rate law
Stoichiometry

Combination:

The conversion exiting each of the CSTRs in parallel is 81%.


(c) If two 800-gal reactor were arranged in series, what is the corresponding
conversion?

The two equal-sized CSTRs in series will give a higher conversion than two
CSTRs in parallel of the same size when the reaction order is greater than
zero.
Questions
Soal 1
Soal 2
There are two reactors of equal volume available for
your use: one a CSTR, the other a PFR. The reaction is
second order ( rA = kCA2 = kCA02(1 X)2), irreversible,
and is carried out isothermally
AB
There are three ways you can arrange your system:
Reactors in series: CSTR followed by PFR
Reactors in series: PFR followed by CSTR
Reactors in parallel with half the feed rate going to each
reactor after which the exit streams are mixed.
State which system will give the highest overall
conversion and which system will give the lowest overall
conversion
C
A0

C
A1 C
A2

(a) X1 = 0.382, X2 = 0.618

(b) X1 = 0.5, X2 = 0.634

(c) CSTR: X1 = 0.5


PFR:
X1 = 2/3
X1,ave = 0.5(0.5 + 2/3) = 0.5833

(d) State which system will give the highest overall conversion and
which system will give the lowest overall conversion.
System 2: highest conversion.
System 3: lowest conversion
Soal 3
The exothermic reaction
AB+C
was carried out adiabatically and the following data recorded:

X 0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9


rA mol/Lmin 10 16.67 50 50 50 12.5 9.09

The entering molar flow rate of A was 300 mol/min.


What are the PFR and CSTR volumes necessary to achieve 40%
conversion?
Over what range of conversions would the CSTR and PFR reactor volumes
be identical?
What conversion can be achieved in a 10.5 L CSTR?
What conversion can be achieved if a 7.2 L PFR is followed in series by a
2.4 L CSTR?
What conversion can be achieved if a 2.4 L CSTRR is followed in series by
a 7.2 L PFR?
Plot the conversion and rate of reaction as a function of PFR reactor volume
up to a volume of 10 L.
Solution
CSTR: V = = 2.4 liters

PFR : V = 7.2 liters


(b) Over what range of conversions would the CSTR and PFR reactor
volumes be identical?
For a feed stream that enters the reaction with a previous conversion of
0.40 and leaves at any conversion up to 0.60, the volumes of the PFR
and CSTR will be identical because the rate is constant over this
conversion range
VPFR = FA0 = = VCSTR

(c) Therefore 70% conversion can be achieved in a 10.5 L CSTR.

(d) 60% conversion can be achieved if a 7.2 L PFR is followed in series by


a 2.4 L CSTR.

(e) What conversion can be achieved if a 2.4 L CSTR is followed in series by


a 7.2 L PFR?
90% conversion can be achieved if a 2.4 L CSTR is followed in series by
a 7.2 L PFR.

(f) Plot the conversion and rate of reaction as a function of PFR reactor
volume up to a volume of 10 L.
Soal 4
The elementary gas-phase reaction3
(CH3)3COOH(CH3)3 C2H6 + 2CH3COCH3
is carried out isothermally in a flow reactor with no pressure drop. The
specific reaction rate at 50oC is 10-4 min-1 and the activation energy is 85
kJ/mol. Pure di-tert-butyl peroxide enters the reactor at 10 atm and 127oC
and a molar flow rate of 2.5 mol/min. Calculate the reactor volume to
achieve 90% conversion in a CSTR and a PFR.
If this reaction is to be carried out at 10 atm and 127oC in a batch mode with
90% conversion, what reactor size would be required to process (2.5
mol/min 60 min/h 24 h/day) 3600 mol of di-tert-butyl peroxide per day?
You can assume a downtime of 6 hr between batches for cleaning and feed
preparation.
Assume that the reaction is reversible with equilibrium constant KC = 0.025
mol2/L6 and calculate the equilibrium conversion and then repeat the
calculation for the CSTR and the PFR to achieve 90% of the equilibrium
conversion.

3 Fogler, H. S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Prentice Hall


Soal 5
Soal 6
Its not just about numbers of
experiments

Stop Doing This Dont Do This Do This


Pada CSTR di samping yang terjadi

CSTR dengan adalah reaksi tunggal dalam keadaan


eksoterm yang tidak dapat balik

cooling jacket (irreversible). dapat dilihat bahwa


aliran fluida dimasukkan secara terus-
menerus ke dalam reactor dan aliran
fluida lainnya dikeluarkan terus-
menerus dari reactor. Sejak reactor
tersebut menggabungkan dengan
sempurna, aliran keluar memiliki
konsentrasi dan temperatur yang
sama dengan fluida dalam reaktor.
Menyadari bahwa lapisan disekitar
reaktor juga masuk dan keluar aliran-
aliran, pelapis diasumsikan bergabung
dengan sempurna dan pada
temperatur yang lebih rendah dari
reaktor. Energi lalu melewati dinding
reaktor menuju pelapis, memindahkan
panas yang dihasilkan oleh reaksi.
Figure 3. Continuous stirred tank reactors, (a) With
agitator and internal heat transfer surface, (b) With
pump around mixing and external heat transfer
surface, (adopted by ref. 5).

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