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Chapter 2: Investasi dalam Saham,

Akuntansi Pelaporan Investor


Kelompok 2
-Aprita Sumarno (3011211013)
-Devi Rahmawati (3011211027)
-Dini Noviyanti (3011211032)
-Dwinita Meiliza (3011211036)
-Robby Pradista (3011211090)
-Vandio Abdlista (30112111

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Investasi dalam Saham: Objektif
1. Mengenali pengaruh atau kontrol dari berbagai
tingkat investor, berdasarkan tingkat kepemilikan
saham.
2. Mengantisipasi bagaimana akuntansi menyesuaikan
untuk mencerminkan ekonomi yang mendasari
berbagai tingkat pengaruh investor.
3. Menerapkan metode nilai wajar / biaya dan metode
ekuitas akuntansi untuk investasi saham.
4. Mengidentifikasi faktor di luar kepemilikan saham
yang mempengaruhi kemampuan investor.

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Objektif (lanjutan)
5. Menerapkan metode ekuitas untuk alokasi
harga pembelian.
6. Mempelajari bagaimana goodwill untuk
penurunan nilai.

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Stock Investments – Investor Accounting and Reporting
1: Tingkat Pengaruh atau Control

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Tingkat Pengaruh
Percent Ownership of Voting Stock
• <20% - dianggap kurang
berpengaruh signifikan – <20%
metode nilai wajar (biaya) >50% Fair value
(cost)
•20% sampai 50% - method
Consolidated
dianggap berpengaruh financial
signifikan - metode ekuitas statements Equity
method
•> 50% - dianggap
mengontrol - Laporan 20-50%
keuangan konsolidasi

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Stock Investments – Investor Accounting and Reporting
2: Akuntansi dalam Ekonomi

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Akuntansi untuk Investasi
TINGKAT NILAI UNTUK MENCATAT PENDAPATAN
PENGARUH INVESTASI INVESTASI

Kurang Nilai wajar (biaya, jika Dividen yang diumumkan


berpengaruh nonmarketable)
signifikan

Berpengaruh Biaya asli disesuaikan untuk Porsi laba periodik


signifikan mencerminkan laba periodik dan investee *
dividen, misalnya, proporsi aktiva
bersih perusahaan

* Jika pendapatan diukur sebagai dividen yang diumumkan, dengan


mempengaruhi atau mengendalikan keputusan dividen, investor bisa
memanipulasi pendapatan investasi sendiri.
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Stock Investments – Investor Accounting and Reporting
3a: Metode Nilai Wajar / Biaya

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Metode Nilai Wajar (Biaya)
FASB Statement No 115
Pada akuisisi: Pilzner membeli 2.000 saham
Sud seharga $ 100.000.
Pilzner menerima
Investment in Sud $ 4.000 dividen dari Sud.
100,000
Cash 100,000
Pilzner menerima $ 4.000 dividen dari Sud
Cash 4,000
Dividend income 4,000

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Metode Ekuitas, pada akhir tahun
• Reduce dividend income recognized, if needed
Dividend income 1,000
Investment in Sud 1,000
If Pilzner determines that cumulative dividends exceed its
cumulative share of income by $1,000.
• Adjust investment to fair value
Allowance to adjust available-for- 21,000
sale securities to fair value
Other comprehensive income 21,000
If fair value of increases to $120,000 and the Investment in
Sud account balance is $99,000.
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Stock Investments – Investor Accounting and Reporting
3b: Metode Ekuitas

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Metode Ekuitas
APB Opinion No. 18
• Pada akuisisi: Pilzner membeli 2,000 saham Sud
seharga $100,000.
Investment in Sud 100,000
Cash 100,000
• Pilzner menerima $4,000 dividends dari Sud.
Cash 4,000
Investment in Sud 4,000

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Metode Ekuitas, Pada Akhir Tahun

• Pilzner menentukan bahwa pangsa pendapatan


Suds adalah $ 5.000.
Kas 4,000
Investasi Pada Sud 4,000
• Saldo akhir dalam Investasi di Sud adalah:

$100,000 cost - $4,000 dividen + $5,000 pendapatan


= $101,000.
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Bursa Investasi - Investor Akuntansi dan Pelaporan
4: Kemampuan untuk Mempengaruhi atau
Mengontrol

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Pengaruh signifikan
• 20% kepemilikan saham 50% suara adalah
praduga pengaruh yang signifikan. Gunakan
metode ekuitas.
• Jangan gunakan metode ekuitas jika kurang
berpengaruh signifikan
1. Oposisi oleh investee,
2. Penyerahan hak pemegang saham yang signifikan,
3. Konsentrasi kepemilikan mayoritas,
4. Kurangnya informasi untuk metode ekuitas, dan
5. Kegagalan untuk mendapatkan representasi papan.

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Kontrol
• Kepemilikan saham voting lebih dari 50%
merupakan bukti dugaan kontrol. Siapkan
laporan keuangan konsolidasi.

• Jangan mengkonsolidasikan
- jika pengendaliannya bersifat sementara atau
- jika orang tua tidak memiliki kontrol
1. Reorganisasi secara hukum atau
kebangkrutan
2. Pembatasan asing parah.
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Bursa Investasi - Investor Akuntansi dan Pelaporan
5: Menerapkan Metode Ekuitas

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Biaya Perolehan > FV aktiva bersih
FV akiva bersih > BV aktiva bersih
Payne mengakuisisi 30% dari Sloan sebesar $ 5.000. Diidentifikasi
aktiva bersih (aktiva dikurangi kewajiban) Sloan adalah:
Nilai wajar: A – L = $18,800 - $2,800 = $16,000.
Nilai Buku : A – L = E = $15,000 - $3,000 = $12,000
$ 4.000 perbedaan ($ 16.000 - $ 12.000) adalah karena:
- $ 1.000 persediaan undervalued terjual tahun ini,
- $ 200 overvalued aset lancar lain yang digunakan tahun ini,
- $ 3.000 peralatan undervalued dengan kehidupan 20 tahun, dan
- $ 200 dinilai terlalu tinggi wesel bayar jatuh tempo dalam 5 tahun.

$5,000 > 30%(16,000) > 30%(12,000)


$5,000 > $4,800 > $3,600
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Akuisisi Sloan Stock
Pada akuisisi, Payne membayar $ 2.000 tunai dan masalah saham
biasa dengan nilai wajar sebesar $ 3.000 dan nilai nominal $ 2.000.
Payne juga membayar $ 50 untuk mendaftarkan surat berharga
dan $ 100 dalam biaya konsultasi.

Investasi Sloan 5,000


Kas 2,000
Saham biasa, setara 2,000
Tambahan modal disetor 1,000
Tambahan modal disetor 50
Beban investasi 100
Kas 150
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Biaya / Nilai Buku Tugas
Biaya Akuisisi $5,000
Kurang 30% nilai buku = 30%(12,000) 3,600
Lebih biaya atas nilai buku $1,400

Ditugaskan ke: Jumlah Amortisasi


Persediaan 30%(+1,000) $300 1 tahun
Aset lancar lainnya 30%(-200) (60) 1 tahun
Peralatan 30%(+3,000) 900 20 tahun
Catatan hutang 30%(+200) 60 5 tahun
Itikad baik (untuk menyeimbangkan) 200 Tidak ada

Total $1,400

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Dividends and Income
Payne receives $300 dividends from Sloan.
Cash 300
Investment in Sloan 300
Sloan reports net income of $900.
Payne will recognize its share (30%) of Sloan's
income, but will adjust it for amortization of the
differences between book and fair values.

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Amortization and Investment Income
Cost/book value Initial 1st year Unamortized
differences: amount amort. excess at year-end
Inventories $300 ($300) $0
Other curr. Assets (60) 60 0
Equipment 900 (45) 855
Note payable 60 (12) 48
Goodwill 200 0 200
Total $1,400 ($297) $1,103
Investment income is 30% of Sloan's net income – amortization
30%($3,000) – $297 = $603.
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Year-end Entry & Balance
Record the investment income
Investment in Sloan 603
Income from Sloan 603
The ending balance in the investment account is:

Cost – dividends + investment income


5,000 – 300 + 603
= 5,303.

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More on Cost/Book Value Assignment
• On acquisition date, compare:
– Cost of acquisition,
– Book value of net assets, and
– Fair value of identifiable net assets
• Cost of the investment includes cash paid, fair
value of securities issued, and debt assumed.
• The book value of the investee's net assets
= assets – liabilities, or
= stockholders' equity

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Fair Values Used in Assignment
• Identifiable net assets include all the investee's
assets and liabilities, whether recorded or not
– Fair value of research in progress
– Fair value of contingent liabilities
– Fair value of unrecorded patents
• Exception: use book value for pensions and
deferred taxes.
• If cost > fair value, goodwill exists.
• If cost < fair value, a bargain purchase exists.

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Bargain Purchase
When the acquisition cost is less than the fair
value of the identifiable net assets, a gain is
recognized on the acquisition.
The investment is recorded at the fair value of the
identifiable net assets
Investment in ABC xxx
Cash, CS, APIC xxx
Gain on bargain purchase xxx

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Interim Acquisitions
Book value of net assets = BV equity.
If equity is given as beginning of year, add current
earnings and deduct dividends to date.
Amortization for first, partial, year:
– Take full amortization for inventory and other
current assets disposed of by year-end.
– Take partial year's amortization for equipment,
buildings, and debt to be written off over
multiple years.
Record dividends if after the acquisition date.
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Acquisition in Stages
• Also called a step-by-step acquisition.
• Fair value (cost) method equity method
– Retroactive adjustment
• Investee's growth in retained earnings is
– Excess of income over dividends declared
• Investment account desired balance using equity
method = original cost + share of growth in
retained earnings – amortization, if any
Investment in XYZ xxx
Retained earnings xxx
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Sale of Equity Investment
• Sale of investment that results in a lack of
significant influence over the investee
• Equity method fair value (cost) method
– Prospective treatment
• For the sale
– Reduce the investment account for a
proportionate share of the stock sold
– Record a gain or loss on the sale
• Apply the fair value (cost) method to remaining
investment
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Stock Purchased from Investee
If stock is purchased from old shareholders, the
percentage ownership is based on the shares
outstanding and the investee's equity is not
changed.
• If acquired directly from the investee:
• Percentage acquired = shares acquired / (shares
acquired + previously outstanding shares)
• Investee's new stockholders' equity = Previous
equity + value received for new shares

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Investee with Preferred Stock
• Compare cost of acquisition to the book value of the
common stock.
= Total equity – book value of preferred stock*
* BV of PS = call value + dividends in arrears
• Dividends received will be a portion of the dividends
to common shareholders
= total dividends – current PS dividends
• Investment income is based on income available to
common shareholders
= investee net income – PS dividends**
** Pref. Div. = current dividend if cumulative, or
dividends declared if noncumulative.
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Special Reporting Issues
• If material, the investor continues separate
reporting of extraordinary items and/or
discontinued operations of the investee
– Income from Investee is based on income
before discontinued operations or
extraordinary items
• Optionally, the investor may report its equity
investments at fair market value, FASB
Statement Nos. 159 and 157

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Disclosures
• For significant equity investees
– Name, percent ownership
– Accounting policy
– Difference between investment carrying
value and underlying equity in net assets
– Aggregate market value
– Summarized asset, liability, operations
• Related party disclosures FASB Statement No. 57

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Stock Investments – Investor Accounting and Reporting
6: Impairment of Goodwill

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Impairment of Goodwill
• Test annually, and if significant events occur (e.g.,
adverse legal factors or loss of key personnel)
• FASB Statement No. 142: Two step process
1. If the fair value of the whole reporting unit < the
carrying value of the reporting unit including its
goodwill, there might be impairment.
– If no implied impairment, step 2 is not needed.
– Use quoted market prices of reporting unit, or
valuation techniques applied to similar groups of
assets and liabilities.
2. If the implied fair value of the goodwill < the carrying
value of the goodwill, record an impairment loss for the
difference.
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Impairment of Equity Investments
• Goodwill implied in equity investments is not
tested for impairment.
• The investment itself is tested for impairment.
• APB Opinion No. 18

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