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Hubungan Tektonik, Cekungan Sedimen, dan Migas Kuliah Tektonika
Hubungan Tektonik, Cekungan Sedimen, dan Migas Kuliah Tektonika
Hubungan Tektonik, Cekungan Sedimen, dan Migas Kuliah Tektonika

Hubungan Tektonik,

Cekungan Sedimen, dan Migas

Kuliah Tektonika

Kerangka Materi

TEKTONIK DAN CEKUNGAN SEDIMEN

Cekungan Sedimen

Tektonik dan Cekungan Sedimen

Jenis-jenis cekungan pada setiap setting tektonik

CEKUNGAN SEDIMEN DAN MIGAS

Siklus Cekungan

Analisis Cekungan (Basin Analysis)

Tektonik dan Cekungan Sedimen

Cekungan Sedimen

Sedimentary basins are regions of earth of long- term subsidence creating accommodation space for

infilling by sediments (Allen and Allen, 2008).

Sedimentary basin is a depression of some kind capable of trapping sediment (boggs, 2006).

Mekanisme pembentukan cekungan sedimen

Mekanisme pembentukan cekungan sedimen menurut Dickinson (1993) ada tujuh:

1.

Penipisan kerak

2.

Penebalan mantel-litosfer

3.

Pembebanan sedimen dan volkanik

4.

Pembebanan tektonik

5.

Pembebanan sub-kerak

6.

Aliran astenosfer

7.

Pemadatan kerak

•

Isostatic compensationfree-floating pistons

Thermal effects

Increase in crustal density

Geohistori dari Passive margin Atlantik, bagian timur Amerika Serikat (Watts, 1981)

Geohistori dari Passive margin Atlantik, bagian timur Amerika

Serikat (Watts, 1981)

Tektonik lempeng dan cekungan sedimen

Tektonik memberikan kontrol orde pertama terhadap sedimentasi melalui pengaruhnya

terhadap daerah sumber sedimen. Jenis-jenis

cekungan tempat sedimen terakumulasi juga secara langsung terkait dengan proses tektonik (Frostick

dan Steel, 1993; Ingersoll dan Busby, 1995; Miall,

2000)

Mekanisme penurunan ( subsidence ) semua jenis cekungan sedimen (Ingersoll dan Busby, 1995).

Mekanisme penurunan (subsidence) semua jenis cekungan sedimen (Ingersoll dan Busby, 1995).

Kontrol dalam akumulasi sedimen

Kontrol dalam akumulasi sedimen Nichols, 2009

Nichols, 2009

Setting tektonik dan pembentukan

cekungan

Ada tiga setting tektonik utama tempat cekungan terbentuk:

A.

Cekungan terkait ektensi regional di dalam dan

antar lempeng.

B.

Cekungan terkait batas lempeng konvergen

C.

Cekungan terkait batas lempeng strike-slip

+ Cekungan kompleks/hybrid

(nichols, 2009)

A. Cekungan terkait ekstensi litosfer

Rift basins

Intracratonic basins

Proto-oceanic troughs (transisi antara rift dengan

laut)

Passive margins

Ocean basins

Obducted slabs

Rift basins

Rift basins East African Rift (nichols, 2009)

East African Rift (nichols, 2009)

Rift basins East African Rift (nichols, 2009)

Intracratonic basins

Intracratonic basins

Proto-oceanic troughs

Proto-oceanic troughs

Passive margins & Ocean basins

Passive margins & Ocean basins

Obducted slabs

Obducted slabs

B1. Cekungan terkait subduksi

Trenches (palung)

Accretionary complexes

Forearc basins

Backarc basins

B1. Cekungan terkait subduksi • Trenches (palung) • Accretionary complexes • Forearc basins • Backarc basins

B2. Cekungan terkait pembebanan kerak

Peripheral foreland basins

Retroarc foreland basins

B2. Cekungan terkait pembebanan kerak • Peripheral foreland basins • Retroarc foreland basins

Peripheral foreland basins

Peripheral foreland basins

Retroarc foreland basins

Retroarc foreland basins

C. Cekungan terkait tektonik strike-slip

Strike-slip basins/ transtensional basins/pull-apart basins

C. Cekungan terkait tektonik strike-slip • Strike-slip basins/ transtensional basins/pull-apart basins

Cekungan kompleks dan hybrid

Tidak semua cekungan dapat dikategorikan

menurut kategori yang ada. Hal ini dikarenakan

beberapa cekungan merupakan produk dari

interaksi lebih dari satu rezim tektonik.

Cekungan Sedimen dan Migas

ORIGIN OF SUBSIDENCE

1. SUBSIDENCE TECTONIC

2. SUBSIDENCE THERMIC

3. SEDIMENT LOADING

PLT MOV. CONSEQ. OF LAT MOV. CONSEQ. OF VERT. MOV.

Siklus Cekungan (The Wilson Cycle)

Siklus Cekungan (The Wilson Cycle)

Tahap Perkembangan Cekungan dalam Siklus Wilson

Embryonic - rift valley forms as continent begins to split.

Juvenile - sea floor basalts begin forming as continental sections diverge.

Mature - broad ocean basin

widens, trenches develop and

subduction begins.

Declining - subduction eliminates much of sea floor and oceanic ridge.

Terminal - last of the sea floor is

eliminated and continents collide forming a continental mountain chain.

ridge.  Terminal - last of the sea floor is eliminated and continents collide forming a

Areas of Basin Types and Petroleum Reserves

Areas of Basin Types and Petroleum Reserves in Selley (1985)

in Selley (1985)

Basin Analysis

Structural Analysis

Geophysical Data

Thermal History

Stratigraphic analysis

Sedimentological analysis

Basin Analysis

Basin Analysis

RIFT GEOMETRY AND BASIN FILLING

RIFT GEOMETRY AND BASIN FILLING

RIFT GEOMETRY AND BASIN FILLING

RIFT GEOMETRY AND BASIN FILLING

TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHY AND RELATED SUBSIDENCE

(THERMAL SUBSIDENCE) (SUBSIDENCE TECTONIC)
(THERMAL SUBSIDENCE)
(SUBSIDENCE TECTONIC)

BREAK UP UNCONFORMITY CONTINENTAL BREAK UP?

R RIVER CROSSING INTER BASINAL RIDGE

R

RIVER CROSSING INTER BASINAL RIDGE

DEPOSITIONAL MODEL WITHIN SYNRIFT

Braid river channel Deltaic Lacustrine Turbiditic sandstone in lacustrine Maendering Fluvial channel
Braid river channel
Deltaic Lacustrine Turbiditic sandstone in lacustrine
Maendering Fluvial channel

TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHY OF OMBILIN BASIN

POST RIFT F. SAWAHTAMBANG LATE SYNRIFT F. SAWAHLUNTO EARLY SYNRIFT F. BRANI/SKRW PRE RIFT
POST RIFT F.
SAWAHTAMBANG
LATE SYNRIFT F.
SAWAHLUNTO
EARLY SYNRIFT
F. BRANI/SKRW
PRE RIFT

Synrift : Source rocks and reservoir potensial Postrift : Reservoir potensial

BASIN DEFORMATION

1. EXTENSION CONTRACTIONINVERSION

1.

THE DEEPEST RIFT BASIN THE HIGHEST INVERSION

2.

THE DEGREE OF INVERSION IS ALSO A FUNCTION OF FROM WHERE THE FORCE COMING

3.

NEW SMALL BASIN CAN BE BORN DURING INVERSION

2. EXTENSION STRIKE SLIP FLOWER STRUCTURE

3. EXTENSION ADVANCE EXTENSION BLOCK ROTATION

RIFT BASIN REVIEW

RIFT BASIN SEDIMENTATION TERRESTRIAL SETTING CASE:

1.EARLY SYN-RIFTFLUVIAL SYSTEM

2.MAXIMUM SYN-RIFTLACUSTRINE 3.EARLY POST-RIFT DELTAIC LACUSTRINE

4.POST RIFT FLUVIAL TO SHALLOW MARINE

RIFT BASIN REVIEW

RIFT BASIN SEDIMENTATION MARINE SETTING CASE:

1.EARLY SYN-RIFTSHALLOW MARINE

2.MAXIMUM SYN-RIFTDEEP MARINE 3.EARLY POST-RIFT SHALLOW MARINE/DELTAIC

4.POST RIFT SHALLOW MARINE TO DEEP MARINE

SOURCE ROCKS POTENTIAS

SOURCE ROCKS POTENTIAS DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SHALE LACUSTRINE SHALE Type III Type I
SOURCE ROCKS POTENTIAS DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SHALE LACUSTRINE SHALE Type III Type I

DELTAIC

LACUSTRINE

SHALE

LACUSTRINE

SHALE

Type III

Type I

SOURCE ROCKS POTENTIAS DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SHALE LACUSTRINE SHALE Type III Type I
SOURCE ROCKS POTENTIAS DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SHALE LACUSTRINE SHALE Type III Type I

DEPOSITIONAL MODEL WITHIN SYNRIFT

Deltaic Lacustrine Lacustrine shale shale
Deltaic
Lacustrine
Lacustrine
shale
shale

RESERVOIR ROCKS POTENTIAS

RESERVOIR ROCKS POTENTIAS FLUVIO- DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SAND LACUSTRINE
FLUVIO- DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SAND LACUSTRINE TURBIDITE FLUVIAL SANDSTONE
FLUVIO-
DELTAIC
SANDSTONE
S
FLUVIAL
SANDSTONE
S
DELTAIC
LACUSTRINE
SAND
LACUSTRINE
TURBIDITE
FLUVIAL
SANDSTONE

RESERVOIR ROCKS POTENTIAS

RESERVOIR ROCKS POTENTIAS FLUVIO- DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SAND LACUSTRIN E
FLUVIO- DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S
FLUVIO-
DELTAIC
SANDSTONE
S
FLUVIAL
SANDSTONE
S

DELTAIC

LACUSTRINE

SAND

DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SAND LACUSTRIN E TURBIDITE FLUVIAL SANDSTONE
DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SAND LACUSTRIN E TURBIDITE FLUVIAL SANDSTONE
LACUSTRIN E TURBIDITE FLUVIAL SANDSTONE
LACUSTRIN
E
TURBIDITE
FLUVIAL
SANDSTONE
DELTAIC SANDSTONE S FLUVIAL SANDSTONE S DELTAIC LACUSTRINE SAND LACUSTRIN E TURBIDITE FLUVIAL SANDSTONE

BURIAL HISTORY

Objective

Basin history

Tectonic

Basin Filling

Thermal

Trap Formation Architecture

Maturation

Data:

Thickness

Well

Seismic

Measuring section

Method :

BURIAL HISTORY

Backstripping

Assumption : (Mc Kenzie 1978)

Local subsidence

Asymptotic thickness evolution

Linear thickness evolution

BURIAL HISTORY

Tectonic subsidence correction:

Paleobathymetry

Eustatic

Sediment load

HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP

TRAP CLASSIFICATION

STRUCTURAL TRAPS

THOSE CAUSED BY TECTONIC, DIAPIRIC, GRAVITATIONAL AND COMPACTION PROCESSES

STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS:

DIVERSE GROUP, TRAP GEOMETRY INHERITAGE FROM THE ORIGINAL MORPHOLOGY

DISCONTINUITIES IN THE BASIN FILL

DIAGENETIC EFFECTS.

COMBINATION TRAPS

COMBINATION OF STRUCTURE AND STRATIGRAPHY

HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP

STRUCTURAL FOLDS OCCUR IN AREAS UNDERGOING TECTONIC COMPRESSION.

1. GENERALLY ASSOCIATE WITH PLATE

CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES

2. TRANSPRESSION ALONG STRIKE-SLIP

BOUNDARIES

HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP
HYDROCARBON TRAP

Geographic Extent of Petroleum System

Geographic Extent of Petroleum System Magoon and Dow (1994)

Magoon and Dow (1994)

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System

Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System Magoon and Dow (1994)

Magoon and Dow (1994)

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Various Kinds of Structural Traps
Various Kinds of Structural Traps

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Stratigraphic Traps Biddle and Wielchowsky (1994)

Stratigraphic

Traps

Biddle and Wielchowsky (1994)

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Petroleum System Events Chart

Petroleum System Events Chart Magoon and Dow (1994)

Magoon and Dow (1994)

North Sumatra Basin
North Sumatra Basin
Central Sumatra Basin
Central Sumatra Basin
South Sumatra Basin
South Sumatra Basin

Sedimentary Basins of Sumatra

Schlumberger (1986)

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Schlumberger (1986) Sunda – West Java Offshore Basin West Java Basin Netherwood (2000) Lapindo Brantas

Schlumberger (1986)

Sunda West Java Offshore Basin

West Java Basin Netherwood (2000)
West Java Basin
Netherwood (2000)
Lapindo Brantas (2001) East Java Basin
Lapindo Brantas (2001)
East Java Basin

Sedimentary Basins of Java

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Total Indonesie Kutei – Makassar Basin Barito Basin Siregar and Sunaryo (1980) Sedimentary Basins of

Total Indonesie

Kutei Makassar Basin

Barito Basin
Barito Basin

Siregar and Sunaryo (1980)

Sedimentary Basins of Kalimantan

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Sedimentary Basins of the Bird’s Head of Papua Pertamina and Corelab (1998)
Sedimentary Basins of the Bird’s Head of Papua Pertamina and Corelab (1998)
Sedimentary Basins of the Bird’s Head of Papua Pertamina and Corelab (1998)

Sedimentary Basins of the Bird’s Head of Papua

Pertamina and Corelab (1998)

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Sedimentary basins in Southern Banda Arc – Arafura Shelf – NW Australian Shelf Pertamina and
Sedimentary basins in Southern Banda Arc – Arafura Shelf – NW Australian Shelf Pertamina and
Sedimentary basins in Southern Banda Arc – Arafura Shelf – NW Australian Shelf Pertamina and

Sedimentary basins in Southern Banda

Arc Arafura Shelf NW Australian Shelf

Pertamina and Corelab (1998)

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS

Tugas! Buat sebuah MIND MAP tentang tektonika, cekungan sedimen dan migas.

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