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GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK

PENGERTIAN ULTRASONIK
TRANSDUSER ULTRASONIK
BAHAN PIEZOELEKTRIK
SINYAL ULTRASONIK
MEDAN DEKAT DAN MEDAN JAUH
APLIKASI ULTRASONIK
PENGERTIAN ULTRASONIK
Frekuensi tinggi di atas 20 kHz
Tidak dapat didengar oleh telinga manusia
Panjang gelombang di udara maksimum 17,15 mm
Analog dengan sinar ultraviolet
Tidak dapat dilihat oleh mata manusia
Panjang gelombang di bawah 400 nm
Frekuensi minimum di udara 7,5x10
14
Hz
Frekuensi sangat tinggi (GHz)
Microwave Ultrasonic (panjang gelombang m)
Berbeda dengan pengertian supersonik
Bergerak melebihi kecepatan suara (Mach > 1)
TRANSDUSER ULTRASONIK
Mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi akustik
Bertindak seperti pengeras suara (loudspeaker)
Mengubah energi akustik menjadi energi listrik
Bertindak seperti mikropon
Mampu bertindak sebagai transceiver
Pemancar (transmitter) Penerima (receiver)
Terbuat dari bahan piezoelektrik
Bila mendapat tekanan (piezo)
Timbul muatan listrik (elektrik)
BAHAN PIEZOELEKTRIK
Efek piezoelektrik langsung
Bila pelat piezoelektrik diberi tekanan, maka akan
timbul muatan listrik pada kedua permukaannya
Pelat juga merupakan kapasitor dengan konstanta
dielektrik tertentu, timbul beda tegangan
Efek piezoelektrik balik
Bila pelat piezoelektrik diberi tegangan listrik, maka
kedua permukaannya mendapat tekanan
Pelat juga merupakan bahan elastik dengan konstanta
elastik tertentu, tebalnya akan berubah
Tegangan bolak-balik Pelat bergetar
Bahan Piezoelektrik Alam
Kuarsa, garam Rochelle, tourmaline
Sangat stabil
Sensitivitas rendah

Bahan Piezoelektrik Buatan
Barium titanate, lead circonate titanate, lead
metaniobate
Sensitivitas tinggi
Kurang stabil

Pelat kuarsa potongan-x (x-cut)
Menghasilkan gelombang longitudinal
y
z
x
+
-
-
+ elektroda
L
L 2
V
f
L
=
SINYAL ULTRASONIK
T
1
f
c
L 2
T = =
L 2
c
f =
FREKUENSI RESONANSI
MEDAN DEKAT & MEDAN JAUH
|
D
N

=
4
D
N
2
D
22 , 1
2
Sin

=
|
.
|

\
|
|
Fraunhofer zone Fresnel zone
N
R
I
R,0

0,5 I
R

0,5 I
R

I
o
I
o

0
2
0 , R
I
R
N
I
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 , R 2 / , R
I 5 , 0 I =
| 0 , R 2 / , R
p 707 , 0 p =
|
Contoh 3.1 :
Sebuah transduser ultrasonik yang biasa digunakan di bidang
kedokteran berdiameter 1/2 inci (12,7 mm) dengan frekuensi
resonansi sebesar 5 MHz. Jaringan tubuh manusia mempunyai
kecepatan gelombang rata-rata sebesar 1500 m/s. Hitung jarak
medan dekat dan setengah sudut penyebarannya.
Jawab :
mm 134
) 10 x 3 , 0 ( 4
) 10 x 7 , 12 (
4
D
N
3
2 3 2
= =

029 , 0
10 x 7 , 12
10 x 3 , 0
22 , 1
D
22 , 1
2
Sin
3
3
= =

=
|
.
|

\
|
|

mm 3 , 0
10 x 5
1500
f
c
6
= = =
o
7 , 1
2
=
|
Contoh 3.2 :
Sebuah transduser ultrasonik yang biasa digunakan pada uji
tak rusak (UTR) berdiameter 1 inci (25,4 mm) dengan
frekuensi resonansi sebesar 2 MHz. Bahan baja mempunyai
kecepatan sebesar 5850 m/s. Hitung jarak medan dekat dan
setengah sudut penyebarannya.
Jawab :
mm 55
) 10 x 925 , 2 ( 4
) 10 x 4 , 25 (
4
D
N
3
2 3 2
= =

14 , 0
10 x 4 , 25
10 x 925 , 2
22 , 1
D
22 , 1
2
Sin
3
3
= =

=
|
.
|

\
|
|

mm 925 , 2
10 x 2
5850
f
c
6
= = =
o
8
2
=
|
Contoh 3.3 :
Sebuah transduser ultrasonik yang biasa digunakan pada
pengukuran aliran gas berdiameter 1/2 inci (12,7 mm) dengan
frekuensi resonansi sebesar 100 kHz. Gas mempunyai
kecepatan sekitar 400 m/s. Hitung jarak medan dekat dan
setengah sudut penyebarannya.
Jawab :
mm 10
) 10 x 4 ( 4
) 10 x 7 , 12 (
4
D
N
3
2 3 2
= =

384 , 0
10 x 7 , 12
10 x 4
22 , 1
D
22 , 1
2
Sin
3
3
= =

=
|
.
|

\
|
|

mm 4
10 x 100
400
f
c
3
= = =
o
23
2
=
|
Contoh 3.4 :
Sebuah transduser ultrasonik yang biasa digunakan pada
pengukuran aliran gas berdiameter 1/2 inci (12,7 mm) dengan
frekuensi resonansi sebesar 100 kHz. Gas mempunyai
kecepatan sekitar 400 m/s. Transduser ini memancarkan
gelombang ultrasonik dengan intensitas sebesar I
o
. Hitung
intensitas pada suatu titik yang berjarak 200 mm di depan
transduser dan pada sudut 23
o
dari sumbu transdsuser.
Jawab :
o
23
2
mm 10 N =
|
=
o
3
o
23 , 200
I 10 x 25 , 1 I ) 0025 , 0 ( 5 , 0 I
o

= =
o o
2
o
2
0 , 200
I 0025 , 0 I
200
10
I
R
N
I
o
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
APLIKASI ULTRASONIK
APLIKASI INTENSITAS TINGGI
Industri
Pemrosesan material gas, cairan dan padatan
APLIKASI INTENSITAS RENDAH
Uji Tak Rusak
Evaluasi kualitas bahan
Pemeriksaan cacat
Instrumentasi dan Kontrol
Pengukuran besaran-besaran fisis
Pengukuran besaran-besaran proses
Pengukuran besaran-besaran kimia

ULTRASONIC IN INDUSTRY
APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
Electroplating Agitation of electrolyte Distributing and agitating electrolyte
For uniform plating
Implegnation of porous materials
(textile, metal )
Increased density, absence of gas
inclusion
Deggasing of melts metal, glass Improvement in material density,
Refinement of grain structure
Mixing of slurr (pulp) Imrovement in consistency
Agitation of chemical solution
(photographic developper
Maintaining uniform concentration,
Deaeration of liguids
Accelerating chemical reaction Aging of liguors, tanning of hides,
extractions
Food treatment Derstroying molds,bacteria,
Tenderization,removing loose starch
APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
Drying (platic, paper,textile webs ) Turbulence and pressure pattern
Causes drying
Cleaning and degreasing Cavitated cleaning solution scrubs
Parts immersed in solution
Defoaming and degassing Separation of foam and gas from
Liguid,reducing gas and foam content
Foaming of beverages Displacing air by foam in bottles or
Container prior to capping
Drilling and abrading Abrasive slurry interposed between
Sonically vibrated tool and workpiece
Emulsification,dispersion and
homogenization

Mixing and homogenizing of liguid,
Slurry, cream
Soldering and brazing Displacemen of oxide film to
Accomplish bonding without flux
APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
Welding metals and plstics Welding similar and dissimilar Metal, soft and rigid
plastics
Agglomeration and particle Separating solids from gases or Producing larger
particles
Atomization and vaporization Atomizing liguids to provide aerosol, Vaporizing fuel
oil
Accelerating chemical reaction Aging of liguors,tanning of hides, extractions
Food treatment Destroying molds, bacteria, Tenderization, removing
loose starch
Drying (plastic,paper,textile
webs)
Turbulence and pressure patten Causes drying
Metal insertion into solid
plastic material
Application of ultrasonic vibrations to metal insert
producing localized softening as insert is pressed
into plastic
Metal working Vibrated die or rolling reduces Friction during
drawing or rolling, Greater reduction in fewer
passes, Reduces grain size
ULTRASONIC IN NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
INDUSTRY MATERIALS/
EQUIPMENTS
DEFECTS
Basic metal Steel, aluminium, iron
Magnesium, etc
Porosity,inclusions,
Center pipe
Metal
Fabricators
Plate, shett, pipe, tubing,
Forgings, extrusions, die
block, casting
Lamination, seams,
inclusion,
Bursts, flaking, porosity,
concentricity
Aircarft Aircraft engine components,
propeller, airframe
Components, landing gears
Fatique cracks, internal
Flaws in materials receved
Automotive Body panel sheets, engine
and
Transmission parts
Lamination, cracks
INDUSTRY MATERIALS/
EQUIPMENTS
DEFECTS
Automotive Body panel sheets, engine and
Transmission part
Lamination, cracks
Rubber Tires Ply separation, ply
thickness
Plastics Plastics and ceramics
Fiberglass-reinforced
Porosity, inclusions,
cracks
Delamination
Railroads Rails, axels and crankshafts in
Engine and rolling stock
Fatique cracks
Metal stamping Track and wheels
Sheet stock
Crankshafts, punch press
Cracks
Laminations, inclusions
Fatique cracks
INDUSTRY MATERIALS/
EQUIPMENTS
DEFECTS
Electric power Turbines and generators
Piping
Pressure vesselt, penstocks
Internal cracks and flaws
Seams
Weld defects
Chemical and
refineries
Compressors
Vessels and piping
Connecting rods
Seams, lamination, weld
defects
Mining and
quarryng
Hoist and crusher shafts Fatique crasks
Marine Hull plate
Propellers shafts
Laminations, weld flaw
Cracks, porosity cracks
Metallurgy All metals Physycal constants,
Grain size
ULTRASONICS IN NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
ULTRASONIC IN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL
Position Thermometry
Composition Density ,porosity
Anisotropy, texture Pressure
Grain size in metal Elastic properties
Stress and strain Viscosity in fluids
Acoustic emission Level
Imaging , holography Flowmetry
Dynamic force, Vibration,
acceleration
Location of low- reflectivity
interfaces
ULTRASONICS IN
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL