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What & how should

we write a research
methodology?

W I DYA
R A H M AWAT I

Desain (Rancangan) Penelitian


Survey

Observasional

Cohort

Case control

Desain

Randomized
Control Trial
Intervensi

Community
Based Field
Trial

Observational Study:
Cross Sectional Study (Survey)
3

With outcomes
Subjects
selected for the
study
Without
outcomes
Time
Onset of study

Question: What is happening?


4/27/15

Observational Study: Case Control Study


4

Exposed
Cases
Unexposed
Exposed
Controls

Unexposed

Onset of study

Time

Question: What happened?


4/27/15

Observational Study: Cohort Study Prospective


Exposed or
subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Cohort selected
for study
Unexposed or
controls

Onset of study

With outcomes

Without
outcomes
Time

Question: What will happen?


4/27/15

Observational Study:
Cohort Study Retrospective*
Exposed or
subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Records selected
for study

With outcomes

Unexposed or
controls

Without
outcomes
Onset of study

Time

*The grouping is not based on case/outcome, but based on


exposure
4/27/15

Jenis Penelitian
Tujuan
Penelitian

Proses
Pengkajian
(waktu)

Penggunaan
statistika

Jenis data &


cara
pengkajian

Deskriptif

Sesaat (cross
sectional)

Deskriptif

Quantitative

Eksploratif

Prospektif

Komparatif

Qualitative

Retrospektif

Asosiatif/
korelasional

Gabungan
antara quanti
& qualitative

Analitik

Jenis Penelitian
(menurut tujuan penelitian)
8

EKSPLORATIF (penjelasan mendetail & mendalam)

Uji instrumen
Nutrition anthropology
DESKRIPTIF
Polling/survey opini
Penelusuran sejarah
Studi kasus
ANALITIK
Eksperimental
Observasional

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut proses pengkajian)
9

CROSS SECTIONAL/SESAAT
Mengetahui gambaran/karakteristik/keadaan suatu
peristiwa/subyek saat penelitian dilaksanakan
PROSPEKTIF
Mengkaji proses perkembangan suatu peristiwa sejak
sebelum terjadi sampai selesai
RETROSPEKTIF
Mengkaji perkembangan suatu peristiwa setelah
peristiwa tersebut terjadi, kemudian ditelusuri kembali
ke belakang

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut penggunaan statistika)
10

DESKRIPTIF
Mengetahui gambaran karakteristik subyek pada suatu
daerah/pada suatu waktu tertentu
KOMPARATIF
Membandingkan karakteristik atau distribusi (mean,
proporsi, rasio) antara 2 populasi (kelompok
subyek)/lebih
ASOSIATIF/KORELASIONAL
Mengukur/membuktikan adanya hubungan antara 2
variabel atau lebih

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut jenis data & cara penyajian)
11

QUANTITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
Gabungan antara Qualitative & Quantitative

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Classification of Study Design


12

Observational Study

Descriptive Study

Analytic Study

Descriptive Study/
Case Study

Cohort Study
(Prospective/Retrospective)

Cross-sectional Study

Case control study

Intervention Study

Randomized Controlled
Trial (RCT)
Community-Based
Field Trial

Cross-Sectional Study
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Differentiate: Observational and Intervention Studies


13

1. OBSERVATION STUDY:
Researcher has no control over condition (only observe):
a. Descriptive: one study group, no control measure and
describe frequency
b. 2 groups for comparison but groups cannot be assigned
Generate & test hypothesis about possible causes and
determinants of health/nutritional status
Suggest methods of prevention and treatment
2. INTERVENTION STUDY :
Investigator control the intervention: condition can be specified,
study subjects randomly assigned to intervention & control
groups
Evaluate methods of prevention and treatment
Most convincing evidence of causes
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Approach of the Study

14

1. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY:
Describes frequency and distribution of health and nutrition
condition in population Who? Where? When?
2. ANALYTICAL STUDY:
Study determinants, analyze/elucidate causes, test of hypothesis,
analyze relationship between health/nutritional status and variables
3. INTERVENTION STUDY:
Deliberate attempt to change a disease or health/nutritional status
determinant
Evaluative, experiment, clinical and community trials

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1. Descriptive/Case Study
15

A description of interesting, new and unique cases which include in-

depth description of individuals condition or response to treatment.


A descriptive study should include:
When, where, who
Data collection method
Findings (analysis plan)
Conclusions

ADVANTAGES
Easy to write
Maybe useful to investigators
designing a study to evaluate
causes or explanation of the
observation

DISADVANTAGES
Biases related to selection and
characteristics observed
Should be viewed as
hypothesis generating and not
as conclusive, especially if
only 1 sample

4/27/15

2. Cohort Study
16

Cohort study is defined as a group of individuals who are

followed together over time, to see if they develop the


disorders. It may include two or more groups who do not
have outcomes but differ according to characteristics of
exposure that are considered potential determinants of the
outcomes.
Cohort study can be either prospective or retrospective
depending on the time sequencing of development of
disorders with respect of the study.
Prospective: the investigators contact the subjects after the
exposure, but before the disorders has developed
Retrospective: when the investigators studies individuals
who have already been exposed to risk factors and have
already developed the disease
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2. Cohort Study Prospective


Exposed or
subjects

17

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Cohort selected
for study
Unexposed or
controls

Onset of study

With outcomes

Without
outcomes
Time

Question: What will happen?


4/27/15

2. Cohort Study Retrospective*


Exposed or
subjects

18

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Records selected
for study

With outcomes

Unexposed or
controls

Without
outcomes
Onset of study

Time

*The grouping is not based on case/outcome, but based on


exposure
4/27/15

2. Cohort Study Prospective


19

ADVANTAGES
Provide strong evidence
for possible causes and
effects
Biases can be controlled

DISADVANTAGES
Extended time make
studies costly
Possible involvement of
external factors
Problem associated with
subjects follow-up,
subjects attrition and
subjects migration
Difficulty to find the best
control matching age
and sex
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2. Cohort Study Retrospective


20

ADVANTAGE
Required shorter time

DISADVANTAGES
Bias: rely on memory,
accuracy of records
The loses of cases will be
excluded, e.g. died before
study

4/27/15

3. Case Control Study


21

A method of epidemiologic investigation in which group

of individuals are selected on the basis of whether they


have disorders under study. Cases are those classified as
having the disorders and controls are chosen as a
comparison group without disorder in the given
population.
The investigator look backward in time to determine if
the groups differ with respect to the exposure histories or
presence of specific characteristics that may put a person
at risk for developing condition of interest.

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3. Case Control Study


22

Exposed
Cases
Unexposed
Exposed
Controls

Unexposed

Onset of study

Time

Question: What happened?


4/27/15

3. Case Control Study


23

ADVANTAGES
The quickest and least
expensive studies to
undertake
Ideal for investigators
who need to obtain some
preliminary data prior to
writing a proposal for
more complete,
expensive and timeconsuming study

DISADVANTAGES
Have the largest number
of possible biases and
errors
Depend completely on
high-quality existing
records
Difficulties in selection of
control groups

4/27/15

4. Cross Sectional Study (Survey)


24

One of the most popular study for collecting descriptive data.

Data may intended for generalization to larger population or


may be intended as a description of a particular group.
A survey is composed of a series of questions that are posed
to a group of subjects.

ADVANTAGES
Best for determining the
status quo of a condition
Quick to complete and
relatively inexpensive

DISADVANTAGES
Provide only a snap-shot in
time of the condition of
process may be
underestimate/overestimate
Causal factors may only been
yesterday/long time
They already died
4/27/15

4. Cross Sectional Study (Survey)


25

With outcomes
Subjects
selected for the
study
Without
outcomes
Time
Onset of study

Question: What is happening?


4/27/15

5. Experimental Study
26

FEATURES OF INTERVENTION STUDY


Intervention may be new preventive or treatment
Also to evaluate exposure to a causal agent (usually in animal)
Random allocation to test and control groups
Compare outcome in test and control groups
Ethical issue

ADVANTAGES
Provide strong evidence for
possible causes and effects
Biases can be controlled

DISADVANTAGES
Expensive
Long time period is required

4/27/15

Characteristics of Experiments
27

Manipulation of variables
Active and attribute variables
Random assignment
Control groups
Blinding
Control for inter-subject differences
Homogeneity of subjects
Blocking
Matching
Subjects as their own control
Analysis of variance
4/27/15

5. Experimental Study Characteristics


Manipulation of variables

28

Randomization
Control groups
Blinding
Repetition
Control for inter-subject differences

Homogeneity of subjects strict inclusion


Blocking
Matching age, sex, socio-economic
Subject as their own control
Analysis of variances (ANOVA)

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5. Experimental Study
29

Experimental
subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Subjects meeting
entry criteria

With outcomes

Controls
Without
outcomes
Onset of study

Intervention

Time

Question: What will happen?


4/27/15

5. Experimental Study Trial with Crossover


Experimental
subjects

30

With outcomes

Experimental
subjects

With outcomes

Crossover

Subjects
meeting
entry
criteria

Without
outcomes

Without
outcomes

With outcomes
Controls

With outcomes
Controls
Without
outcomes

Without
outcomes
Onset of
study

Intervention

Intervention

Time

Washout period

4/27/15

DESAIN EKSPERIMEN
POPULASI

SAMP
EL

PARA PIHAK:
1. SUBYEK
2. PENELITI
3. PELAKSANA
4. OBSERVER

CONTROL
GROUP

RAND
OMISA
SI

?
TREAME
NT
GROUP

1. NO-BLIND
2. SINGLE BLIND
3. DOUBLE - BLIND

END
CONDITI
ON

?
END
CONDITI
ON

Tatong Harijanto, 2010

RANCANGAN PENELITIAN
EKSPERIMENTAL
I. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
1. The one - shot - case study
XO
2. The one - group pretest - posttest D.
O1 X O2
3. The static group comparison
X O1
- O2
Siswanto, 2007

II. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN


1. Prestest - post-test with control group
O1 X O2

Populasi
(Subyek)

R
O1 O2

2. The posttest - only control group


X O1
Populasi

R
- O2
Siswanto, 2007

3. Randomized Solomon Four


Group
O1 X O2
R

O1 O2
X O2

O2

Siswanto, 2007

III. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL


DESIGN
1. Time Series Design
O1 O2 O3

X O 4 O5 O6

2. Control Time Series Design


Kel Eks

O1 O2 O3

Kel Kontrol

X O 4 O5

O1 O2 O3

O 4 O5

Siswanto, 2007

3. Non Randomized Control Group


Pretest-Post Test Design
Kel Eks
Kel Kontrol

O1 X O 2
O1 O2

Siswanto, 2007

5. Experimental Study Trial with Crossover


37

ADVANTAGES
Reduce bio-diversity effects of
each groups

DISADVANTAGES
In the second phase: return
effects of first phase
Need longer period suitable
only for shorter period of
study, or only if U have
difficulty to find sample

4/27/15

Guiding Questions for Selecting the Design of Experimental Study


38

How many independent variables are being tested?


How many levels does each independent variables have,

and are these levels experimental or control condition?


How many groups or subjects being tested?
How will subjects be selected, and how will they be
assigned to groups?
How often will observations of responses be made?
What is temporal sequence of interventions and
measurements?

4/27/15

Populasi dan Sampel


Populasi: sejumlah besar subyek yang memiliki karakteristik tertentu
Populasi Target (target population): Populasi yang merupakan sasaran

akhir penerapan hasil penelitian.


Populasi Terjangkau (acessible population) atau populasi sumber

(source population): bagian dari populasi target yang dapat dijangkau


oleh peneliti. Dari populasi terjangkau ini dipilih sampel, yang terdiri
dari subyek yang langsung diteliti.
Sampel: bagian dari populasi ayng dipilih dengan cara tertentu hingga

dianggap mewakili populasinya

Kriteria sampel
40

1.
2.

Kriteria inklusi: syarat-syarat yang menyebabkan


anggota populasi dapat dipilih menjadi sampel
Kriteria eksklusi: syarat yang menyebabkan calon sampel
yang telah memenuhi kriteria inklusi, terpaksa
dikeluarkan dari sampel
Kriteria eksklusi bukan kebalikan dari kriteria inklusi

4/27/15

Contoh Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi:


Subyek manusia

Kriteria Inklusi

Wanita hamil dengan uysia kehamilan 12-20 minggu


Umur 15-49 tahun
Tidak sedang menderita penyakit kronis
Penduduk tetap dari wilayah penelitian
Bersedia menjadi responden, dan bersedia menandatangani
inform consent

Kriteria eksklusi

Pindah rumah pada selama penelitian berlangsung


Mengalami keguguran dalam masa penelitian

Contoh Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi:


Subyek hewan coba
Kriteria Inklusi

Tikus putih jenis Rattus novergicus strain wistar


Jenis kelamin jantan
Usia 8-12 minggu
Berat badan 100-200 gram
Warna bulu putih
Sehat, ditandai dengan gerakan aktif, bulu bersih dan baik, mata
jernih
Tidak mengalami pengobatan sebelumnya

Kriteria eksklusi

Tikus tidak mau makan selama penelitian berlangsung


Tikus sakit atau mati dalam masa penelitian

Contoh Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi:


Subyek pangan

Kriteria Sampel

Buah apel varietas apel Malang (Mallus sylvestris Mill)


Umur panen 4-5 bulan
Bobot buah sekitar 90-120 gram/buah
Warna segar dan cerah
Apabila ditekan, daging buahnya terasa empuk
Kondisi buah utuh

TUGAS
Desain penelitian
Populasi
Sampel
Kriteria Inklusi
Kriteria Eksklusi

Kriteria Subjek