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NACELLES atau PODS

Skin,
Cowling,
Structural members,
Firewall, dan
Engine Pylon Assy
ENGINE-MOUNTS
1
Engine Nacelles or Pods
NACELLES or PODS :
Are streamlined Enclosures used on Multi-Engine
Aircraft primarily to House the Engines.

Nacelle / Pod

Wing Box

1/25/2011 2
Engine Nacelles atau Pods:
NACELLE or PODS :
Adalah Selubung (atau polong) / sangkar
yang berbentuk aerodinamis/ramping
(streamlined) dimana mesin dipasang,
digunakan pada pesawat udara ber-mesin
ganda.
Gunanya: terutama untuk Tempat/Rumah
mesin.
Bentuknya: Bulat atau Setengah Bola
(Spherical ).
3
Engine Nacelles atau Pods:
NACELLE or PODS :
Untuk pesawat Bermesin-Tunggal (Single Engine a/c)
nacelle /pod dipasang dibagian depan / hidung
fuselage, dimana nacelle merupakan perpanjangan
fuselage yang berbentuk aerodinamis (streamlined).

4
Nacelles atau Pods :
NACELLE or PODS :
On multiengine propeller-driven airplanes, the
nacelle is normally mounted on the leading edge
of the wing.

Pada Pesawat udara Bermesin Ganda (multi-


engine aircraft) nacelle biasanya terletak :
Di-atas {Fig. 1(a)},
Pada Leading Edge (L.E.) Wing {Fig. 1(b)},
Di-bawah {Fig. 1(c)}.
Engine Nacelles atau Pods terletak
di- Atas Wing (Over-wing mount) :

Gambar 1(a) - Turbopropeller Engine Installation


(Over-wing mount)
6
Engine Nacelles atau Pods terletak
di Tengah wing (Mid-wing mount) :

Gambar 1(b) - Turbopropeller Engine Installation


(Mid-wing mount)
7
Engine Nacelles atau Pods terletak di-
Bawah wing (Under-wing mount) :

Gambar 1(c) - Turbopropeller Engine Installation


(Under-wing mount)
8
Engine Nacelles atau Pods :
Engine Nacelles atau Pods (Polong Mesin),
Terdiri dari :
Skin (Kulit) ,
Cowling (Pelindung Mesin) ,
Structural members (Kerangka) ,
Firewall (Dinding Penahan Api), dan
Engine-Mounts (Penyangga Mesin) .
9
Engine Nacelles atau Pods - Skin:
SKIN dan COWLING menutupi bagian luar dari
nacelle. Skin dan cowling biasanya terbuat dari
lembaran Aluminium alloy, Stainless steel,
Magnesium, atau Titanium.

1. SKIN, yang terbuat dari bahan apa saja,


biasanya di-tempel/lekatkan pada framework
(kerangka atau chasis) dengan rivet.

10
2. Engine cowling :

17/12/2010 11
2. Engine cowling :

Mendinginkan
mesin /
powerplants dan
Membuat aliran
udara yang
melalui-nya
aerodinamis
(streamline) .
Udara luar mendinginkan Engine
12
Engine Nacelles atau Pods -
COWLING :
2. COWLING biasanya berkenaan dengan :
Tutup engine yang bisa dilepas (detachable
covering) dari tempat dimana harus dapat diakses
secara teratur,
Seperti : Di daerah-daerah mesin (engines),
accessory sections, dan engine-mount atau
firewall.
Figure 1-26 memperlihatkan gambar yang
diperbesar untuk cowling - a horizontally opposed
engine untuk pesawat ringan (a light aircraft).

13
Engine Nacelles atau Pods -
COWLING :
2. COWLING usually refers to:
The detachable covering of those areas into
which access must be gained regularly, such as
engines, accessory sections, and engine-mount
or firewall areas.
Figure 1-26 shows an exploded view of the
pieces of cowling for a horizontally opposed
engine for a light aircraft.

14
ENGINE COWLING

Figure 1-26. ENGINE COWLING for horizontally


opposed engine
15
Engine Nacelles atau Pods:
3. KERANGKA (framework) umumnya terdiri
dari Beberapa Bagian Struktur yang mirip
dengan di fuselage.
Kerangka /Framework meliputi :
Bagian arah memanjang (Lengthwise members),
seperti : Longerons dan Stringers, dan
Bagian melintang/tegak (widthwise /vertical
members), seperti: Bulkheads, Rings, dan
Formers.

16
Engine Nacelles atau Pods:
3. The FRAMEWORK usually consists of Structural
Members similar to those of fuselage.
The Framework includes
Lengthwise members, such as Longerons and
Stringers, and
Widthwise /vertical members, such as Bulkheads,
Rings, and Formers.
4. FIREWALL separates the engine compartment
from the rest of aircraft.
Firewall (the bulkhead) is usually made of stainless
steel sheet metal, or, in some aircraft, titanium.
17
Engine Nacelles atau Pods:
4. FIREWALL memisahkan ruang mesin
(engine compartment)/ruang panas dari ruang
tidak panas / bagian pesawat lainnya.
Firewall (the bulkhead) biasanya terbuat dari
lembaran logam baja (steel sheet metal), atau
dari titanium, pada beberapa pesawat.

18
KONSTRUKSI ENGINE MOUNT
- yang melekat pada FIREWALL AIRFRAME
Pesawat bermesin Tunggal
(Single Engine Lightweight Airplane)
Aircraft Structures That Hold the Powerplant :

To hold the Powerplants in position, absorb


the vibration, and cool and streamline them:

Pylon Structure
Turbine (Jet) Engines :

Firewall

8/6/2011 20
5. ENGINE MOUNTING
ENGINE MOUNT
/MOUNTING gunanya :
Memegang Powerplants
ditempatnya,
Menyerap Getaran
(Absorb the vibration),

Engine Compartment (Ruangan Mesin) 21


Engine Nacelles atau Pods
Engine Mount:
5. ENGINE MOUNT umumnya di-lekatkan
(attached) ke firewall (dinding penahan api), dan
Mesin (Engine) dipasang ke engine mount (penyangga,
gantungan) dengan nuts (mur), bolts (baut), dan
vibration-absorbing rubber cushions or pads (bantalan
karet atau cushion sebagai peredam getaran).
Engine Mounts (penyangga mesin) di rancang-bangun
untuk memenuhi kondisi pemasangan/instalasi tertentu,
seperti :
Lokasi/ tempat dari engine mount, dan
Cara pemasangan (Method of attachment of) engine mount,
dan
Ukuran, jenis/type, dan karakteristik (sifat) dari engine yang
akan di topang.
22
Engine Nacelles atau Pods
Engine Mount:
5. ENGINE MOUNT is usually attached to the
firewall, and
The Engine - is attached to the mount by nuts,
bolts, and vibration-absorbing rubber cushions or
pads.
Engine Mounts are designed to meet particular
conditions of installation, such as:
The location of the engine mount, and
Method of attachment of the engine mount, and
The size, type, and characteristics of the engine it is
intended to support.

23
ENGINE MOUNTING
ENGINE MOUNT /MOUNTING gunanya :
Memegang Powerplants ditempatnya,
Menyerap Getaran (Absorb the vibration), dan

Engine cowling : Mendinginkan mesin /


powerplants dan membuat aliran udara yang
melalui-nya aerodinamis (streamline) .

24
ENGINE MOUNTING
ENGINE MOUNT
/MOUNTING gunanya :
Memegang Powerplants
ditempatnya,
Menyerap Getaran
(Absorb the vibration),

Engine Mounting
Structure

Engine Compartment (Ruangan Mesin) 25


Engine cowling :

Mendinginkan
mesin /
powerplants dan
Membuat aliran
udara yang
melalui-nya
aerodinamis
(streamline) .
Udara luar mendinginkan Engine
26
Powerplant Support Structures:
(STRUKTUR PENYANGGA/PENOPANG POWERPLANT):
Mesin /motor /engines harus :
Di-hidupkan (started), didinginkan (cooled), di-
kendalikan (controlled), dan di-naikkan/dipasang
(mounted) ke tempatnya dimana mesin secara
efektif dapat menghasilkan gaya dorong (Thrust).
Powerplant - biasanya termasuk :
Mesin (Engine) dan
Baling-baling (Propeller).

17/12/2010 Ref: JSAT: Airframe, Ch.1, p.1-18 27


Powerplant Support Structure:
STRUKTUR PENYANGGA/PENOPANG POWERPLANT
(ENGINE MOUNT) BERFUNGSI :
Memegang /menyangga Powerplant
(engine) pada tempatnya,
Menyerap Getaran (vibration) mesin,
Engine (powerplant) Cowling:
Mendinginkan Mesin, dan
Memberi bentuk Aerodinamis (streamline)

17/12/2010 28
Powerplant Support Structures:
STRUKTUR PENYANGGA/PENOPANG POWERPLANT :
Engine Mount
Engine Cowling, atau
Engine Nacelle, atau
Engine Pod
Tipe/jenis powerplant yang dibahas :
Piston/reciprocating Engine (mesin torak), dan
Turbine Engine (mesin turbin: jet, dan turbo-prop)

17/12/2010 29
5. Engine Mounting :
Engine Mount is usually constructed as a
Single unit which can be detached quickly and
easily from the remaining structure.

Engine mount
dalam bentuk 3D

30
Engine Mounts atau Mounting :
Adalah struktur yang memegang (dudukan)
mesin pada tempatnya di pesawat udara.
Menyalurkan gaya dorong (thrust) yang
dihasilkan oleh baling-baling (propellers) atau
turbojet, ke rangka pesawat (airframe).
Menyerap getaran /vibrasi yang dihasilkan
oleh mesin tertentu, atau atau kombinasi
engine-propeller.

17/12/2010 31
Engine Mounts
Struktur Mount dapat di-konstruksikan /di -
bangun dari :
1. Pipa-pipa baja yang di-las (Welded alloy steel
tubing),
2. Lempengan baja yang dibentuk (Formed sheet
metal),
3. Perkakas paduan yg ditempa (Forged alloy
fittings), atau
4. Kombinasi dari ketiganya (Combination of all
three).
17/12/2010 32
5. Engine Mounting :
Engine Mount are commonly made of:
Welded chrome/molibdenum steel tubing,
and
Forgings of chrome/nickel/molibdenum are
used for the highly stressed fittings.

Figure 3 shows examples of :


A semi-monocoque Engine Mount, and
A welded tubular steel engine mount
Used with reciprocating (piston) engines.
33
Engine Mounting

Semi-monocoque
Tubular

Figure 3.a. ENGINE MOUNT Figure 3. ENGINE MOUNTS


of a welded tubing Truss SEMI-MONOCOQUE and
WELDED TUBULAR STEEL Engine
structure.
Mounts used with
reciprocating engines
34
5. Engine Mounting :
Quick Engine Change (QEC) (Fig. 13.2.4):
Dibanyak pesawat terbang modern sekarang ini
engine mounts dan engine merupakan satu
unit tersendiri dan merupakan satu rangkaian
unit yang lengkap, yang disebut QEC.
Sistem ini menguntungkan dalam segi
perawatan serta overhaul.

35
Gambar : Detail Konfigurasi dari Quick Engine Change (QEC)
Engine Mount pada pesawat Lockheed Electra.
36
Nacelle or Pods :
To reduce the wind resistance during flight, the
landing gear of most high-speed or large aircraft
is retracted (drawn up into streamlined
enclosures).
The part of the aircraft which receives or
encloses the landing gear as it retracts is called
a wheel well.
In many instances, the wheel well is part of the
Nacelle;
However, on some aircraft the landing gear
retracts into the fuselage or wing.
37
Engine Nacelles atau Pods:
5. ENGINE MOUNTING: (contd)
Engines attached to the wings may be mounted with :
Thrust-Line parallel to the horizontal longitudinal plane
of symmetry,
But Not always parallel to the vertical longitudinal plane
(they may be inclined slightly outwards).

38
Structure That Hold the Powerplant:
To hold the Powerplants in position, absorb
the vibration, and cool and streamline them:

Reciprocating (Piston) Engines:


The engine is attached
inside the cowling to an
ENGINE MOUNT which
may be:
Semimonocoque
Welded tubular

1/15/2012 39
Structure That Hold the Powerplant:
To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb
the vibration, and cool and streamline them:

Reciprocating (Piston) Engines:


The engine is attached
inside the cowling to an
ENGINE MOUNT which
may be
Semimonocoque
Welded tubular
Rails or Cradle
1/15/2012 40
Structure That Hold the Powerplant:
To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb
the vibration, and cool and streamline them:

Reciprocating (Piston) Engines:


On all, the engine is
attached to the mount by
RUBBER SHOCK MOUNTS
Known generically as
Lord Mounts
Isolate engine
vibrations from the
1/15/2012
fuselage 41
Structure That Hold the Powerplant:
To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb
the vibration, and cool and streamline them:

Turbine (Jet) Engines:


Turbine engines are
mounted in PODS or
NACELLES under the
wings or on the side of the
rear fuselage or inside the
fuselage
The pods are attached
with PYLONS
1/15/2012 42
Wing Pod Mount
Commonly use on commercial airplane since
fuel is carry on wing
Less noise
CL max is not as good as fuselage mount
Yawing moment effect
Ground clearance limitation higher gear strut

43
Structure That Hold the Powerplant:
To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb
the vibration, and cool and streamline them:

Turbine (Jet) Engines:

1/15/2012 44
Fig. 8-25: Typical Engine Mount

45
Fig. 8-28: Typical Turbin Engine Mount

46
Fig. 8-28.A: Engine Mount

47
Fig. 8-28.B: Fig. 8-28.C:
Aft Mount Forward Mount

48
Common Engine Mounts for modern
Jet Airplanes (Figure above) :
(a) Wing-pod mount-subsonic,
(b) Tail mountsubsonic,
(c) Rear fuselage mount-subsonic,
(d) Wing mount supersonic,
(e) Fuselage mount (single engine) supersonic,
(f) Fuselage mount (twin engine) supersonic.

17/12/2010 49
Common Engine Mounts for modern Jet Airplanes:

(a) Wing-pod mount-


subsonic

17/12/2010 50
Konstruksi engine mount yang melekat pada
firewall airframe Pesawat bermesin Tunggal
(Single-engine)
ENGINE COWLING

Figure 1-26. ENGINE COWLING for horizontally


opposed engine
52
Engine Cowling

Engine
Mounting

Gambar : Engine compartment.


53
Berbagai macam Engine Cowling:
Berikut ini berbagai macam Engine Cowling (di-
mobil dikenal sebagai = kap mesin) :
1. Orange-peel cowl panels, on some larger
reciprocating (piston) engines (Figure 4) ;
2. Cowling for Horizontally opposed engine,
(Yang dibuka secara horizontal) pada pesawat
udara ringan (light aircrafts). (Figure 2);
3. Side-mounted Turbo-jet Engine Cowling
(Figure 5).
54
Figure 4 . Orange-Peel Engine Cowling

Fig. 4 - Engine Cowling model Kulit Jeruk yang lagi terbuka


55
Figure 4 . Orange-Peel Engine Cowling
Some large reciprocating engines are enclosed by
orange-peel cowl panels.
The cowl panels are attached to the firewall by
mounts which also serve as hinges when the cowl is
opened.
The Lower cowl mounts are secured to the hinge
brackets by pins which automatically locked in place,
but can be removed by simply pulling on a ring.
The Side panels are held open by short rods;
The Top panels are held open by a longer rod; and
The lower panel is restrained in the open position by
a spring and cable.

56
Figure 4 . Orange-Peel Engine Cowling
All four panels are locked in the closed position
by over-center steel latches, which are secured in
the closed position by spring-loaded safety
catches.
Cowl panels are generally of Aluminum alloy
construction;
Stainless steel is generally used
As the Inner Skin aft of the power section,
For Cowl Flaps and
Near the cowl flap Openings, and
For Oil Cooler Ducts.

57
Figure 5. Side-mounted Turbo-jet Engine
Cowling
On Turbo-jet engine installation Cowl Panels
are designed :
To provide a smooth air-flow over the engines, and
To protect the engine from damage.
The entire engine cowling system includes:
A Nose cowl,
Upper and Lower hinged Removable cowl Panels,
as shown in Figure5 above.

58
Figure 5. Side-mounted Turbo-jet Engine
Cowling
Hold Open Rod

Hold Open Rod

Forward
Snubber Aft Snubber

Figure 5.
59
Figure 5. Side-mounted Turbo-jet Engine
Cowling

17/12/2010 60
Figure 5. Side-mounted Turbo-jet Engine
Cowling

61
2. Engine Cowling Hz opened

Gbr 5 : Horizontally opened.


dmg/Dec/2009 62
Wing-pod (Pylon) mount Nacelle
Pylon
(wing-pod)

For jet engine, the wing-pod mount is preferred;


since fuel carried in the wing,
the location of jet-pod below the wing is a primary
consideration.
63
Wing-pod mount nacelle/engine Configuration

64
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
The pylon (wing-pod mount structure) is
illustrated in Fig. 13.4.1, and this is basically
applied on subsonic jet transports.

Fig. 13.4.1 Wing-pod (wing-pylon) Mount Configurations


65
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
Engines are supported by Box-beam of
Aluminium, Titanium, or Steel construction.
Doors are provided for Systems Access and
Inspections.
The Forward Engine Mount Bulkhead and Lower
Spar act as a Firewalls and
Aft Engine Mount Bulkhead is a secondary fire
seal, all of Titanium or Steel alloy.
The Pylon (Pod) leading edge - is stiffened with
Transverse ribs and is quickly removable for
systems access.
66
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
Pylon Structure - may be identical for Left and
Right pylons, thereby minimizing spare parts
required.
The Pylon is attached to the Wing Front Spar
and Lower skin panel.
Pylon Loads are distributed to the wing
structure in such a manner that wing box
secondary deformations are minimized.
Vents and Drain holes are provided to preclude
/prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors
and liquids.
67
(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 13.4.1 Wing-Pod (wing-Pylon) Mount Configurations


68
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
A. The wing-pylon strcture as in Fig.
13.4.1 (a) is a Cantilever Box Beam
consisting of :
Two upper and Two lower longerons.
Two side skins transmit the vertical
shears and a lower skin primarily carries
the lateral shears and acts as a firewall.
Forward and Aft mount bulkheads are
included to transfer the engine loads to
the pylon structure, and the
Bulkheads are included - to transfer the
Engine Loads to the Pylon structure, and
the Bulkheads - take the pylon loads
onto the wing-box structure via lug
attachments to the wing front spar of
the pylon upper longerons, and
Fig. 13.4.1 (a) Drag Strut
Utilizes a rear Drag Strut - to transfer the
pylon lower longeron Loads - to a point Installation
between the wing front and rear spar. 69
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
B. Fig. 13.4.1 (b) shows the
Pylon Box Beam Design.
The BOX structure extends
beyond the wing front spar
fitting and ends at the aft
pylon fitting, which is
attached between the wing
front and rear spars.
This design is to put more
weight on the pylon, but save
weight on the wing box and
minimize some potential Fig. (b) Box Beam
fatigue problems at the wing Installation
lower surface.
70
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
B. Fig. 13.4.1 (b) shows ..(contd-1).
The pylon is attached:
To the wing, through a fitting on a
wing front spar - for vertical and side
loads,
To a fitting beneath the front spar on
the wing lower surface for Thrust
loads, and
To a fitting attach to a wing box
structure on the wing lower surface at
the of the pylon for Vertical and Side
bending loads.
Spherical bearings are used at the
pylon-to-wing attachments to avoid
over constraint to the wing lower Fig. (b) Box Beam Installation
front spar.
71
Wing-pod (Pylon) Mounts
Fig. 13.4.1 (b) shows ..(continued-2).
Side fairing panels, with attached
bulb seals, cover the gap between
the pylon structure and wing lower
skin.
The pylon structure is identical left
and right and is interchangeable to
minimize spare parts.
However, this design will complicate
the design at the fitting on the wing
front spar.
The pros and cons depend on the
Fig. (b) Box Beam Installation
trade-off results.
72
Engine break-away Case - in Emergency Landing

Engine / Pylon Attachment for Wing-mounted


engines :
Shear pins/ fuse pins are usually fitted to
the engine attachment system so that in the
event of a crash landing the engines will :
Shear off easily without trying to tear off
the complete wing, or
Trying to pitch the aircraft forward onto its
nose.
73
Engine break-away Case - in Emergency Landing

74
Engine break-away Case - in Emergency
Landing
BREAKAWAY LOADS:
A Vertical Load in either direction.
A Lateral Load in either direction.
Load in Aft direction.

Note : The Breakaway Point could be designed


either between:
Engine and Pylon, or
Wing and Pylon.
75
Engine break-away Case - in Emergency Landing
Note : The Breakaway Point could be designed either :
between Engine and Pylon, or
between Wing and Pylon.

76
Fuselage-mounted podded engines

The Cessna Citation uses two engines podded in the rear.


77
Overwing podded engines
As unusual counter-examples,
the VFW-614 and the
Hondajet place the podded
engines above the wings.
The Antonov An-72 and the
Boeing YC-14 also place their
engines above the wings,
mounted very close to the
wing.
This placement utilizes the
Coand effect allowing a
lower minimum flight speed
and decreasing the amount of
runway needed for takeoff
The VFW-Fokker 614's overwing podded and landing (i.e. STOL).
Rolls-Royce/Snecma M45H Mk. 501
78
turbofan
Podded engines on the Wings
ADVANTAGES :
1. Podded engines on the wings
can act as vortex generators.
2. Podded engines can be located
significantly outboard on the
wing, where the wing thickness is
too small to accommodate a
buried engine. The further
outboard, the greater the wing
bending relief.
3. Podded engines in front of the
wing provide maximum
resistance to flutter of the wing.
A Boeing 787's engine pod.
This is why almost all of the engine
pod is located ahead of the
leading edge of the wing.
79
Podded engines on the wings
Advantages (contd-1) :
Podded engines can
4. Ease Maintenance access.
5. Reduce Noise within the cabin (since the engines
are farther from the cabin), and
For engines mounted below the wing, the wing
itself acts as a noise shield).
6. It is often easier to change engine models when
the engine is in a pod.
For example, the Boeing 747 uses engines from GE, Pratt
and Whitney, and Rolls Royce, the changes being mostly
isolated to the pods themselves.
80
Podded engines on the wings
Advantages (contd-2) :
7. If a podded engine explodes, catches fire, or breaks
free from its mounts, it is less likely to critically
damage the aircraft than an engine embedded
within the airframe.
Although such events seldom happen to modern jet
engines, this possibility helps explain why podded
engines are commonly used on commercial and
general aviation aircraft that may carry fare-paying
passengers.
Military combat jets - are often occupied only by
crewmembers who can bail out of the craft in an
emergency, making this safety factor less crucial.
81
Podded engines on the wings
DISADVANTAGES :
Podded engines can increase drag.
A podded engine hanging low from a wing can -
suffer more damage from foreign objects (i.e.,
objects can get sucked into a low-hanging jet).
In a ditching or water landing, podded engines
hanging from the wing - increase the stress on
the wing by increasing the amount of drag
caused by the water.
This can cause the wings to shear off or flip the
aircraft and destroy the fuselage as happened to
Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961.
82
Military aircraft
Modern Jet Fighters - almost
never use podded engines
instead typically embedding
the engines within the
fuselage.
This was not true of earlier
designs, however. The
Messerschmitt Me 262, for
example, used under-wing pod
mounted engines. The Bell P- Messerschmitt Me 262A.
Fighter aircraft,
59 Airacomet used engines 18 April 1941 with piston engine
mounted in pods tucked up 18 July 1942 with jet engines[1]
against the fuselage.
83
Untuk Pesawat Tempur (fighter plane): Mesin dan bahan
bakar minyak (BBM) ditempatkan pada (embedded within)
fuselage bagian belakang .
84
Miscellaneous:

Macam-macam Definisi
Refenensi

85
Conversion Table & Selected Definitions
Mass : pound (lb)=0.4536 Kg
Length /jarak : 1 inch = 25.4 mm
Milled: digiling, diasah
Pod : shell (cangkang), cangkang kacang atau
buncis (kulit pembungkus kacang, e.g. Pea
pod, nutshell)

17/12/2010 86
Props and Jets
Until the 1940s all Planes were powered by
one or more spinning PROPELLERS.
A Propeller is basically just a twisted airfoil.
As it spins, it squashes the air that flows over
it so that there is a higher pressure region
behind the propeller than in front of it.
Because of this pressure difference the plane
is pushed forward.

87
Props and Jets

A turbojet engine (top) is much more powerful than a turboprop


engine (bottom)
88
Info tetang Regulasi CASR, FAR :
Untuk mencari sumber & tambahan Informasi:
Kunjungi website :
Kementerian* Perhubungan, Direktorat Jenderal
Perhubungan Udara
www.dephub.go.id
FAA homepage atau website
www.faa.gov
ICAO website
www.icao.int
*sejak Desember 2009, nomenklatur (nama) Departemen Perhubungan
berganti jadi Kementerian Perhubungan. Tapi portal (website) tetap
sama.
89
References /DAFTAR RUJUKAN
1. U.S Department of Transport, FAA, Flight
Standars Services : (Large Aircraft)
FAA AC 65-15A : Airframe & Powerplant
Mechanics, Airframe Handbook , U.S
Department of Transport, FAA, Flight Standars
Services, 1st Ed. 1972, 1st Rev. 1976.
2. JSAT : A & P Technician, Airframe Textbook ,
JEPPESEN Maintenance
3. Michael Chun-Yung Niu: AIRFRAME Structural
Design, Hongkong Conmilit Press Ltd. Jan 1989.
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Referensi Lainnya
Wikipedia., dll.

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