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INTERAKSI RADIASI

ELEKTROMAGNETIK DENGAN ATOM


DAN MOLEKUL METALOORGANIK

HILDA APRILIA
KBK KIMIA FARMASI
PRODI FARMASI UNISBA

RADIASI ELEKTROMAGNETIK
(REM)
REM adalah kombinasimedan
listrik dan medan magnet
yangmerambat dalam bentuk
gelombang transversal

RADIASI ELEKTROMAGNETIK
(REM)

DUALISME SIFAT REM


1. Sifat Gelombang
a. difraksi
b. refraksi
c. rotasi
2. Sifat Foton*
DASAR
SPEKTROSKOPI
a. absorpsi
b. emisi
*Foton = paket elektron berenergi
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SPEKTRUM
ELEKTROMAGNETIK

http://www.chm.davidson.edu/ronutt/che115/A
O.htm

ENERGI ATOM DAN MOLEKUL


1. Energi Translasi ( Et )
2.
Energi
Rotasi
(
E
)
r
>>

3. Energi Vibrasi ( Ev )
4. Energi Elektronik ( Ee )
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ENERGI ATOM DAN


MOLEKUL

1.Energi Translasi
(ET )X
x

Y
z

2. Rotasi (ER)

4. Energi
elektronik (EE)

3. Energi Vibrasi
(Ev)

REM

Ground
singlet state

Singlet excited state


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INTERAKSI REM MATERI


Material

Fluorescence

Incident Radiation

Reflected
Radiation

Scattering
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12

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ABSORBSI REM

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Syarat absorpsi : perbedaan energi


antara 2 tingkat energi sebanding dengan
energi foton yang diserap.

E2-E1 = h.v 4)
E1 = energi pada tingkat yang lebih
rendah
E2 = energi pada tingkat yang lebih
tinggi
V = frekuensi foton yang diabsorpsi

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ULTRAVIOLET INTERACTIONS

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VISIBLE LIGHT INTERACTIONS

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Tingkat energi elektron singlet yang berada


dalam keadaan dasar (singlet ground state)
apabila dikenakan radiasi elektromagnetik akan
mengalami eksitasi (singlet excited state) ke
tingkat energi yang lebih tinggi.
Perpindahan bersifat reversibel
Penyerapan radiasi ultraviolet dan sinar tampak
(visibel) dibatasi oleh sejumlah gugus
fungsional (yang disebut dengan kromofor)
yang mengandung elektron valensi dengan
tingkat energi eksitasi yang relatif rendah
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*
n

antibonding

antibonding

*
*

Energy

TRANSISI ELEKTRONIK MOLEKUL

nonbonding

bonding

bonding
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KEBOLEHJADIAN
EKSITASI ELEKTRON

= k. P. a = 0,87 .
1020. P.a

Keterangan :

=
k =
P =
a =

absorbansi molar
konstanta
kebolehjadian
area of cross section of molecule
102 (organic molecules)

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ABSORBANSI MOLAR
=

1 - 10 : sangat lemah
10 - 102 : lemah
102 - 103 : sedang

103- 104 : kuat


104- 105 : sangat kuat

P < 0,01
Forbidden
transition

P > 0,1 1
Allowed transition
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APLIKASI

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INFRARED (IR) INTERACTIONS


Vibrational transitions are associated with larger energies than
pure rotational transitions.
Vibrations can be subdivided into two classes, depending on
whether the bond length or angle is changing:
Stretching (symmetric and asymmetric)
Bending (scissoring, rocking, wagging and twisting)
Stretching frequencies are higher than corresponding bending
frequencies (it is easier to bend a bond than to stretch or
compress it)
Bonds to hydrogen have higher stretching frequencies than
those to heavier atoms.
Triple bonds have higher stretching frequencies than
corresponding double bonds, which in turn have higher
frequencies than single bonds

INFRARED (IR) INTERACTIONS


Region

Wavelength
[m]

Energy
[meV]

Wavenumber Type of
[cm-1]
excitation

Far IR

50 - 1000

1.2 - 25

10 200

Lattice
vibrations,
Molecular
rotations

Mid IR

2.5 - 50

25 - 496

200 - 4000

Molecular
vibrations

Near IR

1 - 2.5

496 - 1240

4000 - 10000

Overtones

INFRARED (IR) INTERACTIONS

Quantum energy of IR photons (0.001-1.7 eV) matches the


ranges of energies separating quantum states of molecular
vibrations

APLIKASI

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MICROWAVE INTERACTIONS

Quantum energy of microwave photons


(0.00001-0.001 eV) matches the ranges
of energies separating quantum states
of molecular rotations and torsion
Note that rotational motion of
molecules is quantized, like electronic
and vibrational transitions associated
absorption/emission lines
Absorption of microwave radiation
causes heating due to increased
molecular rotational activity
Most matter transparent to -waves,
microwave ovens use high intensity waves to heat material

X-RAY INTERACTIONS

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COMPTON SCATTERING
An incoming photon is partially absorbed in
an outer shell electron
The electron absorbs enough energy to break
the binding energy, and is ejected
The ejected electron is now a Compton
electron
Not much energy is needed to eject an
electron from an outer shell
The incoming photon, continues on a different
path with less energy as scattered radiation

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GAMMA RAY INTERACTIONS


Occurs at above 10 MeV
A high energy photon is absorbed by the nucleus
The nucleus becomes excited and becomes
radioactive
To become stable, the nucleus emits negatrons,
protons, alpha particles, clusters of fragments, or
gamma rays
These high energy photons are found in radiation
therapy

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RADIO FREQUENCY
INTERACTIONS

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EMISI REM

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Emisiadalah proses dimana energi


yang dihasilkan dari perpindahan
elektron ke orbital yang lebih rendah
akibat tumbukan dengan foton REM
menghasilkan cahaya

CONTOH SPEKTRUM EMISI

Spektrum Emisi H

Spektrum Emisi Fe

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APLIKASI

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INTERAKSI REM DENGAN


MOLEKUL
METALOORGANIK
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METALOORGANIK
Senyawa organologam : senyawa yg
mengandung ikatan antara logam
dan atom karbon
Contoh : Ni(CO)4, Fe(CO)5 , Cr(C6H6)2,
hemoglobin, klorofil
Kebanyakan dihubungkan dengan
senyawa kompleks logam transisi

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LOGAM TRANSISI
Unsur logam dengan konfigurasi
elektron pada sub kulit d yang tidak
terisi sempurna
Golongan 3 sampai 12 pada tabel
periodik
Pada kenyataannya blok f juga
dimasukkan sebagai logam transisi,
yaitu lantanida dan aktinida
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41

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Splitting of d-orbital energies by an octahedral field


of ligands

is the splitting
energy

The effect of ligand on splitting energy

The Spectrochemical Series

eg

eg

I- < Br- < S2- < SCN- < Cl-< NO3- < F- < OH- < ox2-

t 2g

< H2O < NCS < CH3CN < NH3 < en < bpy
-

< phen < NO2- < phosph < CN- < CO

t 2g

weak field ligands

strong field ligands

e.g. H2O

e.g. CN-

high spin complexes

low spin complexes

The Spin Transition

CONTOH APLIKASI

Heme grup B

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Why are most plants


green and then red or
yellow in the fall?
Chlorophyll absorbs in the red and blue,
and hence reflects in the green.
Its absorption spectrum is due to
electronic transitions

In the fall, trees produce


carotenoids, which reflect
yellow, and anthocyanins,
which reflect orange and red.

TERIMA KASIH

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