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Rahadian Grace Ameliaa, Eka Tina Nurb, Viha Anciliac


Rahdian Grace Amelia (103194030), department of Chemistry Unesa

b c

Eka Tina Nur (103194032), Departement of Chemistry, Unesa

Viha Ancillia B (103194009), Departement of Chemistry, Unesa Correspondence: email:

Abstract Cation exchange resin is one of the analytical chemistry experiment.the experiment is aimed to to determine the concentration H+ ion and Na+ in mixture of sample. The methods that used by resin coloumn. Sample is diluted into volumetric flask 100ml until 10 times and take the sample 10 ml, added by PP indicator and then titrated by NaOH 0.1 M to determined concentration of H+initial, then take again the sample and pour into resin coloumn and added by 4 x 25mL of aquadest, and added by 3 drops of PP indicator and titrated by NaOH 0.1 M to determine concentration H+total, from this steps it can be calculated concentration of H+ion and mass of Na+ in the sample.the result of experiment is concentration of H+ is 0.0597 M and the mass of Na+is 34.92 mg. Keyword: cation, resin, ion exchange

Resin penukar kation adalah salah satu bentuk praktikum kimia analitik. Praktikum ini bertujuan untuk menentukan konsentrasidari ion H+ dan Na+ dari campuran sampel. Metode yang digunakan adalah dengan menggunakan kolom resin. Sampel diencerkan dalam labu ukur 100 mL sampai 10 kali, lalu diambil 10 mL sampel yang telah diencerkan tadi ditetesi dengan indicator PP dan dititrasi dengan larutan NaOH 0.1 M untuk konsentrasi H+ mula-mula, lalu ambil lagi 10 ml sampel dan masukkan ke dalam kolom resin dan ditambaha 4 x 25 mL aquades secara bertahap, tadahi tetesan larutan dari kolom resin tersebut, lalu tetesi indicator PP dan dititrasi dengan NaOH 0.1 M untuk menentukan konsentrasi H+ total. Dari langkah tersebut, dapat dihitung konsentrassi dari ion H+ dan masa dari Na di dalam sampel. Hasil dari praktikum yang telah dilakukan yakni konsentrasi H+ adalah 0.0597 M dan masa dari Na adalah 34.92 mg. Kata kunci: kation, resin, ion penukar.

INTRODUCTION The experiment about cation exchange resin is aimed to determine the

structure) normally in the form of small (12 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an

concentration H+ ion and Na+ in mixture of sample and determine the concentration OH- ion and Cl- in mixture of sample. An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange

organic polymer substrate. The material has highly developed structure of pores on the surface of which are sites with easily trapped and released ions. The trapping of ions takes place only with simultaneous

polymer is an insoluble matrix (or support

releasing of other ions; thus the process is called ion-exchange. There are multiple different types of ion-exchange resin which are fabricated to selectively prefer one or several different types of ions. Ion-exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, The and most

Water softening

In water softening a cation resin in the sodium form is used to remove hard metal ions (calcium and magnesium) from the water along with troublesome traces of iron and manganese, which are also often present. These ions are replaced by an equivalent quantity of sodium, so that the total dissolved solids content of the water remains unchanged as does the pH and anionic content. At regular time intervals the resin is cleaned (Figure 3). This involves passing influent water back up through the resin to remove suspended solids, passing a regenerant solution down

decontamination common

processes. examples

are water

softening and water purification. In many cases ion-exchange resins were introduced in such processes as a more flexible alternative to the use of natural or artificial zeolites. Uses of ion exchange resin are: Far Water Treatment more resin is used for water

through the resin to replace the ions that have bound to the resin and then rinsing again with water to remove the regenerant solution. In water softening the regenerant is a strong solution of sodium chloride.

purification than for any other purpose. It is therefore appropriate to discuss water treatment examples when outlining the application of the principles of ion exchange technology. Industrial ion

exchange units are produced in sizes ranging from a few liters up to vessels holding several tones of resin. Service runs between regenerations usually range from 12 to 48 hours. The two major types of treatment applied to water are water softening - the replacement of hard ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ by Na+ - and demineralization - the complete removal of dissolved minerals. Both of these The types of ion exchanger basically there are four types, for type cation exchange a strong acid using exchanger sulfonic acid functional group. While for the type cation exchange a weak acid using exchanger using a carboxylic acid functional groups,

treatments are outlined below.

and for the type of strong base anion exchange using the exchange functional groups quaternary ammonium ions,

means no longer acidic. To know it is tested with litmus paper blue. Cation exchange resin is generally

whereas for a weak base anion exchanger type using cluster anion exchange

available in the form of hydrogen ion, but the shape is easily converted into sodium ions (salt treatment), which then had an exchange with other cations.

functional groups. Events and solids resin solution of the mutual exchange of charged ions of the same without changing the composition of an organic polymer called ion exchange. Since this type of ion exchange resins are of two kinds, namely the cation exchange resin and cation exchange resin. So that will be discussed here is the cation exchange resin. Cation exchange resin consisting of

EXPERIMENTAL SECTION Material Materials that needed for experiment about cation ion exchange resin are: NaOH 0.1 M, Cation Resin, Aquadest, PP Indicator, Sample, HCl 3M 25 mL, Blue litmus paper Instrumentation Instrument or tools that used in this experiment are:

polymer anion and cation active. Reaction as follows:

nR Z SO 3 H M n

(R z SO 3 ) n M nH (R z CO 3 ) n M nH

Erlenmeyer 250 mL (3 units), Volumetric pipette 10 mL (1 unit), Biuret 50 mL (1 unit), Graduated cylinder 25 mL (1 unit), Beaker glass 250 mL (2 units), Stative and clamp (2 units), Pipette (3 units), Resin Column (1 unit), Volumetric flask 100 mL (1 unit), Funnel (1 unit). Procedure
Regeneration and Washing The Resin Column Put resin ocloumn on stative, then pour it with 25 ml of HCl 3M, its used to rinse the resin coloumn, then open the tap to make the HCl come out. After that poured with 5 x 25 mL of aquadest until does not has acid properties, to know it check with blue litmus paper, for the


Where Rz symbol of the resin. In stoichiometric n mmol H = 1 mmol M , the number of H ions are exchanged can be determined by neutralization titration, which can be used to calculate the number of H ions. Concentration of H is bound in the resin can be determined by the following equation [H+] end = [H+] total - [H+] initial In the experiment, the remains of which flows cation was removed by cation exchange resin using HCl, then washed with water to remove the remaining HCl,
+ + + + +

last poured with aquadest again until - 1 cm over to resin for make resin not dry.

our experiment is 38 drops/ minutes. After HCl solution is still 1- cm we pour the aquadest. And we must to keep the resin column is not dry, it has the fuction to keep the resin column in order to make it didnt damage because if the resin column is dry the resin can break and

Determination of H Initial A sample solution is diluted until 10 times in 100 mL volumetric flask. After that, take 10 mL sample and put into

Erlenmeyer flask, add with 40mL aquadest and 3 drops of PP indicator.then titrated by NaOH 0.1 M. Note the volume of NaOH solution that needed for titration. Determination of H+ Total
Last step for this experiment are Take 1 mL of sample solution that have been diluted with volumetric glass, pour it into resin coloumn and open the tap, patch the drops of sample from resin coloumn into Erlenmeyer flask. Added by 4 x 25 ml aquadest into resin column. Patch in the same Erlenmeyer flask too. After it finish, added 3 drops of PP indicator and titrated it by NaOH 0.1M too. Note the volume of NaOH that needed.

automatically the function of resin is can not change the ion, in other words experiment will be failed. The adding aquadest is until the condition of resin is to be neutral. And from our experiment we need adding aquadest 11 times with the volume of each adding aquadest is 25 mL. To check whether the resin column is neutral we must to check with blue litmus paper the drops of solution from resin column. And make sure that the blue litmus paper is still blue, and it is indicate that the resin column is now neutral. In the determination of initial


concentration of H+ step. The sample must be dilute ten times. After that we take 10 mL in the conical flask. After that we add 40 mL aquadest. The adding 40 mL of aquadest is in order to make the sample solution is not concentrated too, so the volume of titrant that needed is not much, and it is more efficient. That we must to do neutralization titration. Before we titrate the sample solution, we must to add 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. The adding of PP indicator is to show the equivalent point of the titration. It is

First step we must to regenerate the resin column. Regeneration the resin column is aimed to change the trapped ion in resin by initial ion (H+) in resin and return the exchange capacity of resin to desired level or initial level. In regeneration step we must to make sure that there are no airs bubbles. After that we pour 25 mL HCl. This step is has function to lost the remain cations that have been flowed. Then we must to set the drops of the solution out from the resin. And the drops velocity of

indicated with the changing of colour solution from colourless become to pink. And titration must be stopped when the solution is precise become to pink. And we write the volume of NaOH that needed. We do the titration in this step is 3 times. And we get that the volume of NaOH needed is : 1st titration the volume of NaOH are 6.3 mL then in 2nd titration is 6.2 mL and the 3rd titration is 6.2 mL. then we calculate the concentration of H+ by using the formula : mmole HCl=mmole NaOH mmole HCl=VNaOHMNaOH Then we get that amount of H+ in the 1st titration is 0,63 mmole .then the 2nd titration is 0,62 mmole. And 3rd titration is 0,62 mmole. Then the average concentration of H+ initial is 0,623 mmole. Then we get the initial

1cm, we take the conical flask and then we titrated with NaOH. Before we do the titration we must to add with

phenolphthalein indicator. And we stop when it is in equivalent point, that indicated with the changing of solution color from colorless become to pink. We write the volume of NaOH that needed, and we do this step until three times. The all volume of NaOH that needed is 12.1 mL. then we calculate the concentration of H+ in this titration using the formula : mmole HCl=mmole NaOH mmole HCl=VNaOHMNaOH And we find that amount of H+ in 1st titration is 1,21 mmole, 2nd titration is 1,23 mmole, and 3rd titration is 1,21 mmole. and the average amount of HCl is 1,22 mmoles. concentration of then we calculate the H+ is 0.122 M.

concentration 0.0623 M. Then the step of determining the total concentration of H+. we take 10 mL sample which has been diluted. Then we pour in the resin column. We patch to the conical flask. Then we add 25 mL aquadest four times. And patch in the same conical flask. The reason is neutral molecules can enter the pores of resin but the force happening not as strong as force happening in ion and generally those molecules can be released by water. After the 4th adding of aquadest and the volume of solution in resin column is remain

Concentration H+ reacted = H+ total H+ initial. And we get the concentration of H+ reacted is 0.0597 M. Then we calculate the mass of H+ and Na+ . After we find the concentration H+ that reacted we calculate mass of H+ in the sample is 22.73 gram/ L. We use the formula mass of H+ in sample = mol x Mr HCl x fd (frequency of dilution). Then we calculate mass H+ per liter in the sample by using formula : (mass of H^+)/(Volume of dilution) We calculate the mass of Na+ in the sample with the formula like in H+.

and we get the mass of Na+ in the sample per liter is 34.92 gram/ L. CONCLUSSION From the experiment about cation

exchange resin that have been finished, The concentration of H+ in the mixture sample is 0.0597 M. The mass of Na+ in the mixture sample is 34.92 mg.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We gratefully acknowledge the lecturer of Analytical Chemistry II Mrs. Maria Monica, assistance of laboratorium, and other friends, because of the guidance so the experiment can be done greatly.

REFERENCES - Poedjiastoeti, 2012. Panduan Praktikum Kimia Analitik II: DasarDasar Pemisahan Kimia. Surabaya: Unesa. - Soebagio. dkk. 2003. Common Textbook: Kimia Analitik II. Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: Jica - Underwood, A.L., dan Day R. A. 2001. Analisis Kimia Kuantitatif Edisi Keenam. Erlangga. Jakarta. - tikel-Resin-Penukar-Ion (accessed at: Saturday, 5 May 2012) - Alchin, David and Wansbrough, Heather. 2010. Ion Exchange Resins. On 3D.pdf (accessed at: Saturday, 5 May 2012) - (accessed at: Saturday, 5 May 2012)