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LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA

FISIKA DASAR I
(PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN FISIKA)

TIM PENYUSUN

DITERBITKAN OLEH:

UNIT PELAKSANA TEKNIS (UPT)


LABORATORIUM DASAR

UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
PALU 2018
DAFTAR ISI
Halaman

SAMPUL........................................................................................................................ i
DAFTAR ISI .................................................................................................................. ii
PEDOMAN PRAKTIKUM ........................................................................................... iii
PERCOBAAN I Pengukuran Dasar dan Ketidakpastian pada Hasil
Pengukuran ................................................................................. 1
PERCOBAAN II Bandul Sederhana ....................................................................... 19
PERCOBAAN III Massa Jenis Zat Cair ................................................................... 34
PERCOBAAN IV Viskositas .................................................................................... 45
PERCOBAAN V Elastisitas .................................................................................... 62
PERCOBAAN VI Penentuan Percepatan Gravitasi Bumi Melalui Percobaan
Bidang Miring ............................................................................. 74
PERCOBAAN VII Kalor Lebur Es ............................................................................ 83
PERCOBAAN VIII Koefisien Muai Panjang ............................................................. 92

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman ii


PEDOMAN PRAKTIKUM

1.1.Pelaksanaan Praktikum
Praktikum Fisika Dasar I dilaksanakan dengan empat tahap tiap harinya , yaitu
 Pagi : Jam 08.00 – 10.00 wita
 Siang : Jam 10.30 – 12.30 wita
Jam 13.00 – 15.00 wita
 Sore : Jam 15.30 – 17.30 wita

1.2.Tata tertib Praktikum


1. Dilarang makan dan minum di dalam laboratorium selama praktikum berlangsung
2. Dilarang menggunakan hp selama praktikum, kecuali untuk keperluan praktikum/
keluarga yang sangat mendesak.
3. Berpakaian yang rapi dan sopan, laki laki menggunakan kemeja/baju berkerah dan
perempuan menggunakan jilbab (untuk yang muslim) dan mengikat rambut untuk
yang non muslim.
4. Bagi perempuan diwajibkan menggunakan rok selama praktikum berlangsung
5. Praktikan dilarang keluar laboratorium tanpa seizin asisten praktikum
6. Praktikan diwajibkan menggunakan name tag untuk yang tidak memakai baju
laboratorium sendiri.
7. Asisten diwajibkan hadir 20 menit sebelum praktikum dimulai/kecuali yang jam
kuliahnya berdekatan/bertabrakan.
8. Praktikan diwajibkan hadir 15 menit sebelum praktikum dimulai
9. Asisten toleransi keterlambatan 30 menit
10. Praktikan toleransi keterlambatan 15 menit.

1.3.Tata Pelaksanaan Praktikum


1. Memasuki ruangan laboratorium (5 menit)
2. Menyerahkan tugas awal (5 menit)
3. Kuis (15 menit). Pertanyaan meliputi tujuan, alat dan bahan, teori singkat ataupun
tugas awal
4. Pengarahan dari asisten tentang hal-hal yang berhubungan dengn praktikum yang
akan dilaksanakan (15 menit)
5. Pengambilan data (60 menit)
6. Merapikan alat dan bahan yang telah dipakai (10 menit)
7. Pengarahan dari asisten tentang cara analisa data dan pengisian LKM (10 menit)

1.4.Sistem Penilaian
Sistem penilaian akhir praktikum adalah sebagai berikut
1. Asistensi (5%) 4. Sikap (10%)
2. Tugas awal (10%) 5. Keterampilan (15%)
3. Kuis (15%) 6. LKM (45%)

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman iii


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN I
PENGUKURAN DASAR DAN KETIDAKPASTIAN PENGUKURAN PADA
HASIL PENGUKURAN

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ………………………..


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
1. Menentukan batas ukur dan NST beberapa alat ukur dasar
2. Menentukan ketidakpastian pada hasil pengukuran dan hasil percobaan serta
menjelaskan arti statistiknya
3. Menggunakan jangka sorong, mikrometer sekrup dan neraca ohaus 311 gram
4. Mencari besaran turunan (volume dan massa jenis)
5. Mengungkapkan hasil perhitungan lengkap dengan ketidakpastiannya

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Balok 9. Busur derajat
2. Kelereng besar 10. Neraca ohaus 3 lengan
3. Kelereng kecil 11. Neraca ohaus 4 lengan
4. Pipa paralon 12. Neraca digital
5. Mistar 13. Termometer
6. Jangka sorong (2 buah) 14. Stopwatch
7. Jangka sorong digital 15. Multimeter
8. Mikrometer sekrup (2 buah)

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang akan digunakan pada percobaan ini
2. Tentukan batas ukur dan NST dari alat ukur. Catat hasil yang diperoleh kedalam
tabel hasil pengamatan
3. Pengukuran tunggal
1) Ukur panjang, lebar, dan tinggi balok dengan menggunakan jangka sorong
masing-masing satu kali
2) Ukur diameter kelereng besar dan kelereng kecil dengan menggunakan
mikrometer sekrup masing-masing satu kali
3) Ukur diameter dalam, diameter luar, dan tinggi pipa paralon menggunakan
jangka sorong masing-masing satu kali
4) Ukur massa balok, kelereng besar, kelereng keil, dan pipa paralon
menggunakan neraca ohaus

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 2


4. Pengukuran tunggal berulang
1) Ukur panjang balok menggunakan jangka sorong sebanyak satu kali
2) Ukur lebar dan tinggi balok menggunakan jangka sorong masing-masing
sebanyak lima kali pengulangan
3) Ukur tingi pipa paralon menggunakan jangka sorong sebanyak satu kali
4) Ukur diameter dalam dan diameter luar pipa paralon menggunakan jangka
sorong masing-masing sebanyak 5 kali pengulangan
5) Ukur massa balok dan pipa paralon menggunakan neraca ohaus
5. Pengukuran berulang
1) Ukur panjang, lebar dan tinggi balok menggunakan jangka sorong masing-
masing sebanyak lima kali pengulangan
2) Ukur diameter kelereng besar dan kelereng kecil menggunakan mikrometer
sekrup masing-masing sebanyak lima kali pengulangan
3) Ukur tinggi, diameter dalam dan diameter luar pipa paralon menggunakan
jangka sorong masing-masing sebanyak lima kali pengulangan
4) Ukur massa balok, kelereng besar, kelereng kecil, dan pipa paralon
menggunakan neraca ohaus
6. Catat data hasil pengukuran ke dalam tabel hasil pengamatan

V. Hasil Pengamatan
1. Penentuan NST dan Batas Ukur Alat Ukur
No Nama Alat Ukur Batas Ukur NST

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 3


2. Pengukuran Tunggal
a. Balok
Massa = ………………… kg Lebar = ………………… m

Panjang = ………………… m Tinggi = ………………… m

 Volume
V = 𝑝𝑙𝑡
=
=
 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

b. Kelereng
 Kelereng Besar
Massa = ……………………… kg
Diameter = ……………………… m
 Volume
𝐷
r=2 =

4
V = 3 𝜋𝑟 3 =

=
 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

 Kelereng Kecil
Massa = ……………………… kg
Diameter = ……………………… m
 Volume
𝐷
r=2 =

4
V = 3 𝜋𝑟 3 =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 4


 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

c. Pipa Paralon
Massa = ………………… kg Dluar = ………………… m
Ddalam = ………………… m Tinggi = ………………… m
 Volume
- Diameter dalam
𝐷
r=2 =

VD = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑡 =
=
- Diameter luar
𝐷
r=2 =

VL = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑡 =
=
- Vt = VL – VD =

 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌=𝑉 =
𝑡

3. Pengukuran Tunggal Berulang


a. Balok
Massa = ……………………… kg
Panjang = ……………………… m
No l (m) t (m)
1
2
3
4
5

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 5


 Volume
𝑙 1 +𝑙 2 +𝑙 3 +𝑙 4 +𝑙 5
𝑙= =
𝑛
=
𝑡 1 +𝑡 2 +𝑡 3 +𝑡 4 +𝑡 5
𝑡= =
𝑛

V = 𝑝 .𝑙 .𝑡 =
=

 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

b. Pipa Paralon
Massa = ……………………… kg
Tinggi = ……………………… m
𝐷
rdalam = 𝑑𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑚 rluar =
𝐷𝑙𝑢𝑎𝑟
(m)
No Ddalam (m) 2 Dluar (m) 2
(m)
1
2
3
4
5

 Volume
- Diameter dalam
𝑟1 +𝑟2 +𝑟3 +𝑟4 +𝑟5
𝑟𝑑𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑚 = =
𝑛

2
VD = 𝜋𝑟𝑑𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑚 𝑡 =
=
- Diameter luar
𝑟1 +𝑟2 +𝑟3 +𝑟4 +𝑟5
𝑟𝑙𝑢𝑎𝑟 = =
𝑛

2
VL = 𝜋𝑟𝑙𝑢𝑎𝑟 𝑡 =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 6


=
- Vt = VL – VD =

 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌=𝑉 =
𝑡

4. Pengukuran Berulang
a. Balok
Massa = ……………………… kg
No p (m) l (m) t (m)
1
2
3
4
5

 Volume
𝑝 1 +𝑝 2 +𝑝 3 +𝑝 4 +𝑝 5
𝑝= =
𝑛

=
𝑙 1 +𝑙 2 +𝑙 3 +𝑙 4 +𝑙𝑟5
𝑙= =
𝑛

=
𝑡 1 +𝑡 2 +𝑡 3 +𝑡 4 +𝑡 5
𝑡= =
𝑛

V = 𝑝. 𝑙 . 𝑡 =
=
 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

b. Kelereng
 Kelereng Besar
Massa = ……………………… kg

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 7


𝐷
No D (m) r = (m)
2
1
2
3
4
5

 Volume
𝑟1 +𝑟2 +𝑟3 +𝑟4 +𝑟5
𝑟= =
𝑛

=
4
V = 3 𝜋𝑟 3 =

=
 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

 Kelereng Kecil
Massa = ……………………… kg
𝐷
No D (m) r = 2 (m)
1
2
3
4
5

 Volume
𝑟1 +𝑟2 +𝑟3 +𝑟4 +𝑟5
𝑟= =
𝑛

=
4
V = 3 𝜋𝑟 3 =

=
 Massa jenis

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 8


𝑚
𝜌= =
𝑉

c. Pipa Paralon
Massa = ……………………… kg
𝐷 𝐷
rdalam = 𝑑𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑚 rluar = 𝑙𝑢𝑎𝑟
No t (m) Ddalam (m) 2 Dluar (m) 2
(m) (m)
1
2
3
4
5

 Volume
𝑡 1 +𝑡 2 +𝑡 3 +𝑡 4 +𝑡 5
𝑡= =
𝑛
=
- Diameter dalam
𝑟1 +𝑟2 +𝑟3 +𝑟4 +𝑟5
𝑟= =
𝑛

VD = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑡 =
=
- Diameter luar
𝑟1 +𝑟2 +𝑟3 +𝑟4 +𝑟5
𝑟= =
𝑛

VL = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑡 =
=
- Vt = VL – VD =
=
 Massa jenis
𝑚
𝜌=𝑉 =
𝑡

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 9


VI. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan
1. Jelaskan perbedaan pengukuran tunggal, pengukuran tunggal berulang, dan
pengukuran berulang

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2. Mengapa pada balok dan pipa paralon dilakukan pengukuran tunggal berulang
sedangkan kelereng tidak dilakukan? Jelaskan alasanmu!

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3. Mengapa harus dilakukan pengukuran berulang? Jelaskan alasanmu!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 10


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4. Tuliskan hasil pengukuran beserta ketidakpastian pada pengukuran balok, kelereng


dan pipa paralon pada pengukuran tunggal

1
Δm = 2 NST Neraca Ohaus=

a. Balok
1
Δp = Δl = Δt = 2 NST Jangka sorong =

p = p ± Δp =
l = l ± Δl =
t = t ± Δt =
m = m ± Δm =

b. Kelereng
1
Δr = 2 NST Mikrometer sekrup =

r = r ± Δr =
m = m ± Δm =

c. Pipa Paralon
1
Δr = Δt = 2 NST Jangka sorong =

rdalam = rdalam ± Δr =
rluar = rluar ± Δr =
t = t + Δt =
m = m + Δm =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 11


5. Tuliskan hasil pengukuran volume balok beserta ketidakpastian berdasarkan hasil
pengukuran tunggal

V =pxlxt
= ………………………………………………….
= …………………………..

∆𝑉 = 𝑙𝑡 ∆𝑝 + 𝑝𝑡 ∆𝑙 + 𝑝𝑙 ∆𝑡
= ……………………………………………………………
= …………………….
KTPm = ∆𝑉 =
∆𝑉
KTPr = x 100% =
𝑉

∆𝑉
AB = 1 – log =
𝑉

Pelaporan : 𝑉 ± ∆𝑉 =

6. Tuliskan hasil pengukuran volume pipa paralon beserta ketidakpastian


berdasarkan hasil pengukuran tunggal berulang

a. Standar deviasi jari-jari untuk diamater dalam


t = ……………..
No r (meter) r2 (meter2)
1
2
3
4
5

𝑟=
VD =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 12


1 𝑛Σ𝑟 2 −(Σ𝑟)2
𝛿𝑟 = 𝑛 𝑛 −1

1 …….. x …………………….. 2 −(……………………..)2


= …….. ……….−1

=
1
2 2 2
2 2
∆𝑉𝐷 = 2𝜋𝑟𝑡 𝛿𝑟 + 𝜋𝑟 2 2 3 ∆𝑡

KTPm = ∆𝑉𝐷 =
∆𝑉𝐷
KTPr = x 100% =
𝑉𝐷

∆𝑉𝐷
AB = 1 – log =
𝑉𝐷

Pelaporan : 𝑉𝐷 ± ∆𝑉𝐷 =

b. Standar deviasi jari-jari untuk diamater luar


t = …………………….
No r (meter) r2 (meter2)
1
2
3
4
5

𝑟=
VL =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 13


1 𝑛Σ𝑟 2 −(Σ𝑟 )2
𝛿𝑟 =
𝑛 𝑛−1

=
=

1
2 2 2
2 2
∆𝑉𝐿 = 2𝜋𝑟𝑡 𝛿𝑟 + 𝜋𝑟 2 2 3 ∆𝑡

KTPm = ∆𝑉𝐿 =
∆𝑉𝐿
KTPr = x 100% =
𝑉𝐿

∆𝑉𝐿
AB = 1 – log =
𝑉𝐿

Pelaporan : 𝑉𝐿 ± ∆𝑉𝐿 =

7. Tuliskan hasil pengukuran massa jenis kelereng beserta ketidakpastiannya


berdasarkan hasil pengukuran berulang
Jawab :
m = …………………. kg
No r (meter) r2 (meter2)
1
2
3
4
5

𝑟=

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 14


V=
1 𝑛Σ𝑟 2 −(Σ𝑟)2
𝛿𝑟 = 𝑛 𝑛 −1

1 …….. x …………………….. 2 −(……………………..)2


= …….. ……….−1

=
1
∆𝑉 = 4𝜋𝑟 2 2
𝛿𝑟 2 2

𝜌 =
1
1 2 2 2 𝑚 2 2
2
∆𝜌 = ∆𝑚 + ∆𝑉
𝑉 3 𝑉2

=
=
KTPm = ∆𝜌 =
∆𝜌
KTPr = x 100% =
𝜌

∆𝜌
AB = 1 – log =
𝜌

Pelaporan : 𝜌 ± ∆𝜌 =

8. Jelaskan arti dari Ketidakpastian Relatif yang Anda peroleh

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 15


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9. Jelaskan sumber-sumber kesalahan pada percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 16


VII. Kesimpulan:

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 17


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 18


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN II
BANDUL SEDERHANA

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ………………………….


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
2.1.Tujuan Instruksional Umum
1. Memahami konsep gerak harmonik sederhana dan beberapa faktor yang
mempengaruhi periode (waktu ayun)
2.2.Tujuan Instruksional Khusus
1. Mengukur periode gerak bandul sederhana
2. Menghitung percepatan gravitasi bumi

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Bandul (2 buah) 5. Stopwatch
2. Statif 6. Neraca digital
3. Busur derajat 7. Mistar 100 cm
4. Tali atau benang secukupnya

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang akan digunakan pada perobaan ini.
2. Timbang massa bandul A dan B menggunakan neraca digital.
3. Ukur panjang tali sebesar 1 meter menggunakan mistar.
4. Ikat bandul A pada tali dengan ukuran 1 meter.
5. Berikan simpangan sudut menggunakan busur derajat sebesar 5o.
6. Lepaskan bandul dari simpangan.
7. Biarkan bandul berosilasi sebanyak 2 ayunan, kemudian menekan tombol
“mulai” pada stopwatch.
8. Tekan tombol “berhenti” pada stopwatch ketika bandul sudah berosilasi
sebanyak “4” ayunan.
9. Lakukan langkah 5-8 sebanyak 3 kali perlakuan.
10. Ulangi langkah 5-9 dengan simpangan 10o.
11. Ulangi langkah 3-10 dengan panjang tali 1,2 meter.
12. Ulangi langkah 3-11 dengan dengan ayunan sebanyak “8” ayunan
13. Ulangi langkah 3-12 dengan menggunakan bandul

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 20


V. Hasil Pengamatan

n= 4 ayunan
Waktu rata- Periode Percepatan
rata 𝒕 Gravitasi (g)
Waktu (s) 𝒕𝟏 + 𝒕𝟐 + 𝒕𝟑 𝑻= 𝟒𝝅𝟐 𝑳
No
Massa Simpangan
L (m)
𝒕=
𝟑 𝒏 𝒈=
(Kg) (θ) n=4 𝑻𝟐

t1 t2 t3 𝑡 (s) T (s) g (m/s2)

n= 8 ayunan
Waktu rata- Periode Percepatan
rata 𝒕 Gravitasi (g)
Waktu (s) 𝒕𝟏 + 𝒕𝟐 + 𝒕𝟑 𝑻= 𝟒𝝅𝟐 𝑳
No
Massa Simpangan
L (m)
𝒕=
𝟑 𝒏 𝒈=
(Kg) (θ) n=8 𝑻𝟐

t1 t2 t3 𝑡 (s) T (s) g (m/s2)

NST Mistar = m
NST Stopwatch = s
NST Neraca = kg
NST Busur derajat = rad

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 21


VI. Analisa Data

n=4 ayunan

1) Menghitung Periode Bandul (T)


Bandul A
0
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 = m
𝑡
𝑇= = s
𝑛

o L2=
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

o L2 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

Bandul B
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛
o L2 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛
o L2 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 22


2) Menghitung Percepatan Gravitasi (g)
Bandul A
0
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 = m
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 = 𝑚 𝑠2
𝑇

o L2 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

c) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

o L2 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

Bandul B
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= =
𝑇2

o L2 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= =
𝑇2

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= =
𝑇2

o L2 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 23


n=8 ayunan

1) Menghitung Periode Bandul (T)


Bandul A
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

o L2=
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

o L2 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

Bandul B
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛
o L2 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛
o L2 =
𝑡
𝑇= =
𝑛

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 24


2) Menghitung Percepatan Gravitasi (g)
Bandul A
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

o L2=
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

o L2=
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

Bandul B
a) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= =
𝑇2

o L2 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= =
𝑇2

b) Simpangan (θ) =
o L1 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= =
𝑇2

o L2 =
4𝜋 2 𝐿
𝑔= 2 =
𝑇

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 25


VII. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan
1. Jelaskan pengertian gerak harmonik sederhana!

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2. Jelaskan pengertian bandul sederhana!

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3. Tuliskan fungsi alat dan bahan yang digunakan pada percobaan bandul sederhana!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 26


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𝑙
4. Uraikan persamaan hukum II Newton sehingga diperoleh persamaan 𝑇 = 2𝜋 !
𝑔

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 27


5. Jelaskan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi periode ayunan!

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𝑙
6. Dari persamaan 𝑇 = 2𝜋 , uraikan suatu persamaan untuk menentukan
𝑔

percepatan gravitasi (g) !

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 28


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7. Jelaskan hubungan antara gerak harmonik sederhana dengan penentuan percepatan


gravitasi bumi!

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8. Bagaimana percepatan gravitasi ketika simpangan bandulnya di ubah? Jelaskan


mengapa demikian!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 29


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9. Bagaimana percepatan gravitasi ketika panjang talinya di ubah? Jelaskan mengapa


demikian!

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10. Bagaimana percepatan gravitasi ketika massa bandulnya berubah? Jelaskan


mengapa demikian!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 30


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11. Tuliskan faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi percepatan gravitasi di suatu
tempat!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 31


VIII. Kesimpulan
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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 32


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 33


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN III
MASSA JENIS ZAT CAIR

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ………………………..


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
2.1. Tujuan Instruksional Umum
1. Memahami hukum hidrostatika sebagai landasan untuk menentukan massa
jenis zat cair dengan alat pipa-U
2.2. Tujuan Instruksional Khusus
1. Mengerti cara melakukan percobaan dan mempraktekkannya dengan benar
2. Membuktikan rumus untuk menghitung massa jenis zat cair dengan alat
pipa-U
3. Menentukan massa jenis zat cair dengan pipa U (2 jenis zat cair dan 3 jenis
zat cair)
4. Membandingkan massa jenis hasil percobaana dengan yang ada dalam
literatur

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Pipa U (1 set) 5. Alkohol
2. Pipet tetes (3 buah) 6. Air raksa
3. Gelas kimia (3 buah) 7. Mistar
4. Aquades 8. Tissu

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang digunakan pada percobaan ini
2. Atur kedudukan pipa U sedemikian rupa hingga letaknya tidak miring
3. Isi pipa U dengan air raksa menggunakan pipet tetes hingga air raksa
menunjukkan skala yang sama (seimbang)
4. Masukkan beberapa tetes zat cair yang akan diselidiki di kaki sebelah kiri dari
pipa U dengan menggunakan pipet tetes sampai air raksa di sebelah kanan pipa
mengalami perubahan ketinggian
5. Ukur h1 untuk ketinggian air raksa dan h2 untuk ketinggian zat cair yang akan
diselidiki
6. Ulangi langkah 4-5 sebanyak 4 kali dengan merubah tinggi permukaan zat cair
yang diselidiki menggunakan pipet tetes
7. Catat data ke dalam tabel hasil pengamatan dua jenis zat cair
8. Keluarkan semua zat cair dari pipa U dan bersihkan pipa U

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 35


9. Ulangi langkah 2-3
10. Masukkan beberapa tetes zat cair pembanding 2 di kaki sebelah kiri dari pipa U
dengan menggunakan pipet tetes sampai air raksa di sebelah kanan pipa
mengalami perubahan ketinggian
11. Masukkan beberapa tetes zat cair yang akan diselidiki di kaki sebelah kanan
pipa U menggunakan pipet tetes
12. Ukur h1 untuk ketinggian air raksa, h2 untuk ketinggian alkohol dan h3 untuk
ketinggian aquades dengan menggunakan mistar
13. Ulangi langkah 12-13 sebanyak 4 kali dengan merubah tinggi permukaan zat
cair yang diselidiki menggunakan pipet tetes
14. Catat data ke dalam tabel hasil pengamatan tiga jenis zat cair

V. Hasil Pengamatan
a. Dua jenis zat cair
No. h1 (cm) h2 (cm)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Keterangan :
h1 =
h2 =
b. Tiga jenis zat cair
No. h1 (cm) h2 (cm) h3 (cm)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Keterangan:
h1 =
h2 =
h3 =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 36


VI. Analisa Data
1. Dua jenis zat cair

1h1
2  kg m-3
h2

Perlakuan 1

2 

Perlakuan 2

2 

Perlakuan 3

2 

2. Tiga jenis zat cair

1h1   2 h2
3 
h3

Perlakuan 1
ρ3 =

Perlakuan 2
ρ3 =

Perlakuan 3
ρ3 =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 37


VII. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan
1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan massa jenis?

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2. Tuliskan fungsi alat dan bahan pada percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 38


3. Bagaimana cara menentukan massa jenis zat cair (dalam hal ini aquades/air) dengan
menggunakan pipa-U yang terdiri dari 2 jenis zat cair? (kaitkan jawaban Anda
dengan hukum hidrostatika)

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4. Bagaimana cara menentukan massa jenis zat cair (dalam hal ini aquades/air) dengan
menggunakan pipa-U yang terdiri dari 3 jenis zat cair? (kaitkan jawaban Anda
dengan hukum hidrostatika)

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 39


5. Apa yang menyebabkan permukaan air raksa yang berada di pipa-U menjadi
berbeda ketinggiannya setelah ditambahkan aquades/air? Jelaskan!

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6. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan Anda untuk pipa-U dengan 3 jenis zat cair,
permukaan air raksa manakah yang lebih tinggi? Permukaan air raksa yang di
atasnya ada aquades/airatau permukaan air raksa yang diatasnya ada alkohol?
Jelaskan fakrot-faktor yang menyebabkan perbedaan ketinggian pada permukaan air
raksa tersebut!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 40


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7. Tuliskan massa jenis zat cair (aquades/air) yang diperoleh pada percobaan ini.
Bandingkan massa jenis tersebut dengan literatur!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 41


8. Tuliskan sumber-sumber kesalahan pada percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 42


VIII. Kesimpulan

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 43


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 44


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN IV
VISKOSITAS

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ………………………..


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
1. Menentukan besarnya nilai viskositas dari masing-masing zat cair
2. Membandingkan hasil eksperimen penentuan viskositas suatu zat cair tertentu
dengan nilai viskositas suatu zat cair cair tertentu yang menjadi literatur
3. Menentukan kecepatan jatuhnya kelereng di dalam suatu zat cair yang
merupakan kecepatan terminal
4. Menentukan hubungan grafik antara Tr2 terhadap waktu tempuh kelereng yang
bergerak didalam suatu zat cair.

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Tabung fluida 1000 mL 5. Zat Cair Oli 1000 mL
2. Gelas Ukur 250 mL 6. Tissue secukupnya
3. Kelereng besar dan Kelereng 7. Sendok Saringan
kecil 8. Neraca Digital
4. Zat Cair Minyak 1000 mL 9. Mikrometer Sekrup

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang akan digunakan dalam percobaan ini
2. Timbang massa kelereng besar dan kelereng kecil menggunakan neraca digital
3. Ukur diameter kelereng kecil dan kelereng besar dengan menggunakan
mikrometer sekrup
4. Timbang massa gelas ukur yang belum berisi zat cair oli menggunakan neraca
digital
5. Timbang massa gelas ukur yang berisi zat cair oli dengan menggunakan
neraca digital
6. Masukkan zat cair oli kedalam tabung fluida untuk volume 1000 mL
7. Buat garis pembatas jarak antara permukaan fluida dengan jarak yang akan
ditempuh oleh kelereng yang bergerak didalam zat cair sejauh 20 cm.
8. Masukkan sendok saringan kedalam tabung fluida
9. Masukkan kelereng besar kedalam tabung fluida, dengan syarat bahwa
kelereng diusahakan sedekat mungkin dengan permukaan zat cair oli agar
ketika kelereng dilepaskan dan bergerak ke dalam fluida tidak akan ada
pengaruh gaya gesekan dari udara/fluida lain selain oli.

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 46


10. Siapkan stopwatch hp untuk menghitung waktu yang diperlukan oleh kelereng
besar ketika bergerak didalam fluida atau zat cair oli pada jarak 20 cm.
11. Lepaskan kelereng bersamaan dengan menghidupkan stopwacth hp
12. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke-12 sebanyak 4 kali
13. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke-9 sampai prosedur kerja ke-12 dengan
mengganti kelereng besar menjadi kelereng kecil.
14. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke-7 sampai prosedur kerja ke-13 dengan
jarak 30 cm
15. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke- 4 samapai prosedur kerja ke-14
dengan mengganti zat cair oli dengan zat cair minyak.
16. Catat data yang diperoleh ke dalam tabel hasil pengamatan

V. Hasil Pengamatan
a. Pengukuran
Nama benda atau zat NST Alat
Hasil pengukuran Nama alat ukur
yang diukur ukur
Massa zat cair Oli
Massa zat cair Minyak
Diameter kelereng kecil
Diameter Kelereng besar
Volume zat cair oli
Volume zat cair minyak
Massa Gelas Ukur kosong
Massa kelereng besar
Massa kelereng kecil

b. Untuk Zat Cair Oli


Waktu Tempuh Kelereng (s)
Jarak
Kelereng pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan
(m)
ke-1(t1) ke-2(t2) ke-3(t3) ke-4 (t4)
A
0,20
B
A
0,25
B

c. Untuk Zat Cair Minyak


Waktu Tempuh Kelereng (s)
Jarak
Kelereng pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan
(m)
ke-1(t1) ke-2(t2) ke-3(t3) ke-4 (t4)
A
0,20
B

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 47


A
0,25
B

VI. Analisa Data


a. Perhitungan
1. Menghitung Volume Kelereng
4 4 3
𝑉𝐴 = 𝜋𝑟 3 𝑉𝐵 = 𝜋𝑟
3 3
4 4
𝑉𝐴 = (3,14)(… … … … … . . )3 𝑉𝐵 = (3,14)(… … … … … . . )3
3 3
𝑉𝐴 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … 𝑚3 𝑉𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … 𝑚3

2. Menghitung Massa Jenis Kelereng


𝑚 𝑚
𝜌𝐴 = 𝜌𝐵 =
𝑉 𝑉
… … … … … … … … . 𝑘𝑔 … … … … … … … … . 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝐴 = 𝜌𝐵 =
… … … … … … … … … … 𝑚3 … … … … … … … … … … 𝑚3
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝐴 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … … … … … . 𝑚3 𝜌𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … … … … . 𝑚3

3. Menghitung Massa Jenis Fluida


𝑚 𝑚
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
𝑉 𝑉
… … … … … … … … . 𝑘𝑔 … … … … … … … … . 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
… … … … … … … … … … 𝑚3 … … … … … … … … … … 𝑚3
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … 𝑚3 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 = ⋯……………………… 𝑚3

4. Menghitung Kecepatan Jatuh Kelereng Didalam Suatu Zat cair


 Jarak 0,2 meter
a. Zat Cair Minyak b. Zat Cair Oli
Menghitung waktu rata-rata Menghitung waktu rata-rata
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡𝐴 = 𝑛 𝑡𝐴 = 𝑛
𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4 𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4
𝑡𝐴 = 𝑡𝐴 =
…………………… ………………..
……+ …….+ ……+ ……. ……+ …….+ ……+ …….
𝑡𝐴 = 𝑡𝐴 =
………………. …………………….
𝑡𝐴 = ⋯ … … … 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝐴 = ⋯ … … … 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
Menghitung waktu rata-rata Menghitung waktu rata-rata
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡𝐵 = 𝑛 𝑡𝐵 = 𝑛
𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4 𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4
𝑡𝐵 = 𝑡𝐵 =
……………….. ………………..

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 48


……+ …….+ ……+ ……. ……+ …….+ ……+ …….
𝑡𝐵 = 𝑡𝐵 =
…………………. ………………….
𝑡𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng
𝑠 𝑠
𝑣𝐴 = 𝑣𝐴 =
𝑡𝐵 𝑡𝐵
…………………..𝑚 …………………..𝑚
𝑣𝐴 = 𝑣𝐴 =
… … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝑣𝐴 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠 𝑣𝐴 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠
Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng
𝑠 𝑠
𝑣𝐵 = 𝑣𝐵 =
𝑡𝐵 𝑡𝐵
…………………..𝑚 …………………..𝑚
𝑣𝐵 = 𝑣𝐵 =
… … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝑣𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠 𝑣𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠

 Untuk Jarak 0,3 meter


a. Zat Cair Minyak b. Zat Cair Oli
Menghitung waktu rata-rata Menghitung waktu rata-rata
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡𝐴 = 𝑛 𝑡𝐴 = 𝑛
𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4 𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4
𝑡𝐴 = 𝑡𝐴 =
……………….. …………………..
……+ …….+ ……+ ……. ……+ …….+ ……+ …….
𝑡𝐴 = 𝑡𝐴 =
…………………. ………………….
𝑡𝐴 = ⋯ … … … 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝐴 = ⋯ … … … 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
Menghitung waktu rata-rata Menghitung waktu rata-rata
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡𝐵 = 𝑛 𝑡𝐵 = 𝑛
𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4 𝑡1 + 𝑡2 + 𝑡3 + 𝑡4
𝑡𝐵 = 𝑡𝐵 =
…………….. ……………
……+ …….+ ……+ ……. ……+ …….+ ……+ …….
𝑡𝐵 = 𝑡𝐵 =
………………….. ………………..
𝑡𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng
𝑠 𝑠
𝑣𝐵 = 𝑣𝐵 =
𝑡𝐵 𝑡𝐵
…………………..𝑚 …………………..𝑚
𝑣𝐵 = 𝑣𝐵 =
… … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝑣𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠 𝑣𝐵 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠
Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng Menghitung kecepatan jatuh kelereng
𝑠 𝑠
𝑣𝐴 = 𝑣𝐴 =
𝑡𝐵 𝑡𝐵
…………………..𝑚 …………………..𝑚
𝑣𝐴 = 𝑣𝐴 =
… … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 … … … … … . . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝑣𝐴 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠 𝑣𝐴 = ⋯ … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚 𝑠

5. Menghitung nilai Viskositas dari suatu fluida


a. Zat Cair Minyak

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 49


Untuk jarak 0,2 m kelereng A
2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 −𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘
2 … … … … … … … … … … … … . . … . 2 (9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … . … … … … . − … … … … . . … … … … )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

Untuk jarak 0,2 m kelereng B


2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 −𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘
2 … … … … … … … … … … … … . . … . 2 (9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … . … … … … . − … … … … . . … … … … . )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

Untuk jarak 0,3 m kelereng A


2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 −𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘
2 … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … . 2 (9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … … … … … … . . − … … … … … . . … . . )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

Untuk jarak 0,3 m kelereng B


2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 −𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘
2 ……………………………..……. 2
(9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … … … … … … . . − … … … … … .. … . . )
=
9𝑣
…………………………..
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 = …………………….. 𝑚. 𝑠

b. Zat Cair Oli


Untuk jarak 0,2 m kelereng A
2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
9𝑣

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 50


𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖
2 ……………………………..……. 2
(9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … … … … … … . . − … … … … … . . … … . . )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

Untuk jarak 0,2 m kelereng B


2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖
2 ……………………………..……. 2
(9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … … … … … … . . − … … … … … . . … … . . )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

Untuk jarak 0,3 m kelereng A


2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖
2 ……………………………..……. 2
(9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … … … … … … . . − … … … … … . . … … . . )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

Untuk jarak 0,3 m kelereng B


2𝑟 2 𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖
2 ……………………………..……. 2
(9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 )(… … … … … … … … . . − … … … … … . . … … . . )
=
………………………….. 9𝑣
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 =
……………………………
𝑘𝑔
𝜂𝑜𝑙𝑖 = … … … … … … … … . . 𝑚. 𝑠

6. Menghitung nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐


a. Untuk Zat Cair Minyak
Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,2 m kelereng A
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 51


9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….
Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,2 m kelereng B
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….
Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,3 m kelereng A
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….
Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,3 m kelereng A
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑦𝑎𝑘 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….

b. Untuk Zat Cair Oli


Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,2 m kelereng A
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 52


……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….
Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,2 m kelereng B
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….
Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,3 m kelereng A
9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….

Nilai 𝑻𝒓𝟐 pada jarak 0,3 m kelereng B


9. 𝜂. 𝑠
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2𝑔(𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑎 − 𝜌𝑜𝑙𝑖 )
9. … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … . . (… … … … … … … … … … . )
𝑇𝑟 2 =
2 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 (… … … … … … … . . − … … … … … … … … … … . . )
……………………………
𝑇𝑟 2 =
……………………………………………..

𝑇𝑟 2 = … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 53


b. Gambar Grafik Hubungan Antara 𝑻𝒓𝟐 Dengan Waktu Tempuh (t)
1. Untuk zat cair minyak pada jarak 0,2 m dan 0,3 m dengan menggunakan
kelereng A

2
𝑇𝑟
F (N)

l (m)
t

2. Untuk zat cair minyak pada jarak 0,2 m dan 0,3 m dengan menggunakan
kelereng B

2
𝑇𝑟(N)
F

lt(m)

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 54


3. Untuk zat cair oli pada jarak 0,2 m dan 0,3 m dengan menggunakan
kelereng A

2
F𝑇𝑟
(N)

l (m)
t

4. Untuk zat cair oli pada jarak 0,2 m dan 0,3 m dengan menggunakan kelereng
B

2
F𝑇𝑟(N)

l (m)
t

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 55


VII. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan
1. Ketika kelereng dicemplungkan kedalam suatu zat cair minyak dan oli, Sebutkan
dan jelaskan minimal empat faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kecepatan kelereng
di dalam tabung fluida ?

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2. Apabila gerak kelereng didalam suatu zat cair dianalogikan sebagai gerak jatuh
bebas dengan syarat bahwa pada fluida statis berlaku sifat fluida yang sejati,
Apakah mungkin pada suatu keadaan ,waktu yang di tempuh oleh kelereng A dan
kelereng B akan sama pada ketinggian atau jarak yang sama ? Jelaskan !

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3. Pada praktikum untuk menentukan sifat kekentalan dari suatu zat cair, kita selalu
menggunakan persamaaan-persamaan dan konsep dari fluida statis, kenapa kita

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 56


tidak menggunakan konsep dan persamaan-persamaan dari fluida dinamis yang
meliputi Asas Toricceli dan Asas Kontinuitas ? Jelaskan!
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4. Pada praktikum untuk menentukan sifat kekentalan dari suatu zat cair, Bagaimankah
nilai viskositas dari zat cair oli dan minyak hasil perhitungan atau eksperimen
dengan nilai viskositas pada literatur ? Jelaskan mengapa hal tersebut bisa terjadi !

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5. Sebutkan dan jelaskan perbedaan yang paling mendasar antara zat cair minyak dan
zat cair oli berdasarkan hasil eksperimen yang sudah dilakukan ?

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 57


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6. Pada praktikum untuk menentukan sifat kekentalan dari suatu zat cair, kita selalu
menggunakan Fluida jenis zat cair, Apakah mungkin kita menggunakan fluida jenis
zat gas untuk menentukan tingkat kekentalannya ? Jelaskan !

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7. Pada praktikum untuk menentukan kekentalan dari suatu zat cair, ketika volume zat
cair berkurang akibat perlakuan yang kita berikan, Mengapa volume zat cair pada
setiap perlakuan harus terus dijaga tetap konstan atau sama seperti keadaan awal
yaitu 1000 mL? Jelaskan !

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8. Pada praktikum untuk menentukan sifat kekentalan dari suatu zat cair, kita mencari
besarnnya kecepatan jatuh benda didalam fluida statis yang dinyatakan sebagai
kecepatan terminal, Apa yang dimaksud dengan kecepatan terminal dan apa yang
mempengaruhi kecepatan terminal didalam suatu fluida statis ? Jelaskan

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 58


9. Ketika kelereng mulai jatuh bebas kedalam fluida statis, maka selama kelereng
bergerak didalam fluida akan ada gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada kelereng tersebut.
Sebutkan dan jelaskan gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada kelereng yang dijatuhkan
didalam fluida statis!
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10. Pada praktikum untuk menentukan sifat kekentalan dari suatu zat cair, kita selalu
menggunakan Hukum Stokes pada fluida statis, Apa yang dimaksud dengan Hukum
Stokes dan kapan Hukum itu bisa diterapkan pada percobaan ini ? Mengapa
demikian ? Jelaskan

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 59


VIII. Kesimpulan

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 60


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 61


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN V
ELASTISITAS

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ……………………….


II. Tujuan
1. Memahami konsep elastisitas suatu bahan melalui percobaan
2. Mengamati sifat elastisitas bahan
3. Mengukur/menghitung elastisitas bahan
4. Membuat grafik hubungan antara tegangan dan regangan

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Batang statif panjang 8. Karet ban
2. Batang statif pendek (2 buah) 9. Karet gelang
3. Dasar statif 10. Tali/benang secukupnya
4. Kaki statif 11. Neraca digital
5. Klem bosshead 12. Jangka sorong
6. Beban (3 buah) 13. Mistar
7. Penggantung beban

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang akan digunakan pada percobaan ini
2. Rangkai alat dan bahan
3. Catat panjang (p) dan lebar (l) karet gelang menggunakan jangka sorong dan
hitung luas penampang (A) karet
4. Catat panjang karet mula-mula (L0) menggunakan mistar
5. Timbang beban menggunakan neraca digital
6. Gantungkan beban tersebut pada penggantung beban
7. Hitung panjang karet setelah diberi beban (Lt) menggunakan mistar
8. Hitung pertambahan panjang karet (L)
9. Ulangi langkah 5-7 setiap penambahan satu beban pada penggantung beban
10. Ulangi langkah 3-9 untuk karet ban
11. Catat data ke dalam tabel hasil pengamatan

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 63


V. Hasil Pengamatan
1. Karet gelang
p = ….
l = ….
A = p x l = …………..
Lo = ….
No. m (kg) Lt (m) L (m)
1
2
3

2. Karet ban
p = ….
l = ….
A = p x l = ……………….
Lo = ….
No. m (kg) Lt (m) L (m)
1
2
3

NST Mistar =………..


NST JangkaSorong =…………….
NST Neraca Digital =…………..

VI. Analisa Data


1. Karet gelang
Menghitung Tegangan
a. Perlakuan 1
F=m.g =
=
𝐹
𝜍= =
𝐴

b. Perlakuan 2
F=m.g =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 64


=
𝐹
𝜍= =
𝐴

c. Perlakuan 3
F=m.g =
=
𝐹
𝜍= =
𝐴

Menghitung Regangan
a. Perlakuan 1
∆𝑙
𝜀= =
𝑙0

b. Perlakuan 2
∆𝑙
𝜀= =
𝑙0

c. Perlakuan 3
∆𝑙
𝜀= =
𝑙0

Menghitung Modulus Young


a. Perlakuan 1
𝜍
𝛾= =
𝜀

b. Perlakuan 2
𝜍
𝛾= =
𝜀

c. Perlakuan 3
𝜍
𝛾= =
𝜀

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 65


Grafik Hubungan Antara Tegangan Dan Regangan

F (N)

l (m)

2. Karet ban
Menghitung Tegangan
a. Perlakuan 1
F=m.g =
=
𝐹
𝜍= =
𝐴

b. Perlakuan 2
F=m.g =
=
𝐹
𝜍= =
𝐴

c. Perlakuan 3
F=m.g =
=
𝐹
𝜍= =
𝐴

Menghitung Regangan
a. Perlakuan 1
∆𝑙
𝜀= =
𝑙0

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 66


b. Perlakuan 2
∆𝑙
𝜀= =
𝑙0

c. Perlakuan 3
∆𝑙
𝜀= =
𝑙0

Menghitung Modulus Young


a. Perlakuan 1
𝜍
𝛾= =
𝜀

b. Perlakuan 2
𝜍
𝛾= =
𝜀

c. Perlakuan 3
𝜍
𝛾= =
𝜀

Grafik Hubungan Antara Tegangan Dan Regangan

F (N)

l (m)

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 67


VII. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan
1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan elastisitas?

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2. Jelaskan perbedaan tegangan, regangan, dan modulus young

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 68


3. Tuliskan fungsi alat dan bahan yang digunakan pada percobaan ini

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4. Apa yang terjadi jika pada karet gelang maupun karet ban diberikan gaya berat?
Jelaskan peristiwa terjadinya tegangan dan regangan pada percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 69


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5. Jelaskan makna grafik hubungan antara tegangan dan regangan yang Anda
gambarkan pada hasil pengamatan! Bandingkan pula grafik antara karet ban dan
karet gelang!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 70


6. Jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan batas elastisitas! Apa yang terjadi bila karet
gelang atau karet ban diberikan tegangan melewati batas elastisitasnya?

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7. Tuliskan sumber-sumber kesalahan pada percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 71


VIII. Kesimpulan

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 72


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 73


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN VI
PENENTUAN PERCEPATAN GRAVITASI BUMI MELALUI PERCOBAAN
BIDANG MIRING

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ………………………….


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
1. Menentukan besarnya nilai percepatan gravitasi Bumi melalui bidang miring
dan
2. Menjelaskan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi percepatan gravitasi pada bidang
miring.

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Air Track 4. Busur derajat
2. Kereta Luncur (2 buah) 5. Neraca digital
3. Compressor 6. Stopwatch Hp

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang akan di pergunakan dalam percobaan ini
2. Timbang massa kereta A dan massa kereta A+ kereta B dengan menggunakan
neraca digital
3. Atur sudut kemiringan dari bidang miring sebesar 150 dengan mengubah posisi
air track pada tiang statif
4. Tentukan posisi berhenti kereta pada air track
5. Atur posisi awal kereta A sejauh 60 cm dari posisi akhir.
6. Hubungkan Compressor dengan sumber tegangan dan hidupkan compressor
tersebut
7. Lepaskan kereta dan ukur waktu yang diperlukan kereta A untuk bergerak ke
posisi akhir pada bidang miring sejauh 60 cm.
8. Catat waktu yang diperlukan oleh kereta A kedalam tabel hasi pengamatan
9. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke-3 sampai ke-8 dengan jarak 80 cm
10. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke-3 sampai ke-9 untuk perlakuan kereta A
+ kereta B
11. Ulangi langkah pada prosedur kerja ke-3 samapai ke-10 dengan mengganti sudut
kemiringan dari bidang miring menjadi 200 dan 300

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 75


V. Hasil Pengamatan
1. Pengukuran
Nama benda
NST Alat
atau zat yang Hasil pengukuran Nama alat ukur
ukur
diukur
Massa Kereta A
Massa Kereta
A+B

2. Untuk Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎


Waktu Tempuh Kelereng (s)
Jarak
Kereta pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan
(m)
ke-1(t1) ke-2(t2) ke-3(t3) ke-4 (t4)
A
0,6
A+B
A
0,8
A+B

3. Untuk Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟓𝟎


Waktu Tempuh Kelereng (s)
Jarak
Kereta pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan
(m)
ke-1(t1) ke-2(t2) ke-3(t3) ke-4 (t4)
A
0,6
A+B
A
0,8
A+B

4. Untuk Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎


Waktu Tempuh Kelereng (s)
Jarak
Kereta pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan Pengulangan
(m)
ke-1(t1) ke-2(t2) ke-3(t3) ke-4 (t4)
A
0,6
A+B
A
0,8
A+B

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 76


VI. Analisa Data
1. Menghitung Waktu Rata-Rata ( 𝒕 )

 Untuk Jarak 0,6 meter


1. Untuk Kereta A 2. Untuk Kereta A+B
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …... ………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …...
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟓 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟓
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …... ………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …...
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …... ………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …...
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛

 Untuk Jarak 0,8 meter


1. Untuk Kereta A 2. Untuk Kereta A+B
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …... ………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …...
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟓 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟓
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …... ………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …...
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎
𝑡 𝑡
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …... ………+ ………+ ….+ ………+ …...
𝑡= 𝑡=
𝑛 𝑛
𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛 𝑡 = … … … … … … . 𝑠𝑒𝑘𝑜𝑛

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 77


2. Menghitung Percepatan Gravitasi Bumi

 Untuk Jarak 0,6 meter


1. Untuk Kereta A 2. Untuk Kereta A+B
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓
2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑔= 𝑔=
𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃 𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃
2 × ………………… 2 × …………………
𝑔= 𝑔=
… … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … ) … … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … )
𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2 𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑠
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟎 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟎
2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑔= 𝑔=
𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃 𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃
2 × ………………… 2 × …………………
𝑔= 𝑔=
… … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … ) … … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … )
𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2 𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑠
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎
2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑔= 𝑔=
𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃 𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃
2 × ………………… 2 × …………………
𝑔= 𝑔=
… … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … ) … … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … )
𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2 𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑠

 Untuk Jarak 0,8 meter


3. Untuk Kereta A 4. Untuk Kereta A+B
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟏𝟓
2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑔= 𝑔=
𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃 𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃
2 × ………………… 2 × …………………
𝑔= 𝑔=
… … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … ) … … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … )
𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2 𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑠
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟎 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟐𝟎
2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑔= 𝑔=
𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃
2 × ………………… 2 × …………………
𝑔= 𝑔=
… … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … ) … … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … )
𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2 𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑠
𝟎 𝟎
Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎 Sudut Kemiringan 𝜽 = 𝟑𝟎
2𝑥 2𝑥
𝑔= 𝑔=
𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃 𝑡 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛
𝜃
2 × ………………… 2 × …………………
𝑔= 𝑔=
… … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … ) … … … … 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (… … … … )
𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2 𝑔 = ………………..𝑚 2
𝑠 𝑠

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 78


VII. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan
1. Jelaskan perbedaan antara gaya gravitasi bumi, percepatan gravitasi bumi dan
medan gravitasi Bumi ?
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2. Bagaimanakah hubungan antara kecepatan gerak kereta pada air track dengan sudut
kemiringan pada air track tersebut ? Jelaskan !
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3. Perhatikan pernyataan berikut ini, jika massa kereta semakin besar maka waktu
yang diperlukan kereta untuk bergerak menempuh jarak atau posisi akhir akan
semakin kecil, mengapa hal tersebut dapat terjadi ? Jelaskan !
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4. Pada percobaan ini, sebutkan dan jelaskan gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada benda yang
bergerak di bidang miring ?
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5. Pada percobaan ini, berdasarkan hasil analisa data apakah nilai percepatan gravitasi
yang diperoleh sama dengan nilai percepatan gravitasi di literatur ?? Jelaskan ?
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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 79


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6. Apakah besarnya nilai percepatan gravitasi di semua permukaan Bumi ini sama
nilainya yaitu 9,8 𝑚 𝑠 2 ? Jelaskan

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7. Sebutkan dan jelaskan syarat suatu benda dapat dipengaruhi oleh gaya gravitasi
Bumi ?
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8. Pada percobaan ini, kita menggunakan Compressor untuk mengalirkan udara ke air
track , Jelaskan perbedaan gerak benda saat kita menggunakan compressor dan saat
tidak menggunakan Compressor !
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9. Bagaimana pengaruh jarak lintasan kereta terhadap percepatan gravitasi bumi pada
bidang miring ? Jelaskan sesuai perlakuan saat praktikum !
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10. Apakah disetiap planet memiliki gaya gravitasi ? Jelaskan !


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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 80


VIII. Kesimpulan
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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 81


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 82


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN VII
KALOR LEBUR ES

I. Waktu dan Tempat : ……………………..


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
2.1.Tujuan Intruksional Umum
1. Memahami dan menyelidiki peristiwa dan perubahan fase suatu benda
2.2.Tujuan Instruksional Khusus
1. Menjelaskan kegunaan azas black
2. Membedakan benda yang melepaskan kalor dan yang menerima kalor
3. Menghitung kalor lebur es

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Kalorimeter 8. Dasar statif
2. Termometer 9. Kaki statif
3. Kompor listrik 10. Gelas kimia
4. Neraca digital 11. Es secukupnya
5. Batang statif panjang 12. Air secukupnya
6. Batang statif pendek (2) 13. Tissu
7. Klem bosshead

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan
2. Ukur suhu ruangan
3. Timbang massa kalorimeter kosong + pengaduk menggunakan neraca digital
4. Isi kalorimeter dengan air secukupnya
5. Timbang massa kalorimeter + pengaduk berisi air dengan menggunakan neraca
digital untuk memperoleh massa air
6. Panaskan air dalam kalorimeter menggunakan kompor listrik hingga suhu air
mencapai 43oC
7. Matikan kompor listrik dan turunkan kalorimeter dari kompor listrik
8. Timbang massa gelas kimia kosong menggunakan neraca digital
9. Keringkan keping-keping es dengan tissu
10. Masukkan keping-keping es ke dalam gelas kimia
11. Timbang massa gelas kimia berisi es dengan menggunakan neraca digital

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 84


12. Masukkan keping-keping es ke dalam kalorimeter ketika suhu air 40oC sebagai
T1
13. Aduk hingga seluruh keping es dalam kalorimeter melebur
14. Ukur suhu akhir air dalam kalorimeter menggunakan termometer sebagai (T2)

V. Hasil Pengamatan
m1 = m2 = massa es = gram
m3 = massa kalorimeter = gram
m4 = massa air = gram
mgelas = gram
o
suhu ruangan = C
o
NST termometer = C
NST neraca digital = gram
o
T1 = C
o
T2 = C

C1 = C2 = kalor jenis es = kal/goC


C3 = kalor jenis kalorimeter (aluminium) = kal/goC
C4 = kalor jenis air = kal/goC

VI. Analisa Data


6.1.Perhitungan Umum
Penentuan besarnya Kalor Lebur Es

𝑚 3 𝐶3 𝑇1 −𝑇2 +𝑚 4 𝐶4 𝑇1 −𝑇2 −𝑚 2 𝐶2 𝑇2
L =
𝑚1
=

= kal/gram

6.2.Perhitungan Ralat
𝑐4 𝑇1 − 𝑇2 𝑐 𝑇 − 𝑇2 𝑐 𝑇
∆𝐿 = ∆𝑚4 + 3 1 ∆𝑚3 + 2 2 ∆𝑚2
𝑚1 𝑚1 𝑚1
+

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 85


𝑚 3 𝐶3 𝑇1 −𝑇2 +𝑚 4 𝐶4 𝑇1 −𝑇2 −𝑚 2 𝐶2 𝑇2
∆𝑚1 +
𝑚 12
𝑚 3 𝐶3 +𝑚 4 𝐶4 𝑚 3 𝐶3 +𝑚 4 𝐶4 +𝑚 2 𝐶2
∆𝑇1 + ∆𝑇2
𝑚1 𝑚1
dengan
∆𝑚4 = ∆𝑚3 = ∆𝑚2 = ∆𝑚1 = NST Neraca digital = ………. gram
1
∆𝑇2 = ∆𝑇1 = 2 NST Termometer = …… oC

maka,
∆𝐿 =

KTPm = ΔL = ……
∆𝐿
KTPr = x 100% =
𝐿
∆𝐿
AB = 1 – log ( ) =
𝐿
Pelaporan = (L ± ∆L ) =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 86


VII. Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan
1. Jelaskan definisi dari kalor lebur es!

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2. Tuliskan fungsi alat dan bahan yang sesuai dengan percobaan yang dilakukan

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 87


3. Bandingkan hasil perhitungan kalor lebur es yang Anda peroleh pada percobaan
ini dan yang ada di dalam literatur. Jelaskan arti dari ketidakpastian (KTPr) yang
diperoleh! Berilah pembahasan tentang sumber-sumber kesalahan dalam
percobaan!
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4. Jelaskan proses perubahan fase benda dalam percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 88


5. Tuliskan bunyi asas black. Jelaskan maksud dari kalor yang diterima dan kalor
yang dilepaskan!

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6. Yang manakah benda yang melepas kalor dan benda yang menerima kalor dalam
percobaan ini? Jelaskan alasanmu!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 89


VIII. Kesimpulan :

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 90


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 91


OLEH
NAMA :
STAMBUK :
KELOMPOK :
ASISTEN :

LABORATORIUM PENDIDIKAN FISIKA


FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO
LEMBAR KERJA MAHASISWA DI LABORATORIUM (LKM)
PERCOBAAN VIII
KOEFISIEN MUAI PANJANG

I. Waku dan Tempat : ………………….


II. Tujuan
Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
2.1.Tujuan Instruksional Umum
1. Memahami pengaruh kenaikan temperatur terhadap bahan, terutama logam
2.2.Tujuan Instruksional Khusus
1. Menuliskan persamaan koefisien muai panjang
2. Menghitung koefisien muai panjang

III. Alat dan Bahan


1. Batang-batang logam (besi dan 8. Klem bosshead
kuningan) 9. Dasar statif
2. Kompor listrik 10. Kaki statif
3. Bejana didih 11. Alat penunjuk pertambahan
4. Penutup + selang panjang
5. Termometer 12. Obeng
6. Batang statif panjang 13. Mistar 100 cm
7. Batang statif pendek (2 buah)

IV. Prosedur Kerja


1. Siapkan alat dan bahan yang digunakan pada percobaan ini
2. Ukur panjang mula-mula (l0) batang besi menggunakan mistar
3. Ukur suhu awal (T1) batang besi menggunakan termometer
4. Isi bejana didih dengan air secukupnya dan letakkan di atas kompor listrik
(jangan dinyalakan dulu)
5. Pasang selang pada ujung batang besi
6. Masukkan ujung batang besi lainnya pada alat penunjuk pertambahan panjang.
Atur hingga skala pada detektor menunjukkan angka nol. Jika sudah
menunjukkan angka nol, kuatkan sekrup menggunakan obeng
7. Nyalakan kompor listrik
8. Saat batang besi mulai memuai, amati pergeseran jarum pada deketktor dan
letakkan ujung termometer pada batang besi
9. Jika jarum sudah berhenti bergerak, catat skala yang terbaca pada detektor
sebagai ΔL dan catat skala pada termometer sebagai T2
10. Matikan kompor listrik

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 93


11. Ulangi prosedur 2-10 untuk batang kuningan

V. Hasil Pengamatan
No Bahan l0 (m) Δl (m) T1 (oC) T2 (oC) ΔT (oC)
1. Kuningan
2. Besi

NST Termometer = ………………… oC


NST Mistar = …………………. m
NST Detektor = …………………. m

VI. Analisa Data


1. Perhitungan Umum
a. Kuningan
∆𝑙
𝛼= =
𝑙 0 ∆𝑇

b. Besi
∆𝑙
𝛼= =
𝑙 0 ∆𝑇

2. Perhitungan Ralat
∆𝑙 1 ∆𝑙 ∆𝑙
Δα = ∆𝑙0 + ∆∆𝑙 + ∆𝑇1 + ∆𝑇2
𝑙 02 ∆𝑇 𝑙 0 ∆𝑇 𝑙0 ∆𝑇 2 𝑙 0 ∆𝑇 2

Dengan
1
∆𝑙0 = 2 NST mistar = ……………. m

1
∆∆𝑙 = 2 NST detektor pertambahan panjang = ……………………. m

1
∆𝑇1 = ∆𝑇2 = 2 NST termometer = ………. oC

a. Kuningan
Δα =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 94


KTPm = Δα = ……
Δα
KTPr = x 100% =
α

Δα
AB = 1 – log ( α ) =

Pelaporan = (α ± ∆α ) =

b. Besi
Δα =

KTPm = Δα = ……
Δα
KTPr = x 100% =
α

Δα
AB = 1 – log ( α ) =

Pelaporan = (α ± ∆α ) =

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 95


VII. Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan
1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan koefisien muai panjang?

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2. Tuliskan fungsi alat dan bahan yang digunakan pada percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 96


3. Mengapa batang logam tersebut dapat mengalami pertambahan panjang? Jelaskan!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 97


4. Bandingkan hasil pengukuran/perhitungan koefisien muai panjang logam yang
Anda peroleh dengan nilai koefisien muai panjang logam sebenarnya yang ada
dalam literatur.

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5. Jelaskan arti dari ketidakpastian (KTPr) yang Anda peroleh pada perhitungan ralat.
Jelaskan sumber-sumber kesalahan dalam percobaan ini!

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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 98


Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 99
VIII. Kesimpulan:
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Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 100


Palu, …………………………..,
Mahasiswa

…………………………………
Stambuk :

Menyutujui:
Koordinator Asisten Kelas Asisten Praktikum

……………………………… …………………………………

Penilaian Asisten

Laboratorium Pendidikan Fisika Halaman 101