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Daylighting

Fisika Bangunan Terapan


DAYLIGHT vs SUNLIGHT
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DAYLIGHT
vs SUNLIGHT
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DAYLIGHT vs SUNLIGHT
DAYLIGHT vs SUNLIGHT
Sunlight
The sunlight offers a moving directional light source.
the sunlight intensity always change; 5 to 10 x more
intense than daylight
the orientations always changing periodically (use sun
path or protractor)
the sunlight brings heat penetration into the room, etc.

Manage sunlight for
creating decorative Focal Points of room, such as
stained glass windows,or
illuminate and emphasize objects or surfaces, such as
fountain or ornamental walls
DAYLIGHT vs SUNLIGHT
Daylight
the daylight intensity always change, but has a
mean intensity (90%). E.g: Indonesia use 10000
lux as Langit Perencanaan.
the daylight dont have direction, so that need to
be directed.
the daylight dont bring heat into the room.

Manage daylight for lighting the room (at day).
DIAGRAM
daylight

About 1/5
of sunlight
illuminance
overcast
Direct
80%
sunlight
clear
horizon
zenith
DAYLIGHT dipengaruhi oleh
Kondisi Awan (overcast sky, partly cloudy, clear
sky)
Posisi matahari (azimuth dan altitude)
Musim
Kandungan uap air di udara

L = Lz (1 + sin ) , shg luminasi daylight pd
zenith adl 3x luminasi
pd horizon (overcast sky)
3
Moon & Spencer, 1942
DAYLIGHT di Indonesia
Mengikuti hasil pengukuran Suryawinata 1974,
Utk ketinggian matahari mulai 60, distribusi luminasi
untuk overcast sky, akan mendekati persamaan di atas.
Sedang utk ketinggian matahari kurang dari 60, posisi
matahari akan sangat mempengaruhi distribusi luminasi
terutama pada azimuth.
Mengikuti penelitian Adhiwiyogo 1969, Suryawinata 1974,
Langit perencanaan di Bandung, nilai stabil 90% adalah
overcast sky dengan luminasi 10.000 lux (hanya dari
cahaya langit)
Angka ini dipakai untuk seluruh Indonesia, sebelum ada
penelitian yang valid untuk wilayah tertentu.
DAYLIGHT FACTOR (DF)
Berhubung besarnya cahaya langit yang selalu berubah-
ubah, maka untuk menyatakan tingkat pencahayaan dari
langit di dalam bangunan digunakan suatu ratio yang
disebut Faktor Pencahayaan siang hari (FP) atau
Daylight Factor (DF) yaitu
Perbandingan tingkat pencahayaan pada suatu titik
pada bidang tertentu dalam suatu ruangan yang
ditimbulkan oleh cahaya langit dengan suatu
distribusi luminasi tertentu, terhadap tingkat
pencahayaan pada bidang horisontal dari cahaya
langit di tempat terbuka, pada saat yang sama
dimana kedua tingkat pencahayaan tsb tidak
memperhitungkan cahaya matahari.

DAYLIGHT FACTOR (DF)
DF biasanya dinyatakan dalam persen sbb :
DF = Ei x 100 %
Eo
Ei = level pencahayaan dari langit pada suatu
titik pada suatu bidang di dalam ruangan (lux)
Eo = level pencahayaan dari cahaya langit pada
bidang horisontal di tempat terbuka (lux)
Besarnya DF ditentukan oleh
Komponen Langit(FL), Komponen Rg Dlm, Komponen Rg Luar
DF untuk aktivitas ruang
Task fc (lux) 10-20Lat. 30 Lat. 50 Lat.
Lobby, offices
general
10-20 (108-215) 0.5 1 1 1.5 2 3.5
Hotel rooms,
Conference,
Library stacks
20-50 (215-538) 1.5 3 1.5 4 3.5 9
Reading,
Drafting,
Sewing,
Sports-indoor
Science lab
50-100 (538-1076) 3 6.5 4 8 9 17.5
Principle of Overhang to Daylight
Distribution
no overhang
The curves indicate light levels.
Overhangs reduce light and
glare near the window, creating
a softer gradient in the rooms
1
2
2 1
1
louvers
3
3
1
Break up the overhang for
better distribution
Sidelighting (areas to be served by daylight)
--overcast sky
d
1.5 d
d
1.5 - 2 d
daylighted
zone
daylighted
zone
Light-shelf
Side lighting (areas to be served by daylight)
-- overcast sky
core
Less effective area
Effective areas within daylight 1.5 d
1.5 d
d
Daylight Rule of Thumb (DF-overcast sky)
Side lighting (areas to be served by daylight)
For spaces with sidelighting :
DF av = 0.2 window area

DF min = 0.1 window area
floor area
floor area
DF = daylight factor
Window area = total window area
Floor area = total areas to be served by 1.5d
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Building 7
th
ed. p.161
Soal
Lobby kantor dg ukuran 5 m x 6 m memiliki sisi dinding
yang berjendela seluas 12 m2 di satu sisi-nya seperti
pada gambar. Berapakah jarak dari jendela, yang masih
memungkinkan aktivitas penglihatan di ruang tsb?
(DF lobby = 0.5 -1)

6.00
Denah
5.00
1.5 d
Side lighting
DF ave. = (0.2 x window area) / floor area
Floor area = 1.5 d x 5 = 4.5 x 5 = 22.5m2
DF ave. = (0.2 x 12) / 22.5 =0 .1067
0.5 = (0.2 x 12) / floor area;
Floor area = 4.8; maka jarak dari jendela
= 4.8 / 5 = 0.96 m
DF ave. = (0.2 x window area) / floor area
Potongan
d=3.00
Clerestory / vertical monitors (areas to be
served by daylight)
For spaces with toplighting / vertical monitors :



DF av = 0.2 skylight glazing area
floor area
DF = daylight factor
Skylight glazing area = total windows
Floor area = total area to be served by daylight
Daylight Rule of Thumb (DF-overcast sky)
Skylight (area to be served by daylight)
Horizontal skylight



DF av. = 0.5 skylight glazing area
floor area
DF = daylight factor
Skylight glazing = total windows
Floor area = total area to be served by daylight
Daylight Rule of Thumb (DF-overcast sky)
Net Glazing Areas
Required Net Glazing Areas=

2 x DF ave
Total area of
Interior surfaces
x
1 -
Area weighted
ave.reflectance of
all interior surfaces
x
Visible Transmittance
Vertical angle of sky visible
from center of window
1 2
3
5
4
x
1
Average Daylight Factor
If low-light spaces are desired ; DF = 1
If average spaces are desired ; DF = 2
If bright spaces are desired ; DF = 4
Daylight Planning
Total Area of Interior Surfaces
Add up total surface area of walls, ceiling and floor
2
Daylight Planning
Area Weighted Average Reflectance of all
Interior Surfaces
Between 0 and 1. Add up total surface area of walls,
ceiling, floor, windows, partitions, furniture and calculate
weighted average reflectance (see equation)
3
Area weighted
ave. reflectance
Wall area x wall
reflectance
Total surface area Total surface area
= +
Ceiling area x
ceiling reflectance
+ etc.
Use 0.5 as default
Visible Transmittance ( VT)
Daylight Planning
4
Generic glazing types(1/4 panes) Typical VT
Double pane clear 0.8
Double pane tint-green or blue green 0.65
Double pane tint blue 0.51
Double pane tint bronze 0.47
Double pane tint gray 0.39
Double pane low reflective 0.30
Double pane medium reflective 0.20
Double pane high reflective 0.10
Double pane low-e clear 0.70
Double pane low-e tint-green or blue-green 0.63
Double pane low-e tint-blue 0.49
Double pane low-e tint-bronze 0.45
Double pane low-e tint-gray 0.37
Suspended low-e film products 0.27 0.6
Or use
0.7 for small windows, 0.5 for medium windows, 0.3 for large windows
Vertical Angle of Sky
Daylight Planning
5
Estimate the angle as shown, from center of window.
Value between 0 and 90.
If no obstruction, vertical angle is 90.

horizon
Source : A sequence for daylighting design J.Lynes, Lighting research and technology,1979
sistem di dalam bangunan
Structural s
Envelope / selubung e
Mechanical m
Interior i
Dalam bangunan, sistem-sistem tsb saling
berhubungan/terkait sehingga tercapai
efektivitas, efisiensi, serta estetika.

hubungan antar sistem
Remote
Touching
Connected
Meshed
Unified

tetrahedron
Remote (berjauhan)
Level yang paling rendah, sistem-sistem
secara fisik berjauhan, tapi terkoordinasi
dalam fungsinya.
Touched (bersentuhan)
Salah satu sistem menumpang di atas yang
lain, terutama oleh karena gravitasi.
Connected (terhubung)
Sistem yang satu terhubung pada yang lain
dengan paku, baut, terjepit, penggantung,
perekat, dsb..
Meshed (bertautan)
Sistem-sistem menempati tempat yang sama
Unified (menyatu)
Sistem-sistem berbagi bentuk fisik yang sama
dan tidak lagi bisa dibedakan.
Kimbell Art Museum
FortWorth, Texas
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i j
k
a=sheet lead roof b=acrylic skylights
c=post-tensioned concrete shell
d=reflectors e=supply ductwork
f=incandescent track g=wood floring
h=return air ducts
i=exposed concrete masonry
j=waffle slab k=travertine infill

Kimbell art museum Fort worth, Texas
Exhibition Hall
Turin
Railway Platform, Rotterdam
Kualalumpur International Airport