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Material Teknik Listrik

Pengantar Material Teknik Listrik


Material
Material adalah sesuatu yang disusun/dibuat
oleh bahan.
Material digunakan untuk transportasi, rumah,
pakaian, komunikasi hingga makanan.
Ilmu material/bahan merupakan pengetahuan
dasar tentang struktur, sifat-sifat dan
pengolahan bahan.
Kenapa Perlu belajar Material
Pemilihan material yang benar dari ribuan
material yang tersedia
Mengetahui karakteristik material
Kerusakan system selama dioperasikan
karena kesalahan pemilihan material
Harga
Classification of Material
Metal
Ceramics
Polymers
Jenis Material
Logam (metal)
memiliki sifat : Kuat, ulet, mudah dibentuk
dan bersifat penghantar panas dan listrik
yang baik
ada 2 jenis :
a. Ferrous (besi cor, baja,dll)
b. Non-ferrous (Tembaga, Alumunium,
perunggu dll)
Jenis Material
Non-Logam
a. Keramik : Keras, getas dan penghantar
panas dan listrik yang buruk
b. Polimer : kerapatan rendah,
penghantar panas dan listrik buruk dan
mudah dibentuk
c. Komposit : merupakan ganbungan dari
dua bahan atau lebih yang masing-
masing sifat tetap
Metal
Metallic element ( iron, aluminium, copper,
titanium, gold and nickel)
Non- metaliic element (carbon, nitrogen,
oksigen)
Comparison based on relatively dense
(padatan)
Comparison based on relatively stiffness
(kekakuan)
Comparison based on temperature strength
(kekuatan temperatur)
Comparison based on resistant to fracture
(patahan)
Comparison based on electrical
conductivity (konduktivitas)
metal
metal
Ceramics
Ceramics are compound between metallic and
nonmetallic element
Oxides, nitrides and carbides
Common ceramics materials include aluminum
oxide (or alumina, Ai2O3), silicon dioxide (or silica,
SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride(Si3N4)
Traditional ceramics : clay minerals (porcelain,
cement and glass)
Relatively stiff and strong (figure 1.4 and figure 1.5)
Susceptible to fracture (figure 1.6)
Optical characteristics : transparent, translucent
(tembus) or opaque (buram)
Ceramics
Keramik
Polymers
Polymers include the familiar plastic and
rubber materials
The organic compounds : Carbon, Hydrogen
and nonmetallic element (O,N and Si)
Familiar polymers are polyethylene (PE),
nylon, poly (vinyl chloride) PVC, Polycarbonate
(PC) and silicone rubber.
Low density ( figure 1.3)
Not stiff nor as strong as these other material
types (figure 1.4 and 1.5)
polymeric
Polimer
Composites
A composite is composed of two or more
individual materials (metal, ceramics and
polymers).
The design goals of a composite is to achieve
a combination of properties that is not
displayed by any single material, to corporate
the best characteristics of each of the
component materials.
Represented by different combinations of
metals, ceramic and polymers
Naturally occurring materials: wood
Familiar composite : fiberglass (polymers
materials)
composite
Advance Material
Material that are utilized in high-technology
(or high-tech) applications are sometimes
termed advance material.
Electronic equipment (camcorders, CD/DVD
player etc), computers, fiber optic system,
spacecraft, aircraft and military rocketry.
Semiconductors and biomaterials
IC, LCD (liquid crystal display, fiber optic
Semiconductors
Intermediate between the electrical
conductors (metal and metal alloy) and
insulators (ceramics and polymer).
Integrated circuits and computer industries
Biomaterials
Biomaterials are employed in components
implanted into the human body for
replacement of diseased or damaged body
part
Not produced toxic substance and must
compatible with body tissue (must not cause
biological reactions)
Metal, ceramics, polymers, composited,
semiconductors
Material of the future (smart materials)
A group of new and state of the art materials
now being developed that will have a
significant influence on many of our
technologies
The adjective smart implies that material are
able to sense changes in their environments
Component of smart material include some
type of sensor (that detect an input signal),
and an actuator (responsive and adaptive
function)
Thank you