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SUPPLY CHAIN

MANAGEMENT

1
THE EVOLUTION OF LOGISTICS
SCOPE & INFLUENCE

GLOBAL
LOGISTICS
SUPPLY
CHAIN
LOGISTICS
CORPORATE
LOGISTICS
FACILITY
LOGISTICS
WORKPLACE
LOGISTICS

1950 s 1960 s 1970 s 1980 s 1990 s


2
WORKPLACE LOGISTICS

Adalah aliran material di sebuah stasiun


kerja. Objektif workplace logistics adalah
mengatur aliran benda kerja sehingga siap
untuk diproses.

3
FACILITY LOGISTICS

Aliran material di antara stasiun kerja yang


ada dalam sebuah fasilitas industri.
Fasilitas dapat berbentuk pabrik,gudang
atau distribution centre. Sekarang dikenal
sebagai material handling

4
CORPORATE LOGISTICS
Adalah aliran material dan informasi di
antara fasilitas dan proses di dalam
perusahaan(inter-workstation, inter-facility
and intra-corporate). Untuk industri
manufaktur, aktivitas logistik terjadi di antara
pabrik dan gudang. Saat ini dikenal dengan
istilah physical distribution.
5
SUPPLY CHAIN LOGISTICS

Aliran material, informasi dan uang di antara


korporasi (interworkstation, interfacility,
intercorporate dan interchain)

6
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITIES THAT PROCURE RAW


MATERIALS, TRANSFORM THOSE MATERIALS INTO
INTERMEDIATE GOODS AND FINAL PRODUCTS, AND
DELIVER THE PRODUCTS THROUGH
A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

7
Market research data Customer
Supplier scheduling information
engineering and design data
order flow and cash flow

Ideas and Design to


Supplier statisty the end customer
Inventory Material flow Customer
Credit Flow

Manufacturer
Supplier Inventory
Inventory
Distributor Customer
Inventory

The supply chain includes all the interactions between suppliers,


manufacturers, distributors, and customers. the chain includes
transportation,scheduling information, cash and credit transfers, as well
as ideas, designs, and material transfers.

8
SUPPLY CHAIN

Adalah jaringan fasilitas (gudang,


pabrik,terminal dll) , alat angkut dan Logistics
Information System (LIS) yang dihubungkan
di antara suppliers of suppliers sampai ke
customers of customers. Logistik sendiri
adalah apa yang terjadi di supply chain.
9
GLOBAL LOGISTICS

Adalah aliran material , informasi dan uang


di antara negara. Global logistics
menghubungkan suppliers of suppliers dan
customers of customers internasional

10
NEXT-GENERATION
LOGISTICS

Model logistik yang dibangun berazaskan


optimasi dan komunikasi real time dan
kontinu di antara supply chain partners

11
AKTIVITAS LOGISTIK
Customer Response.
Inventory Planning and Management.
Supply.
Transportation.
Warehousing.

12
LOGISTICS

MEASURE & INFORMATION SYSTEM


GOALS REUIREMENT

PROCESS ORGANIZATION
DESIGNS DEVELOPMENT

CUSTOMER INVENTORY PLANNING


SUPPLY TRANSPORTATION DC OPERATION
RESPONSE & MANAGEMENT

Customer Service Policy Forecasting Supplier Service Policy Network Design Receiving

Customer Satisfaction Order Quantity Engineering Sourcing Shipment Management Put away

Order Entry Fill Rate Planning Supplier Integration Fleet Container Management Storage

Order Processing Control Policy Purchase Order Processing Carter Management Order Picking

Invoicing & Collection Deployment Buying & Payment Freight Management Shipping

LOGISTICS FRAMEWORK OF ACTIVITIES

13
CUSTOMER RESPONSE

Pengembangan dan pemeliharaan


customer service policy.
Memonitor tingkat kepuasan pelanggan.
Order Entry.
Order Processing.
Invoicing and Collections.
14
INVENTORY PLANNING AND
MANAGEMENT
Forecasting.
Rekayasa ukuran pesanan.
Optimasi service level.
Replenishment Planning.
Inventory Deployment

15
SUPPLY

Developing and Maintaining Supplier


Service Policy.
Sourcing.
Supplier Integration.
Purchase Order Processing.
Buying and Payment.
16
TRANSPORTATION

Network design and optimization.


Shipment Management.
Fleet and Container Management.
Carrier Management.
Freight Management.

17
WAREHOUSING

Receiving.
Put Away.
Storage.
Order Picking.
Shipping

18
LOGISTICS MASTER
PLANNING
Adalah proses perencanaan kebutuhan fasilitas
jangka pendek dan panjang, definisi proses,
kebutuhan sistem informasi dan organisasi untuk
kepentingan logistik , customer response,
inventory management, supply, transportasi dan
pergudangan
19
LOGISTICS MASTER PLANNING
METHODOLOGY

INVESTIGATE

INNOVATE

TR

WA
AN

RE
CU

SP

HO ATIO
ST

SU
MA
IN

OR

US
VE GEM
OM

PP
NA

T
Measure &

IN
NT EN

L
ER

G
Goal

OR T
RE

N
Y
SP
Procesess

ON
Logistics

SE
information Logistics
TICS
systems Organization GI S
LO
MASTER PLANNING

IMPLEMENT

20
INVESTIGATE, INNOVATE, AND
IMPLEMENT

INVESTIGATE

BENCHMARK
SIMPLITY
MEASURE
OPTIMIZE
LOGISTICS PROFILE

APPLY
MASTER
BEST PLANNING
PRACTICES
IMPLEMENT
INNOVATE
HUMANIZE
SYSTEMIZE
AUTOMATE
21
INVESTIGATE

Profil aktivitas logistik saat ini.

Mengukur performansi logistik.

Benchmark dengan standard dunia

22
INNOVATE

Simplifiklasi (eliminasi dan kombinasi


aktivitas kerja).
Optimasi.
Aplikasikan standard dunia.

23
IMPLEMENT

Systemize (pengembangan dan


pembuatan prosedur rinci).
Automate (justifikasi, pemilihan dan
implementasi).
Humanize(disain,sosialisasi dan
organisasi).

24
RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

INFORMATION, PRODCUT, SERVICE, FINANCIAL, AND


KNOWLEDGE FLOWS

Integrated
Enterprise

E
N
M Market
Procurement D
A Distribution
T
C
E
O
R
Manufacturin N
I
g S
A
U
L
M
E
R

CAPACITY, INFORMATION, CORE COMPETENCIES, CAPITAL AND HUMAN


RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS

GENERALIZED SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL


25
LOGISTICAL PERFORMANCE CYCLES

MATERIAL
SOURCE

PURCHASING
CYCLE
LEAD SUPPLIER
(TIER 1)

MANUFACTURING
PLANT MANUFACTURING
SUPPORT CYCLE
NODE

TRANSPORTATION
DISTRIBUTORS LINKS

MARKET
DISTRIBUTION COMMUNICATION
CYCLE LINKS
CUSTOMER

26
MULTI-ECHELONED FLEXIBLE
LOGISTICAL NETWORK

1 2 3
MATERIAL MATERIAL MATERIAL
SOURCE SOURCE SOURCE

MANUFACTURING MANUFACTURING MANUFACTURING


PLANT PLANT PLANT

PLAN PLAN PLAN


WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE
NODE

DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION


WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE TRANSPORTATION
LINKS

COMMUNICATION
CUSTOMER CUSTOMER CUSTOMER
LINKS

27
STAGE 4

STAGE 3 MARKET
CREATION
STAGE 2 MARKET
EXTENSION
STAGE 1
MARKET ACCESS
GAINING COST-
EFFECTIVENESS

0 5 10
DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS SUCCESS BASED ON LOGISTICAL
COMPETENCY

28
ERP ARCHITECTURE

Managers and
stakeholders

Reporting Financial
applications applications
Sales and
delivery
applications
Sales force and Central Manufacturing Back-office
customer Database applications administrators
service reps and workers
customers

service Human Inventory and


applications resource supply
management applications
applications

Employees

29
PLANNING/COORDINATING
STRATEGIC CAPACITY LOGISTICS MANUFACTURING PROCUREMENT
OBJECTIVE CONSTRAINTS REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT REQUIREMENT

INVENTORY
DEPLOYMENT
FORECASTING
INVENTORY
MANAGEMENT

ORDER ORDER DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMATION


PROCUREMENT
PROCESSING ASSIGMENT OPERATIONS AND SHIPPING

OPERATIONS

30
CUSTOMERS

DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION


CENTER CENTER CENTER CENTER

DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION
CENTER CENTER

REGIONAL REGIONAL
WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE

DISTRIBUTION
RESOURCE PLANT
WAREHOUSE
PLANNING

MATERIAL
REQUIREMENTS FINAL ASSEMBLY
(MANUFACTURING
PLANNING

SUBASSEMBLY B PART C SUBASSEMBLY C

SUBASSEMBLY A PART C PART D PART E

PART A PART B

RAW MATERIALS 31
MANAJEMEN
PERGUDANGAN

32
PERAN GUDANG DALAM SISTEM
SUPPLY CHAIN

Lebih banyak eksekusi, transaksi dengan


kuantitas lebih kecil
Menyimpan item lebih banyak.
Melayani lebih baik.
Pelayanan dengan value added lebih baik.
Mampu memproses lebih banyak
pengembalian barang.
Lebih banyak menerima dan mengirim
pesanan internasional
33
TANTANGAN GUDANG

Diperlukan lebih sedikit waktu untuk


memproses pesanan.
Prosentase kesalahan lebih kecil.
Personil mampu berbicara bahasa Inggris.

34
FUNGSI GUDANG
Receiving.
Prepackaging (optional).
Put Away.
Storage.
Order Picking.
Packaging and or pricing (optional).
Sortation and or accumulation.
Packing and shipping
35
RECEIVING

Penerimaan barang yang datang sesuai


dengan aturan perusahaan.
Menjamin bahwa kualitas dan kuantitas
material sesuai dengan pesanan
perusahaan.
Penempatan material di gudang atau ke
bagian lain yang memerlukan.
36
PREPACKAGING
Prepackaging diperlukan apabila barang
diterima dengan bulk besar dan hendak
disimpan dengan package yang lebih kecil
agar sesuai dengan kebutuhan
perusahaan dan konsumen

37
PUT AWAY

Penempatan material yang dibeli di gudang


termasuk material handling, verifikasi
lokasi dan penempatan produk

38
STORAGE

Penyimpanan material sementara menunggu


pemakaian. Metoda penyimpanan bergantung
pada ukuran dan kuantitas item dan
karakteristik produk

39
ORDER PICKING

Proses pemindahan barang dari gudang


untuk memenuhi permintaan tertentu.
Proses ini merupakan wujud pelayanan
gudang kepada para konsumen dan
pemakainya.

40
PACKAGING AND OR PRICING

Item tertentu ada kalanya harus dikemas


dengan package tertentu dan diberi stiker
harga

41
SORTATION

Sortasi batch dilakukan sesuai dengan


pesanan dan akumulasi dilakukan apabila
sebuah pesanan memerlukan lebih dari
satu item barang

42
PACKING AND SHIPPING
Pemeriksaan kesempurnaan pesanan.
Packaging barang sesuai dengan kebutuhan.
Mempersiapkan shipping document, packing
list , address label dan bill of lading.
Penimbangan barang yang akan dikirim.
Menjumlahkan nilai pesanan yang akan
dikirim oleh transporter luar.
Loading.
43
PERGUDANGAN SEBAGAI
INSTITUSI PELAYANAN
LOGISTICS (WAREHOUSING) CUSTOMER
SERVICE

MENGAPA ?

Kepuasan konsumen berkaitan langsung


dengan kemampuan logistik (pergudangan)
perusahaan : persediaan, delivery, keamanan
produk, pelayanan, pengemasan, dll
Logistics (Warehousing) Customer Service
sebagai barometer kepuasan
konsumen/kinerja perusahaan
PERANAN
PEMERINTAH
HUKUM
PAKET
SISTEM LOGISTIK
REGULASI
(PERGUDANGAN)
PRODUCT DLL
PERSEDIAAN
KECEPATAN
PROSES
MAR-
PLACE/ CUSTOMER KEANDALAN
PRICE KETING PENGIRIMAN
MIX DISTRIBUTION SERVICE
FREKUENSI
PENGIRIMAN
PURNA JUAL
PROMOTION SISTEM
TRANSPORTASI
LEAD TIME
KEPUASAN
KONSUMEN DLL
TIGA TINGKATAN FUNGSI PRODUK

GARANSI INTI PRODUK

KREDIT
KUALITAS

PENGE-
PAKAN INSTA-
FUNGSI LASI
PRODUK
PURNA MEREK
JUAL

MODEL

PRODUK DI INFORMASI PRODUK


KEMBANGKAN TANGIBLE
KONSEP PENERAPAN MODEL
PRODUK TOTAL
KLASIFIKASI PRODUK

PRODUK TANGIBLE
KUALITAS
BENTUK
MODEL
TEKNOLOGI
UMUR
INTI DLL
PRODUK
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
ELEMEN INTANGIBLE
PRODUK FREKUENSI KIRIM
KEANDALAN PENGIRIMAN
TANGIBLE
LAYANAN PURNA JUAL
FASILITAS RELASI
PRODUK DI GARANSI
KEMBANGKAN DLL
MATERIAL/BAHA DISTRIBUSI
N BAKU DAN RITEL
KEPADA GUDANG
KOMPONEN PROSES AWAL DAN AGEN
DAN ATAU SUB-
ASSEMBLING
PABRIK PERSEDIAAN
PRODUK
JADI

INBOUND LOGISTICS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION

BUSINESS LOGISTICS / LOGISTICS SYSTEMS

GAMBAR
PENGENDALIAN PERGERAKAN MATERIAL
DARI INBOUND SAMPAI OUTBOUND
Activity Standards Developed Empirically

Operating Function Unit of Measure Time Standard

Warehousing Receiving
Unload truck Piece/man-hour 250
Check receipts Piece/man-hour 167
Clerical function Piece/man-hour 500
Putaway stock Piece/man-hour 150

Warehousing Shipping
Order picking Line items/man-hour 30
Order packing Piece/man-hour 22,7
UPS/small shipment Piece/man-hour 100
Freight shipping Bills of lading/man-hour 15

Warehousing Stockkeeping
Balk items Skill man-hour 70
Load QA and shell items Skill man-hour 50
Activity Levels (45-Days Sample)

Function Unit of Measure Average Standard


(Per Day) Deviation
(Per Day)
Receiving Functions

Arrivals Arrivals 18 14
Unloaded Pieces 735 731
Stock put away Pieces 735 731

Replenishment Functions

Volume SKUs 200 0

Shipping Functions

Order picking Line items 279 72


Overpacking Pieces 85 37
Orders Orders 113 31
Freight shipments Bill of lading 61 41
Small shipments Pieces 83 24
Load Pieces 863 198
STANDARD COSTS

Function Unit of Daily Time Hourly Standard


Meas. u/m Activity Standard Rate Cost
(u/m per Min) ($ per Min.) ( per u/m)
Receiving
Unload truck Pieces 735 250 7.50 3.0
Check receipt Pieces 735 167 7.50 4.5
Clerical Pieces 735 500 7.50 1.5
Putaway stock Pieces 735 150 7.50 5.0
14.0
Replenishment
Replenish SKUs 200 50 7.50 5.0

Shipping
Order picking Line item 279 30 8.00 27.0
Overpacking Pieces 86 23 7.50 33.0
Small shipping Pieces 83 100 8.00 8.0
Freight shipping Shipments 61 15 8.25 55.0
WAREHOUSING ACTIVITY/INPUT MATRIX

Activities Labor Facilities Equipment Energy Financial Overall

Company-Operated
Warehousing
Receiving X X X X
Put-away X X X
Storage X X X
Replenishment X X X
Order selection X X X
Checking X X X
Packing and Marking X X X X
Staging and order X X X X
consolidation
Shipping X X X X
Clerical and X X X
administration
Overall X X X X X X
Purchased-Outside
Warehousing
Storage X
Handling X
Consolidation X
Administration X
Overall X
TRANSPORTATION ACTIVITY/INPUT MATRIX

Activities Labor Facilities Equipment Energy Financial Overall


Investment (cost)
Company-Operated
Over-the-Road Trucking
Loading X X
Line-haul X X
Unloading X X X
Overall X X X X
Company-Operated
Pickup/Delivery Trucking
Pre-trip X X
Stem driving X X X
On-route driving X X X
At-stop X X
End-of-trip X X
Overall X X X X
Outside Transportation
All Modes
Loading X
Line-haul X
Unloading X
Transportation/Traffic Management
Company-Operated X
Outside transportation X
Purchasing, Inventory Management, and Production
Management Activity/Input Matrix

Activities Labor Equipment Financial Overall

Purchasing
Sourcing X X
Procurement X X X
Cost control X X
Overall X
Inventory Management
Forecasting X X X
Planning and budgeting X X X
Execution and control X X X
Overall X X
Production Management
Production planning X X
Production control X X
Scheduling and X X X
dispatching
Shop floor data collection X X X
Overall X
OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

GENERAL ACTIVITY FUNCTION UNIT OF MEASURE

TRUCK ARRIVES

ASSIST IN UNLOADING
AND PALLETIZING

MOVE TO RECEIVING
ACCUMULATION ARRIVALS
RECEIVING
PIECES RECEIVED

COMPLETE CLERICAL
FUNCTIONS

MOVE TO STORAGE
LOCATION

REPLENISHMENT STOCKKEEPING
RESTOCKING
PICKING LOCATION UNITS
FUNCTION

PICK CUSTOMER ORDER

OVERPACK CARTON LINE ITEM PICKED


ORDER PICKING
PIECES OVERPACKED
AND SHIPPING
BILLS OF LADING PREPARED
COMPLETE CLERICAL FUNCTION
PIECES SHIPPED
FUNCTION ORDER SHIPPED

ORDER DEPARTS
RATIO PRODUKTIVITAS

Distribusi (fisik) dapat dikendalikan dengan ratio produktivitas :

Keluaran
Produktivitas = -------------------
Masukan

Operasi suatu gudang boleh disusun dengan menggunakan perbandingan-


perbandingan kemampuan produksi sebagai berikut :

Jumlah pesanan yang dikirim periode tertentu


Produktivitas = ---------------------------------------------------------------------
Jumlah pesanan yang diterima periode ini

Jumlah pesanan yang dikirim periode tertentu


Produktivitas = -----------------------------------------------------------------------
Jumlah rata-rata pesanan yang dikirim per periode

Jumlah pesanan yang dikirim periode tertentu


Produktivitas = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Jumlah Waktu Bekerja karyawan langsung pada periode tsb
Perbandingan-perbandingan kemampuan produksi
untuk transportasi mungkin termasuk :

Ton - kilometer yang diangkut


Produktivitas = --------------------------------------------------------------
Jumlah biaya transportasi yang sebenarnya

Pemberhentian Pelayanan
Produktivitas = --------------------------------------------------------------
Jumlah biaya transportasi yang sebenarnya

Barang yang dikirim ke tempat tujuan


Produktivitas = --------------------------------------------------------
Jumlah biaya transportasi sebenarnya
Data Used to Evaluate Transportation Performance
Percentage Response (n=363)
Data Presently Data Appearing on
Using a Formal Report
Common Contract Carriers :
Damage/claims 65.0 43.0
Transit time 59.8 30.9
Customer complaints 59.5 27.8
Shipment tracing 60.1 28.1
On-time delivery performance 55.6 29.5
Shipment expediting 50.7 19.0
Billing accuracy 48.8 25.1
Equipment availability 46.0 19.6
On-time pickup performance 44.6 19.3
Data from freight payment system 47.4 33.6
Equipment condition 37.5 13.5
Assigned rail cars 26.2 17.1
Sanitation 23.7 8.8
Post card survey of customer 22.6 14.6
Cost per ton mile 19.8 11.8
Form letter to customers 11.3 7.2
regarding performance
Private Carriers :
Utilization 38.6 25.1
On-time delivery performance 33.6 18.2
Transit time 34.7 19.3
Damage 33.6 19.6
Customer complaints 30.6 15.4
Cost per ton mile 30.9 21.2
On-time pickup performance 25.1 13.5
Data Used to Evaluate Warehousing
Performance-Percentage Response
(n=363)
D a ta Presently Data Appearing on
Using a Formal Report
Public Warehouse
Total cost 48.5 33.1
Handling costs/unit 44.6 30.6
Storage costs/unit 43.5 28.9
Accuracy and promptness of inventory reports 39.9 23.7
Annual warehouse inspection 40.2 23.4
Damage/claims 38.0 20.4
On-site audits 36.9 18.7
Sanitation/housekeeping 36.6 17.6
Warehouse operations performance 36.4 20.9
Customer complaints 33.3 14.6
Billing accuracy 31.1 14.6
Consolidation of outbound freight 30.9 15.2
Salesmens comments 27.5 8.9
Safety and environmental factors 24.5 13.2
Cost measured against standard 22.3 16.5
Company-Owned (Leased) Distributed Centers
Total cost 60.1 44.7
In-stock availability 52.1 36.9
Inventory turns 50.1 35.8
Damage/claims 39.7 24.2
Order cycle availability 38.6 27.3
Cost by product 28.4 21.5
How Manufacturers Can Calculate the Impact of Using a Wholesaler

Costs Associated with Manufacturer Selling Direct to Retailers


Costs of Direct Selling versus Using an Intermediary $ _______
Additional Promotional Expenses Associated with Direct Sales $ _______
Customer Service Costs
Cost of sales lost at retail level due to stockouts resulting
from long and/or erratic lead time $ _______
Return foregone on capital invested in accounts receivable $ _______
Credit losses associated with accounts receivable $ _______ $ _______
Order Filling Costs
Cost of dealing with many customers $ _______
Cost of filling small orders $ _______
Cost of filling frequent orders $ _______ $ _______
Inventory Carrying Costs
Return foregone on capital invested in inventory $ _______
Insurance paid on inventory $ _______
Taxes paid on inventory $ _______
Storage costs $ _______
Cost of obsolescence $ _______
Cost of damaged product $ _______
Cost of pilferage $ _______
Trans-shipment costs $ _______ $ _______
Warehousing Costs
Return foregone on capital invested in field warehouse (if owned) $ _______
Operating expenses associated with such warehouse $ _______ $ _______
Transportation Costs
Costs of processing shipping documents (for many LTL shipments) $ _______
Cost of processing freight claims $ _______
Excessive freight costs (associated with LTL shipments $ _______ $ _______
General and Administrative
Reduction in management costs associated with holding and supervising inventory $ _______
Annual Costs of Direct Selling Total $ _______
Less volume discounts to wholesaler $ _______
Total Amount Saved by Using a Wholesaler $ _______
MANAJEMEN
DISTRIBUSI BARANG

62
DISTRIBUTION
REQUIREMENT PLANNING

DISTRIBUSI FISIK ADALAH ALIRAN PRODUK


DARI SUPPLIER KE KONSUMEN MUNGKIN
MELALUI BEBERAPA TAHAP TRANSPORTASI
DAN PENYIMPANANNYA.
63
DRP AKAN MENJAWAB BEBERAPA
PERTANYAAN PENTING
JUMLAH, LOKASI DAN UKURAN GUDANG.
ITEM YANG HARUS DISIMPAN DI SETIAP
GUDANG.
PABRIK ATAU VENDOR MANA YANG AKAN
MENGIRIM BARANG KE GUDANG KITA.
ALAT TRANSPORTASI YANG DIPAKAI.

64
DRP AKAN MENJAWAB BEBERAPA
PERTANYAAN PENTING
PENGGUNAAN GUDANG DAN ALAT
TRANSPORTASI PERUSAHAAN
MAUPUN MILIK ORANG LAIN.
RUTE PERJALANAN.
PEMILIHAN METODA INVENTORY
CONTROL UNTUK OPTIMASI
PERSEDIAAN.

65
MULTI-ECHELON
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
KONSUMEN MUNGKIN DILAYANANI
OLEH BEBERAPA STOCKING POINTS

66
MULTI-ECHELON
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

PABRIK

CENTRAL SUPPLY

DISTRIBUTION CENTRE DISTRIBUTION CENTRE DISTRIBUTION CENTRE

67
PULL SYSTEM
SUATU SISTEM YANG HANYA
BEROPERASI UNTUK MENJAWAB
PERMINTAAN USER. TUJUANNYA
MEMBELI/ MENERIMA/ MENGIRIM/
MEMBUAT BARANG SEPERTI YANG
DIBUTUHKAN DAN PADA WAKTU
DIBUTUHKAN SERTA TIDAK ADA
PERSEDIAAN TERSISA.
68
PUSH SYSTEM
SEBUAH SISTEM YANG DALAM OPERASINYA
BERUSAHA MENJAWAB PREPLANNED
SCHEDULE UNTUK SETIAP OPERASI TANPA
MENGACUHKAN REAL-TIME STATUS
OPERASI ITU. TUJUANNYA ADALAH
BEROPERASI SESUAI JADUAL.

69
PULL SYSTEM
DISTRIBUTION CENTRE MEMBUAT
FORECAST KEBUTUHANNYA DAN
MELAKUKAN PERHITUNGAN OPTIMASI.
ORDER DIBUAT TANPA MELIHAT
KEBUTUHAN DISTRIBUTION CENTRE LAIN.
CENTRAL SUPPLY TIDAK MENERIMA
INFORMASI TENTANG TINGKAT
PERSEDIAAN MAUPUN DEMAND DI SETIAP
DISTRIBUTION CENTRE.

70
PULL SYSTEM
CENTRAL SUPPLY HANYA MELIHAT ORDER
DARI DISTRIBUTION SEBAGAI DEMAND DAN
DIPAKAI SEBAGAI DATA UNTUK PENENTUAN
REPLENISHMENT DAN SAFETY STOCK.
SISTEM INI DAPAT DIOPERASIKAN SECARA
MANUAL DAN SEDIKIT SEKALI
MENGGUNAKAN ALAT TELEKOMUNIKASI.

71
PULL SYSTEM
BILA STOCKING POINT ADALAH PROFIT CENTRE
YANG MEMILIKI FUNGSI PEMASARAN DAN GUDANG
MAKA AKAN DILAKUKAN OPTIMASI OLEH MANAJER
STOCKING POINT.
KERUGIAN DARI SISTEM INI IALAH BAHWA
PERMINTAAN BARANG SANGAT DITENTUKAN OLEH
DC. DC BISA MEMINTA SEJUMLAH BESAR BARANG
DALAM SEKALI PENGIRIMAN. INI AKAN
MENGAKIBATKAN MASALAH PERSEDIAAN DI
CENTRAL WAREHOUSE.

72
PUSH SYSTEM
DALAM SISTEM INI KEPUTUSAN REPLENISHMENT
DILAKUKAN OLEH LEVEL YANG LEBIH TINGGI.
INFORMASI TENTANG DEMAND DAN INVENTORY
DI UNIT -UNIT DI BAWAHNYA DIKIRIMKAN
LANGSUNG KE LEVEL DI ATASNYA.

73
PUSH SYSTEM
KEPUTUSAN REPLENISHMENT
DIDASARKAN ATAS VARIABILITAS
DEMAND STOCKING POINT DI
BAWAHNYA

74
PUSH SYSTEM
FORECASTING DILAKUKAN OLEH
LEVEL YANG LEBIH TINGGI
SEHINGGA JUMLAH DAN WAKTU
PENGIRIMAN BARANG DAPAT
DIRENCANAKAN LEBIH BAIK

75
PUSH SYSTEM
PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI
DAN TELEKOMUNIKASI SANGAT
MENUNJANG SISTEM INI.
KEUNTUNGAN SISTEM INI ADALAH
TERJADINYA SINKRONISASI PENGIRIMAN
BARANG DAN PERSEDIAAN DI CENTTRAL
WAREHOUSE DAPAT DIMINIMASI.
DIPERLUKAN FORECASTING YANG ANDAL.

76
PURCHASING
MANAGEMENT

77
PERUBAHAN HARAPAN
STAKEHOLDER
PEMERINTAH
PEMILIK PERBANKAN

ASOSIASI MASYARAKAT

PEMASOK PERUSAHAAN PEMBELI /


PASAR

MITRA /
PARTNER DISTRIBUTOR

MANAJEMEN PESAING
KARYAWAN 78
PRICE
QUALITY CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION
DELIVERY

FACTOR STRATEGY

PRICE COST REDUCTION STRATEGY


INTRODUCE A QUALITY MANAGEMENT
QUALITY SYSTEM

DELIVERY PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING TO


REDUCE DELIVERY TIMES
79
Structural analysis of a business

Primary processes are performed to design, produce, market, delivery and


VALUE CHAIN
support product service.
PROCESS
Secondary processes enhance the effeciency and effectictiveness of the
primary processes.

BUSINESS
PROCESS A group of interpendent activities which are activated by an event.

What the business does.


ACTIVITY Activities consume resources.
Products or services consume activities.

TASK How an activity is performed.

80
THE VALUE CHAIN

INFRASTRUKTUR PERUSAHAAN

AKTIVITAS MANAJEMEN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA


PENDUKUNG
PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI
PENGADAAN BARANG ATAU JASA

PELAYANAN
PEMASARAN
LOGISTIK LOGISTIK
OPERASI &
MASUK KELUAR
PENJUALAN

KEGIATAN UTAMA
81
VALUE CHAIN OF MANUFACTURING BUSINESS
SUPPORT PROCESSES

MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT


PRIMARY PROCESSES

PRCUREMENT
PROCESS
RAW
OPERATIONAL
MATERIALS
PROCESS 1 OPERATIONAL
OPERATIONAL
PRODUCTION PROCESS 2 MARKETING DISTRIBUTION CUSTOMER
PROCESS 3
PLANNING CUTTING AND POCESS POCESS POCESS
ASSEMBLY
AND TURNING
PRCUREMENT
CONTROL
PROCESS
PACKAGING
MATERIALS

82
OBJEKTIF PENGADAAN
MEMPERTAHANKAN KUALITAS
MATERIAL.
MEMBELI MATERIAL DENGAN HARGA
TERMURAH DAN KUALITAS SERTA
SERVICE YANG DIBUTUHKAN
OPTIMASI PERSEDIAAN.
MENGHINDARI WASTE, DUPLIKASI
DAN OBSOLESCENE.

83
OBJEKTIF PENGADAAN
MEMPERTAHANKAN POSISI KOMPETITIF
PERUSAHAAN.
ANALISIS AVAILABILITAS DAN BIAYA
PENGADAAN MATERIAL UTAMA.
MENCARI MATERIAL BARU YANG
MEMUNGKINKAN DILAKUKAN PENINGKATAN
EFISIENSI DAN PRODUKTIFITAS
PERUSAHAAN.

84
MAJOR CATEGORIES FOR THE COMPONENTS OF
TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP

TOTAL COST OF
OWNERSHIP

POSTRANSACTION COMPONENTS
TRANSACTION COMPONENTS
PRETRANSACTION COMPONENTS 1. Line fallout
1. Price
1. Identifying need 2. Defective finished goods rejected
2. Order placement /preparation
2. Investigating sources before sale
3. Delivery/Transportation
3. Qualifying sources 3. Field failures
4. Tariffs/duties
4. Adding supplier to internal systems 4. repairs/replecement in field
5. Billing/payment
5. Educating : 5. Customer goodwill/reputation of
6. Inspection
- supplier in firm's operations firm
7. Return of parts
- firm in supplier's operations 6. Cost of repair parts
8. Follow-up and correction
7. cost of maintenance and repairs

85
PENTINGNYA ASPEK KUALITAS
DALAM PENGADAAN
HUBUNGAN QUALITY, PRICE DAN
COST.
KEBUTUHAN CUSTOMER AKAN
KUALITAS.
PERLU DEFINISI KUALITAS YG JELAS
PERAN SPESIFIKASI.
PROCESS CONTROL DI PABRIK MILIK
SUPPLIER.

86
PENTINGNYA ASPEK KUALITAS
DALAM PENGADAAN

PROACTIVE APPROACH.
PEMERIKSAAN BARANG YANG
DATANG.

87
DESKRIPSI KUALITAS
BARANG
UKURAN KIMIAWI, FISIKA DAN
DIMENSIONAL.
MARKET GRADE.
BRAND NAME.
PERFORMANCE/ USERS SPECIFICATION
PURCHASING BY SAMPLE.
STANDAR INDUSTRI.
GAMBAR TEKNIK DAN BLUE PRINT.

88
Traditional Time used compared with new Roles
Traditional
Role New Role

100%
Cost
Admin reduction and
cost planning
activities
Quality
problem Supplier
measurement
% of and
buyers improvement Additional
time Expediting activities new
information activities
and parts Supplier
delivery strategies

Market Component
testing via development
competitive strategies
quotes
Admin.

Price
negotiation Additional
new activities
Negotiation
89
An Example of A mind-map

Cost Price
Analysis Decision
Time
Negotiation

Price & Cost

Structures

Source Purchasing Structure &


Selection Organization
Place in the
Organization

Market
Research
Quantity
Strategy
&
Quality Planning

Order Stock Planning


Quantities Control Process

Strategy Objectives
Selection

Process
Control Specification
Development 90
PARAMETER PENGADAAN

TEPAT BARANG TEPAT WAKTU TEPAT TRANSPORTASI

TEPAT MUTU TEPAT SIKAP TEPAT KONTRAK

TEPAT HARGA TEPAT SUMBER BARANG/JASA TEPAT JUMLAH


91
Identifikasi dan Teknik
Pemilihan Potential
Partners

92
XYZ PACKAGING
Questionnaire

Date : _____________________ Interviewer : _____________________

Respondent Name : _______________________________________________


Company : _______________________________________________
Position : _______________________________________________
Segment : _______________________________________________
Location : _______________________________________________

Companys Business :
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

Respondents Role :
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________ 93
What is important to the customer ?
Weve just been speaking about product your company uses and how you source
them. Id like you to imagine that you had to undertake a complete review of
suppliers of (product in question), starting with a completely blank
piece of paper and no preconceptions.

1.1 Which companies would be on a list of potential suppliers ?

Unprompted Prompted

a. ______________________ a. ______________________

b. ______________________ b. ______________________

c. ______________________ c. ______________________

d. ______________________ d. ______________________

e. ______________________ e. ______________________ 94
1.2 Having drawn up your list, you would have to decide how to take these
potential suppliers against each other. To do this you would have to specify
yours requierements and judge each supplier againts its ability ti meet those
requirements. What would those requirements be ?

a. ______________________ d. ______________________

b. ______________________ e. ______________________

c. ______________________ f. ______________________

Which of those are the most important to you ?

a. ____________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________________ 95
1.3 Im now going to suggest a more detailed list
of requirement and Id like you to indicate
how important each one is to you by giving
it a score out of 10, where 10 out of 10
would mean extremely important and 1 out
of 10 would mean no importance at ell.
When deciding you mark, you may find it
helpful to compare the importance of the
requirement in question with your Number
One requirement of (repeat it).
96
CUSTOMER PRIORITY

Customer Requirement Score


a. Product Performance


Consistency of product quality
Technical performance of product
Comprehensive of product range
Suppliers quality systems
Suppliers standards of hygiene
Other documentation, e.g., health, safety

b. Delivery and Service Performance


Reliability of delivery (delivery promises kept

Speed of delivery
Packaging of deliveries
Ease of ordering
Feedback, especially on problems
Confidence of continuity of supply

97
c. Technical Service Performance
Ability to innovate (R&D expertise)

Design expertise
Responsiveness on techinical service

d. Field Sales Performance


Frequent calls

Technical capability of representative
Commercial capability of representative
Interpersonal capability of representative
Adequate empowerment/autonomy
Accessibility (available when needed)

e. Pricing Performance
The supplier must offer the cheapest price

Price or negotiation handling

f. Environmental Performance
The supplier is environmentally responsible

The supplier has recycling capability and expertise
Waste can be returned to supplier
98
What is important to the customer ?

Id now like to ask how well XYZ


PACKAGING performs againts the same
requirement and how their performance
compares with other suppliers. Please answer by
giving a mark out of 10 as before, where 10
represents excellent performance and 1
represents extremely poor performance

99
SUPPLIERS PERFORMANCE
SUPPLIER
Score
Requirement XYZ A B C

a. Product Performance . . . .
Consistency of product quality . . . .
Technical performance of product . . . .
Comprehensive of product range . . . .
Suppliers quality systems . . . .
Suppliers standards of hygiene . . . .
Other documentation, e.g., health, safety . . . .

b. Delivery and Service Performance . . . .


Reliability of delivery (delivery promises kept . . . .
Speed of delivery . . . .
Packaging of deliveries . . . .
Ease of ordering . . . .
Feedback, especially on problems . . . .
Confidence of continuity of supply . . . .

c. Technical Service Performance . . . .


Ability to innovate (R&D expertise) . . . .
Design expertise . . . . 100
Responsiveness on techinical service . . . .
d. Field Sales Performance . . . .
Frequent calls . . . .
Technical capability of representative . . . .
Commercial capability of representative . . . .
Interpersonal capability of representative . . . .
Adequate empowerment/autonomy . . . .
Accessibility (available when needed) . . . .

e. Pricing Performance . . . .
The supplier must offer the cheapest price . . . .
Price or negotiation handling . . . .

f. Environmental Performance . . . .
The supplier is environmentally responsible . . . .
The supplier has recycling capability and expertise. . . .
Waste can be returned to supplier . . . .

101
Suppliers Image

You mentioned a number of suppliers at the beginning of the interview.


Id like you to think for a moment about the different images that those
suppliers create in your mind and what distiguishes them as companies.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

102
Conclusion

Finally, Id like you to imagine you were the Chief Executive of XYZ
Packaging. What would be your top priorities for the company over the
short term (urgent priorities) and over the longer term?.

Short term :

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Longt term :

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
103
Do you have any other comments, about anything weve discussed ?.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Thank you very much for taking part in the survey. Your answers have been
most helpful.

104
Managerial Guideline
Untuk terciptanya
Supplier Partnership

105
MANFAAT
BUYER- SUPPLIER PARTNERSHIP
DILIHAT DARI BERBAGAI ASPEK

ASPEK MANAJEMEN.
ASPEK TEKNOLOGI.
ASPEK KEUANGAN.

106
MANAJEMEN
Manajemen Reduced Supplier Base Lebih Mudah.
Peningkatan Mutual Dependence Akan Mengurangi
Resiko Penyediaan Sumber Barang Dan Akan
Meningkatkan Loyalitas Supplier.
Reduksi Waktu Yang Diperlukan Untuk Pencarian

Supllier.

Joint Planning And Information Sharing.


Peningkatan Atensi Supllier Dan Customer Service.
Kooperasi Lebih Baik Dengan Supplier. 107
TEKNOLOGI
PARTNER AKAN LEBIH TERBUKA MEMBERIKAN
INFORMASI TEKNOLOGI.

PARTNER AKAN LEBIH TERBUKA DAN


BERPARTISIPASI DALAM PRODUCT DESIGN.

PENGETAHUAN SUPPLIER TENTANG DISAIN AKAN


MEMBERIKAN MANFAAT : PENINGKATAN KUALITAS
DAN REDUKSI WAKTU PERUBAHAN.

108
KEUANGAN

BUSINESS RISK SHARING MELALUI : JOINT

INVESTMENT, JOINT R&D, MARKET RISK

SHARING.

PENGURANGAN PERSEDIAAN.

HARGA BARANG LEBIH STABIL.

109
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

KONTRIBUSI PARTNER.

MASALAH SDM.

INTERAKSI.

110
KONTRIBUSI PARTNER
PARTNER HARUS MEMILIKI ADDED VALUE
DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN YANG LAIN.

OBJEKTIF HARUS DITEKANKAN PADA


TOTAL COST BUKAN PRICE.

PILIH KEY ITEM.

111
MASALAH SDM

MUTUAL TRUST DAN KETERBUKAAN.

REDUKSI JUMLAH SUPPLIER.

112
INTERAKSI
KOMUNIKASI TERJADI PADA BERBAGAI
LEVEL DALAM ORGANISASI DI KEDUA
PERUSAHAAN.

SUPPLIER MENDAPATKAN INFORMASI


TENTANG PERUBAHAN YANG ADA PADA
KESEMPATAN PERTAMA.

113