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Imunologi adalah ilmu yang
mempelajari tentang imunitas atau
kekebalan akibat adanya rangsangan
molekul asing dari luar maupun dari
dalam tubuh hewan atau manusia,
baik yang bersifat infeksius maupun
non infeksius.

Imunitas : Daya tahan tubuh untuk melawan penyakit

melawan infeksi.
Semua sel dan molekul yang terlibat dalam imunitas tubuh,
merupakan suatu kesatuan fungsional disebut :
sistem imun.
Tanggap (respon) terhadap substansi asing yang masuk ke
dalam tubuh, secara kolektif disebut respon imun .
Definisi spesifik :
Imunitas adalah reaksi untuk melawan substansi asing yang
masuk ke dalam tubuh seperti mikroorganisme (bakteri, virus,
parasit) & molekul besar (protein, polisakharida). Reaksi yang
terjadi meliputi reaksi seluler dan molekul.

Sel imunokompeten yaitu semua sel yang
berfungsi dalam respon imun
Sel yang mampu membedakan sel tubuh
dengan zat asing dan menyelenggarakan
inaktivasi atau perusakan benda-benda
Semua sel ini berasal dari sel induk
pluripoten yang kemudian berdiferensiasi
melalui 2 jalur

Sel dlm Sistem Imun


A. Immunocompetent cells in general

1. T-cells
T cells express T-cell receptors that recognize the antigen
information associated with MHC molecules.
Produced in the bone marrow and develop in the thymus.
T cells are classified by function into CD4 positive helper T cells
(helper T lymphocyte; Th) and CD8 positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Th contains CD4 on the cell surface, by which Th adheres to MHC
class II. Therefore, Th reacts against antigen-presenting cells and B
cells, which contain MHC class II. Th differentiates into subtype Th1 or
Th2, depending on the surrounding cytokine environment.
Th1 secretes cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-g , activating histiocytes
(macrophages) primarily, and it induces cellular immunity by evoking
various inflamatory reactions.


Th2 secretes IL-4 and IL-5, activates antibody production in B

cells, and inactivates foreign substances (humoral immunity).
It is known that Th1 is involved mostly in type IV allergy while
Th2 is involved in type I allergy (atopic diseases).
Tc contains CD8, by which Tc is associated with MHC class I to
initiate cytotoxic immunity; in this way, non-self cells and virusinfected cells are destroyed.
Tc is important in transplantation immunity, tumor immunity
and viral infections. Recently, the presence of another subtype
regulatory T cell (Treg) has been identified. Treg is
considered to be involved in immune control, including
suppression of autoimmune disease onset. It is also known
that some Th and Tc circulate in the blood after an immune
reaction to guard against re-infection.

2. B cells
B cells derive from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow,
after which they differentiate. They react against foreign antigens
in lymphnodes, the spleen, and peripheral tissues to differentiate
into antibody-forming cells (plasma cells);
B cells produce antibodies in this process. B cells contain MHC
class II and activate T cells as antigen-presenting cells.
Immunoglobulins expressed on the surface of B cells react to the
corresponding targeted antigens to convey information to T cells.
When activated, most of the B cells differentiate into antibody
producing cells that provide antibodies against the antigens and
die in the course of time except for some that differentiate into
memory B cells so that they are able to produce antibodies
immediately upon reinfection.




3. Histiocytes (macrophages)
Histiocytes (macrophages) are bone marrow-derived cells that
have intense phagocytic reactivity.
There are dermal-originated histiocytes and monocytes
circulating in the blood.
Histiocytes degrade phagocytosed antigen proteins into peptides
and present the antigen information to T cells by MHC class II. In
inflammation, histiocytes proliferate, migrate to loci, leave
various cytokines, and induce phagocytosis of causative factors
and injure the infected cells.
Histiocytes may fuse to form enlarged cells. They are the main
cells to form granulomas in chronic inflammation

Mechanism of Phagocytosis


4. Mast cells
Mast cells play a central roll in type I allergy.






(FceRI) and

considerable amounts of histamines.

When binded with IgE and further cross-linked by an antigen
to react to IgE, mast cells are activated to release
inflammatory cytokines that lead to dermal edema in

erythema or urticaria.
Mastcytosis is caused by tumorous proliferation of mast cells.

5. Eosinophils
Eosinophils have phagocytic and cytotoxic functions.
Associated with atopic diseases (type I allergy), autoimmune
blistering diseases, and parasitic infections.
Activated by Th2-derived IL-5.
Morphologically, they are characterized by having multiple
eosinophilic granules.
They do not usually exist in normal skin.

6. Neutrophils
Neutrophils are phagocytic and play a large role in
fightingbacterial infections.
They are hardly ever found in normal skin. They are also
activated in inflammatory diseases.
Neutrophilic infiltration (pustule) is observed in psoriasis
vulgaris and Sweets disease.

7. Basophils
Like eosinophils and neutrophils, basophils are also granular
leukocytes, and they contain multiple basophilic granules.
They contain histamines in the granules and have FceRI on the
They are involved in type I allergy.
The functions of basophils are similar to those of mast cells.