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Perubahan Pola Curah Hujan dan Dampaknya Terhadap Periode Masa Tanam

Rainfall Pattern Change and Its Impact on Length of Growing Period

E. RUNTUNUWU1 DAN H. SYAHBUDDIN2

ABSTRAK
Informasi mengenai dampak perubahan iklim global
terhadap sektor pertanian sangat diperlukan untuk
perencanaan strategi adaptasi. Studi ini bertujuan untuk
menganalisis perubahan pola hujan (rainfall pattern),
serta dampaknya terhadap periode masa tanam. Data
yang digunakan adalah data curah hujan bulanan selama
periode 1879-2006 dari Stasiun Manonjaya, Kabupaten
Tasikmalaya, Provinsi Jawa Barat. Pola hujan dianalisis
dengan menggunakan metode Oldeman, yang sekaligus
dapat menghitung periode masa tanam. Pola hujan telah
ditentukan berdasarkan tahun basah, tahun normal, tahun
kering pada masing-masing periode tiga puluh tahunan:
1879-1910, 1911-1940, 1941-1970, dan 1971-2006.
Hasil studi menunjuk-kan bahwa telah terjadi perubahan
pola hujan selama periode 128 tahun di Tasikmalaya,
dengan rincian sebagai berikut: pada tahun basah pola hujan tetap A, tetapi bulan basah
berkurang dua bulan; pada tahun normal, pola hujan berubah dari B1 menjadi B2, dan
pada tahun kering dari C2 menjadi D3. Terjadinya perubahan pola hujan tersebut telah
mengakibatkan penurunan periode masa tanam. Pada tahun basah, lahan yang awalnya
dapat ditanami padi tiga kali, telah berkurang menjadi dua kali setahun. Pada tahun
normal, terutama pada masa tanam yang kedua perlu teknologi irigasi untuk tetap
mempertahankan periode tanam dua kali setahun. Pada tahun kering, pengaruhnya lebih
serius lagi, karena yang pada awalnya dapat ditanami padi sekali setahun, menjadi tidak
mungkin. Implikasi hasil penelitian ini terhadap pertanian, bahwa kegiatan adaptasi perlu
dilakukan untuk mengurangi dampak negatif, bahkan sekaligus juga berusaha mencari
manfaat dari perubahan tersebut.

Kata kunci : Perubahan iklim, Pola hujan, Periode masa tanam

ABSTRACT
Information of global climate change impact on agriculture sector is needed for planning
agricultural adaptation strategy. The objective of the study was to analyze the climate
change in Indonesia, especially rainfall pattern change, and its impact on the length of
growing period. The data used for analysis was collected during a period of 1879-2006
from Manonjaya station in Tasikmalaya District, West Java Province. The rainfall pattern
was analyzed using Oldeman method, which is used to compute the length of growing
period. Rainfall pattern was determined based on three types of rainfall characteristic,
i.e., wet year, normal year, and dry year for each period of 1879-1910, 1911-1940, 1941-
1970, and 1971-2006. The result of this research showed that the rainfall pattern had been
changed over the past 128 years, with the following descriptions: on the wet year, the
type of rainfall pattern has no changed, but the wet month has decreased about two
months; on normal year, the rainfall pattern has changed from B1 to B2, and on dry year,
it was from C2 to D3. The length of growing period was becoming shorter due to this
changes. During wet year, three times cropping has changed to twice a year. During
normal year, especially for enduring of the second growth period, the irrigation
technology was necessary due to expand of water storage. During the dry year, due to the
impact of dry spell, once crop a year will not be possible. The study provides insight into
a strategy to adapt agriculture to climate change and to gain benefit of its change for
suitable agriculture practices.

Keywords : Climate change, Rainfall pattern, Length of growing period

Sifat-Sifat Tanah Dominan yang Berpengaruh Terhadap K Tersedia pada Tanah-


Tanah yang Didominasi Smektit

Dominant Soil Characteristics that Effect on Available K at Smectitic Soils

D. NURSYAMSI1, K. IDRIS2, S. SABIHAM3, D.A. RACHIM3, DAN A. SOFYAN4

ABSTRAK
Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mempelajari sifat-sifat tanah dominan yang berpengaruh
terhadap K tersedia pada tanah-tanah yang didominasi mineral liat smektit telah
dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Penelitian dan Uji Tanah, Balai Penelitian Tanah.
Karakteristik tanah yang dianalisis meliputi tekstur 3 fraksi (pipet), C-organik (Kjeldahl),
dan KTK (NH4OAc); mineral fraksi liat (X-Ray Diffraction); fraksionasi K: Kl ( 0.0002
M CaCl2), Kdd (NH4OAc), dan Kt (HNO3+HClO4); serta jerapan K tanah. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar Kl, Kdd, Ktdd, dan Kt tanah dari tinggi ke rendah
berturut-turut adalah Vertisols > Alfisols > Inceptisols. Proporsi bentuk K dari rendah ke
tinggi di ketiga tanah yang diteliti mempunyai urutan yang sama, yaitu: Kl Inceptisols.
Sementara itu konstanta energi ikatan tanah Vertisols hampir sama dengan Alfisols dan
sekitar dua kali lipat tanah Inceptisols. Liat, C-organik, dan KTK tanah umumnya
berpengaruh nyata (P > 0,95) terhadap peubah ketersediaan K tanah. Smektit
berkontribusi nyata (P > 0,95) terhadap muatan negatif tanah sehingga memegang
peranan penting dalam mengendalikan daya sangga dan jerapan maksimum K tanah.
Untuk meningkatkan efisiensi pupuk K, tanaman yang dapat menghasilkan eksudat asam
organik tinggi dapat dikembangkan di tanah-tanah yang didominasi smektit. Selain itu
penambahan kation Na, NH4, dan Fe juga perlu dipertimbangkan dalam pengelolaan K
tanah.

Kata kunci : Sifat tanah, Ketersediaan K, Tanah yang didominasi smektit


ABSTRACT
Research aimed to study dominant soil characteristics that effect on available K of
smectitic soils were conducted in Laboratory of Research and Soil Test, Indonesian Soil
Research Institute. The soil characteristics that has been analised were soil texture
(pipette), organic-C (Kjeldahl), and CEC (NH4OAc); mineralogical analyses of clay
fraction (X-Ray Diffraction); K fractionation: soil soluble-K (0.0002 M CaCl2),
exchangeable-K (NH4OAc), and total-K (HNO3+HClO4); and potassium sorption. The
results showed that the content of soil soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable, and
total-K was in order of Vertisols > Alfisols > Inceptisols. The percentage of soil K
fraction of the soils, however, was in order of soluble-K Inceptisols. The bond energy
constant of Vertisols, however, was similar with that of Alfisols but it was about twice
with that of Inceptisols. Soil clay, organic-C, and CEC affected the availability of soil K
significantly (P > 0.95). Smectite contributed significantly (P > 0.95) to soil negative
charge so that it held an important role in controlling soil K buffering capacity and
maximum sorption. To increase the efficiency of K fertilizer, plant species that can
produce organic acid exudated from roots in high quantity can be developed in smectitic
soils. The use of Na, NH4, and Fe cations need also to be considered for K management
in the soils as well.

Keywords : Soil characteristics, K availability, Smectitic soils

Perubahan Fraksi Bahan Organik Tanah Akibat Perbedaan Cara Pemberian dan
Sumber Bahan Organik pada Ultisols Jasinga

Changes of Soil Organic Matter Fraction on Ultisols Jasinga by Soil Tillage and
Organic Matter Practices

N.L. NURIDA1, O. HARIDJAJA2, S. ARSYAD3, SUDARSONO3, U. KURNIA1, DAN G.


DJAJAKIRANA2

ABSTRAK
Sumber bahan organik berupa mukuna, flemingia, dan sisa tanaman mempunyai kualitas
berbeda, terutama nisbah C/N, kandungan lignin, selulosa dan nisbah lignin/selulosa.
Perbedaan kualitas bahan organik menentukan perubahan kadar bahan organik dalam
tanah, khususnya fraksi labil sehingga memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda pula terhadap
sifat-sifat tanah. Penelitian ini bertujuan: 1) memahami pengaruh sumber bahan organik
dengan kualitas berbeda yang diberikan dengan cara berbeda terhadap fraksi-fraksi bahan
organik, dan 2) mengetahui hubungan perubahan kadar bahan organik dalam bentuk C-
organik, particulate organic matter (POM) dan biomassa mikroorganisme (Cmic) dengan
indikator kualitas tanah berupa berat isi, porositas, permeabilitas tanah lapisan atas,
indeks stabilitas agregat, P-tersedia, K-tersedia, dan N-total. Penelitian dilaksanakan di
rumah kaca Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor pada
bulan Januari-Mei 2003. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial,
dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah cara pemberian bahan organik: 1) disebar di
permukaan tanah, dan 2) dicampur/diinkorporasi. Faktor kedua adalah sumber bahan
organik (takaran setara C-organik 2%) yaitu: 1) Mucuna sp., 2) Flemingia sp., 3) sisa
tanaman jagung, 4) campuran Mucuna sp. dan Flemingia sp., 5) campuran Flemingia sp.
dan sisa tanaman jagung, 6) campuran Mucuna sp. dan sisa tanaman jagung, dan 7)
campuran Mucuna sp., Flemingia sp., dan sisa tanaman jagung. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa pada pemberian bahan organik dengan cara dicampur, nisbah C/N
dan kadar lignin bahan organik berkorelasi positif dengan C-organik, Cmic dan Cmic/
Corg, namun berkorelasi negatif dengan POMp. Perubahan kualitas tanah akibat
pemberian bahan organik dalam jangka pendek dapat dilihat dari perubahan fraksi bahan
organik labil. Bila bahan organik dicampur dengan tanah, POMt dan POMt/Corg
berkorelasi positif dengan berat isi, tetapi berkorelasi negatif dengan RPT, PDC, K-
tersedia, dan N-total. Bila bahan organik disebar di permukaan tanah, Cmic berkorelasi
positif dengan kadar P-tersedia. Perubahan pada fraksi labil (Cmic dan POMt) mudah
dideteksi dalam waktu singkat sehingga perubahan sifat fisik dan ketersediaan unsur hara
makro tersebut lebih mudah diduga.

Kata kunci : Fraksi bahan organik tanah, Sumber bahan organik, Cara pemberian,
Ultisols

ABSTRACT
In situ organic matters, such as Mucuna sp., Flemingia sp., and plant residues differ in
quality (in terms of lignin, cellulose and nutrients contents). Such difference determines
soil organic matter content especially labile fraction that could effect on soil properties.
The aims of this research were to study: 1) the effects of various sources and quality of
organic matters on soil organic fraction, and 2) the relationships between the changes of
particulate organic matter and C-microbes (POM and Cmic) and soil quality indicators.
The experiments were conducted in greenhouse of the Center for Soil and Agroclimate
Research and Development, Bogor, from January to May 2003. The factorial completely
randomized design was used with three replications. The first factor was the method of
organic matters application: 1) mulch on soil surface and 2) incorporated with soils. The
second factor was the sources of organic matters (dosage in equvalent with 2% organic
C), i.e: 1) Mucuna sp., 2) Flemingia sp., 3) maize residue, 4) mixture of Mucuna sp., and
Flemingia sp., 5) mixture of Flemingia sp. and maize residue, 6) mixture of Mucuna sp.
and maize residue, and 7) mixture of Mucuna sp., Flemingia sp., and maize residue. The
results showed that on organic matter application with incorporated method, C/N ratio
and lignin content of organic matter have positive correlation with organic C, Cmic and
Cmic/Corg, but have negative correlation with POMp. The changes of soil qualities
caused by short term organic matter application could be seen from the changes of labile
fraction of organic matter. When organic matter was incorporated, POMt and POMt/Corg
have positive correlation with bulk density, but have negative correlation with RPT,
PDC, available K, and total-N. When organic matter was spreaded on the soil surface,
Cmic has positive correlation with available P. The changes on labile fraction (Cmic and
POMt) was easy to be detected in short period, thus the changes of physical
characteristics and the availability of macro nutrients is easy to be predicted.

Keywords : Soil organic matter fraction, Organic matter sources, Method of organic
matter application, Ultisols

Peningkatan Serapan N pada Kedelai yang Diinokulasi Bakteri Diazotrof Endofit di


Medium Vermiculit

Increasing of N-uptake by Inoculation of Diazotroph Endophytic Bacteria in


Vermiculite Media

DWI N. SUSILOWATI1, R. SARASWATI2, R.D. HASTUTI2, DAN E. YUNIARTI2

ABSTRAK
Dari hasil seleksi intensif 15 isolat terpilih bakteri diazotrof endofit asal tanaman kedelai
terhadap kemampuannya menambat N2 dan menghasilkan auksin didapatkan lima isolat
terpilih, yaitu KACP12 (0,2569 ?mol jam-1 kultur-1), KACP13 (0,3026 ?mol jam-1
kultur-1, KACP21 (0,4592 ?mol jam-1 kultur-1), KACP32 (0,3131 ?mol jam-1 kultur-1),
dan KAMG2 (0,4843 ?mol jam-1 kultur-1). Inokulasi lima isolat terpilih pada benih
kedelai di medium vermiculit menunjukkan bahwa tanaman kedelai yang diinokulasi
KAMG2 memiliki aktivitas spesifik nitrogenase tertinggi yaitu 2,54 ? 1,2 ?mol jam-1
tanaman-1 dibandingkan lainnya dan kontrol (tanpa inokulasi). Namun inokulasi bakteri
diazotrof endofit KACM dan KACP32 tanaman kedelai meningkatkan serapan N
tanaman kedelai lebih tinggi. Meskipun penelitian ini masih pada fase awal pertumbuhan
tanaman kedelai, ternyata inokulasi bakteri diazotrof endofit pada tanaman kedelai di
media vermiculit tampaknya dapat menjadi metode yang bagus untuk mengintroduksikan
strain-strain terpilih yang dapat memacu pertumbuhan dan penambatan N2.

Kata kunci : Diazotrof, Endofit, Tanaman kedelai

ABSTRACT
Intensive selection of selected 15 isolates on N2-fixing activities and auxin production to
diazotroph endophytic bacteria showed that five isolates were superior, that is KACP12
(0.2569 ?mol hour-1 culture-1), KACP13 (0.3026 ?mol hour-1 culture-1), KACP21
(0.4592 ?mol hour-1 culture-1), KACP32 (0.3131 ?mol hour-1 culture-1), and KAMG2
(0.4843 ?mol hour-1 culture-1). Inoculated five superior isolates into soybean seeds in
vermiculite media showed that soybean plant inoculated by KAMG2 has the highest
nitrogenase specific activity compared to others and control, that is 2,54 ? 1,2 ?mol hour-
1 plant-1. However inoculation with KACM and KACP32 showed higher N-uptake of
soybean plant. Although this research has conducted within the early stage of soybean
plant growth, it is obvious that inoculated diazotroph endophytic bacteria in vermiculite
media seem to be a good method to introduce selected strain envisaging growth
promoting and nitrogen fixation.

Keywords : Diazotroph, Endophytic, Soybean plant

Analisis Perubahan Kualitas Lingkungan Daerah Aliran Sungai Citarum Jawa


Barat dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Biaya Produksi PLTA dan PDAM
(Studi Kasus PLTA Saguling, PLTA Cirata, PLTA Jatiluhur, PDAM
Purwakarta, dan PDAM DKI Jakarta)

Analysis of Environmental Quality Changes of Citarum Watershed of West Java


and their Effects on Operational Costs of Hydroelectric Power Plans and
the Regional Drinking Water Companies (Case Study at Saguling, Cirata,
and Jatiluhur Hydroelectric Power Plans and Purwakarta and Jakarta
Drinking Water Companies)

R. TAMPUBOLON1, B. SANIM2, M. SRI SAENI3, DAN R. BOER4

ABSTRAK
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis perubahan tutupan lahan, perubahan
karakteristik hidrologis dan pengaruhnya terhadap nilai ekonomi sumberdaya air bagi
pengguna jasa lingkungan (PLTA dan PDAM). Penelitian dilakukan selama tahun 2006
di DAS Citarum Wilayah Hulu yang meliputi Sub DAS Saguling, Sub DAS Cirata, dan
Sub DAS Jatiluhur dengan luas 486.237 ha. Aktor-aktor ekonomi yang menjadi objek
penelitian adalah PLTA Saguling, PLTA Cirata, dan PLTA Jatiluhur serta PDAM
Purwakarta (Tirta Dharma) dan PDAM DKI Jakarta (PT. Thames Jaya) di DAS Citarum
Wilayah Hilir sebagai pengguna jasa lingkungan (sumberdaya air) DAS Citarum. Metode
dan teknik analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah : a) supervised
classification analysis untuk mengetahui perubahan tutupan lahan; b) model GR4J untuk
menduga debit, volume air, dan sedimentasi; dan c) analisis kimia air dan replacement
cost sebagai teknik valuasi ekonomi jasa lingkungan bagi pengguna. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa selama periode 1992-2003 telah terjadi penurunan tutupan lahan
hutan (pohon) dengan laju 2,23% (3.804,2 ha) per tahun. Penurunan luas tutupan lahan
tersebut terutama disebabkan oleh kenaikan pembukaan lahan untuk memenuhi
kebutuhan pemukiman dan sarana sosial lainnya, yang tumbuh 9,81% (2.404,5 ha) per
tahun. Perubahan tutupan lahan tersebut menyebabkan perubahan pada karakteristik
hidrologis DAS Citarum Wilayah Hulu berupa penurunan debit air masuk lokal (DAML)
dengan laju 1,49% (3,14 m3 dt-1) dan volume air masuk lokal (VAML) dan 4,20%
(275,26 juta m3), peningkatan rasio Q max-min 5,99% (rata-rata 131,94), peningkatan
laju sedimentasi rata-rata 10,20 juta m3-12,86 juta m3 (total tiga waduk) setiap tahun
yang membahayakan terutama Waduk Saguling dan Cirata, dan penurunan kualitas
kimiawi air di Sungai Citarum. Perubahan tutupan lahan dan karakteristik hidrologis
tersebut telah menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi (œkeuntungan yang hilang) bagi PLTA
dan PDAM. Besarnya keuntungan yang hilang akibat penurunan kualitas lingkungan
DAS Citarum Wilayah Hulu bagi PLTA adalah sebesar Rp 43,44 miliar (Rp 9.538,-
MWh-1 energi listrik atau Rp 3,29,- m-3 air yang digunakan PLTA), sedangkan bagi
PDAM adalah Rp 212,43,- m-3 (PDAM Purwakarta) dan Rp 821,48,- m-3 (PDAM DKI
Jakarta). Berkaitan dengan besarnya kerugian ekonomi yang ditimbulkan oleh penurunan
kualitas lingkungan DAS Citarum Wilayah Hulu terhadap PLTA dan PDAM maka upaya
pengendalian pemanfaatan (tataguna) lahan dan tindakan-tindakan konservasi sangat
diperlukan dengan tetap mempertahankan luas minimal hutan. “Keuntungan yang
hilang“ tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai investasi lingkungan untuk perbaikan
kualitas lingkungan (replacement cost) di DAS Citarum Wilayah Hulu.
Kata kunci : Perubahan tataguna lahan dan hutan, Daerah aliran sungai, Hidrologi, Jasa
lingkungan, Valuasi ekonomi

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this research were to analyze land cover changes, hydrological
characteristics changes, and their effects on the economic value of water resources for
environmental services beneficiaries (Hydroelectric Power Plan, HEPP and Drinking
Water Companies, DWC). This research was conducted from January to December 2006
in the upper Citarum watershed, covering the Saguling, Cirata, and Jatiluhur catchments,
with total area of 486,237 ha. The economic actors under this study are Saguling HEPP,
Cirata HEPP, and Jatiluhur HEPP as well as Tirta Dharma DWC (Purwakarta) and PT
Thames Jaya DWC (Jakarta) which are located downstream of Citarum watershed as the
beneficiaries of environmental services of Citarum watershed. The methodology and
analysis technique used in this research were : a) supervised classification analysis to find
out land cover changes; b) GR4J model to predict water discharge, water volume, and
sedimentation; and c) water chemical analysis and replacement cost method for economic
valuation of environmental services among the beneficiaries (HEPP, DWC). The results
showed that during the 1992 to 2002 period, there has been a reduction of forest (tree)
area at the rate of 2.23% (3,804.2 ha) annually. The reduction of forest area was mainly
caused by increasing of land clearing for settlement and other infrastructure which grew
at the rate of 9.81% (2,404.5 ha) annually. This landuse change has influenced on
hydrological characteristics of the upper Citarum watershed as shown by the reduction of
local water discharge as high as 1.49% (3.14 m3 sec-1) and the volume of local water
input as high as 4.20% (275.26 million m3), the increasing ratio of Qmax/Qmin as high
as 5.99% (at the average of 131.94), the increasing of sediment yield as high as 10.20 to
12.86 million m3 annually (for the three dams) which is very dangerous, especially for
Saguling and Cirata dams, as well as the decreasing of chemical water quality of Citarum
River. Landuse and hydrological characteristics changes has caused an economic loss
(opportunity cost) among the HEPPs and DWCs. The amount of the opportunity cost due
to environmental degradation of upper Citarum watershed suffered by the HEPPs was as
high as Rp 43.44 billion (equivalent with Rp 9,538,- MWh-1 electricity or Rp 3.29 m-3
water used by HEPP). Whereas economic lost suffered by DWC were Rp 212.43,- m-3
(Purwakarta DWC) and Rp 821.48 m-3 (Jakarta DWC) respectively. Based on significant
economic loss caused by environmental degradation of the upper Citarum watershed on
HEPP and DWC, the efforts for controlling landuse allocation and soil conservation seem
very necessarily, by assigning permanent forest cover area. The amount as reflected by
opportunity cost could be used as environmental investment for improving environmental
quality (replacement cost) in the upper Citarum watershed.

Keywords : Landuse change and forestry, Watershed, Hydrology, Environmental


services, Economic valuation

Transformasi Nitrogen dalam Tanah Tergenang : Aplikasi Jerami Padi dan


Kompos Jerami Padi serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Serapan Nitrogen dan
Aktivitas Penambatan N2di Daerah Perakaran Tanaman Padi
Nitrogen Transformation in Flooded Soil : Application of Rice Straw and Rice
Straw Compostsand Its Effect on Nitrogen Uptake and Acetylene
Reduction Activity in Rice Plant Rhizosphere

L.T. INDRIYATI1, S. SABIHAM2, L.K. DARUSMAN3, R. SITUMORANG2, SUDARSONO2,


DAN W.H. SISWORO4

ABSTRAK
Penggunaan bahan organik yang ditujukan untuk mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap
pupuk kimia diharapkan akan dapat meningkatkan efisiensi N pupuk yang rendah pada
tanaman padi sawah. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pemahaman yang lebih baik tentang
transformasi N dalam tanah tergenang, terutama transformasi N yang berasal dari bahan
organik yang diberikan ke dalam tanah menjadi N tersedia bagi tanaman dan bentuk-
bentuk gas nitrogen yang hilang melalui proses denitrifikasi. Percobaan dilakukan di
laboratorium dan rumah kaca Departemen Ilmu Tanah dan Sumber Daya Lahan, Fakultas
Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Percobaan inkubasi dilakukan di laboratorium pada
suhu ruang selama 120 hari untuk mengamati ketersediaan N-NH4+ dalam tanah
tergenang yang diberi jerami padi, kompos jerami padi 4 bulan, kompos jerami padi 8
bulan, dan kombinasi masing-masing dengan urea. Setelah 21 hari dari masa inkubasi,
tanah yang diberi jerami padi menunjukkan pelepasan N-NH4+ yang lebih besar
dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Kompos jerami padi 4 dan 8 bulan
memperlihatkan laju mineralisasi N dan ketersediaan N yang rendah daripada jerami
padi. Hasil percobaan pot di rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh perlakuan
pemberian jerami padi tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan urea dalam hal bobot kering
tanaman padi, jumlah anakan padi, serapan N dan efisiensi penggunaan N oleh tanaman
padi. Tetapi pemberian jerami padi ke dalam tanah mendorong aktivitas enzim
nitrogenase yang lebih tinggi daripada pemberian kompos jerami padi. Pengaruh jerami
padi terhadap parameter-parameter yang diamati jauh lebih baik dibandingkan dengan
kompos jerami padi.

Kata kunci : Transformasi N, Bahan organik, Jerami padi

ABSTRACT
The use of organic materials aimed in reducing the dependence on inputs such as
chemical fertilizers can contribute to sustainability and improving the low N fertilizer
efficiency of rice plants in paddy soils. Therefore, better understanding of N
transformation in flooded soils, particularly the microbial transformation of N-organic
amendments to plant-available N, is needed for most efficient use of soil and organic
materials N for aiding in the selection of N management practices for sustainable
agriculture. The experiments were conducted at the laboratory and in the greenhouse of
Soil Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University. Incubation
experiment was conducted at room temperature for 120 days to observe the availability of
N-NH4+ in soil amended rice straw or rice straw composts and its combination with urea.
After 21 days of incubation period, the rice straw amended soils showed that N-NH4+
release was higher than the other treatments. The 4-month- and 8-month-compost of rice
straw showed that N mineralization rate was lower and the N availability was lower than
rice straw. The results of pot experiment in greenhouse revealed that the added rice straw
was comparable with urea in its effect on the increase of dry matter weight of rice plants,
number of tillers, N uptake of rice, and recovery N efficiency. The application of rice
straw, however, promoted the activity of nitrogenase enzyme higher than rice straw
composts. The effect of rice straw on observed parameters were much better than its
composts.

Keywords : N transformation, Organic materials, Rice straw

Pengaruh Tekstur Tanah Terhadap Karakteristik Unit Hidrograf dan Model


Pendugaan Banjir (Studi Kasus di DAS Separi, Kutai Kartanegara,
Kalimantan Timur)

Effects of Soil Texture on Characteristics of Hydrograph Unit and Modelling Flood


Prediction(Case Study in Separi Watershed, Kutai Kartanegara, East
Kalimantan)

M. LUTHFUL HAKIM1, O. HARIDJAJA2, SUDARSONO3, DAN G. IRIANTO4

ABSTRAK
Penelitian mengenai pengaruh tekstur tanah terhadap karakteristik unit hidrograf dan
model pendugaan banjir pada daerah aliran sungai (DAS) di Kalimantan Timur perlu
dilakukan karena intensitas dan luasan daerah banjir semakin meningkat. Penelitian ini
bertujuan untuk: 1) mengetahui pengaruh tekstur tanah terhadap karakteristik unit
hidrograf, 2) menyusun model pendugaan banjir (debit puncak dan waktu menuju debit
puncak) di DAS Separi, dan 3) menentukan komposisi luas penggunaan lahan secara
optimal dalam rangka penanggulangan banjir, serta pengelolaan DAS Separi. Lokasi
penelitian adalah DAS Separi, Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara, Provinsi Kalimantan Timur
pada koordinat 00003-00038 LS dan 117008-117031 BT. Waktu penelitian lapangan
adalah bulan Januari-Juni 2006. Metode penelitian didasarkan pada beberapa tahapan,
yaitu : 1) pengumpulan data, 2) pengembangan model pendugaan banjir, 3) uji akurasi
model, dan 4) penerapan model. Model pendugaan banjir didasarkan pada: 1) pemodelan
fungsi produksi dan 2) pemodelan fungsi transfer. Hasil analisis menunjukkan tekstur
tanah berpengaruh terhadap debit puncak dan waktu menuju debit puncak, dimana tanah
bertekstur lempung memiliki debit puncak yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada tanah
bertekstur pasir dan liat, sedangkan untuk waktu menuju debit puncak dimana tanah
bertekstur liat memiliki waktu menuju debit puncak yang lebih cepat dibandingkan
dengan tanah bertekstur lempung dan pasir. Pendugaan banjir (debit puncak dan waktu
menuju debit puncak) berbasis karakteristik lahan dan geomorfologi DAS mampu
mensimulasi debit puncak dan waktu menuju debit puncak dengan hasil tidak berbeda
dengan pengukuran. Analisis optimasi luas penggunaan lahan berkenaan dengan
menurunnya debit puncak dan memperlambat waktu menuju debit puncak menunjukkan
bahwa luas penggunaan lahan di DAS Separi adalah 54% hutan, 1,9% kebun/ladang,
0,12% pemukiman, 0,5% persawahan, 42% semak belukar, dan 1,99% tambang batubara.

Kata kunci : Tekstur tanah, Unit hidrograf, Pendugaan banjir, Daerah aliran sungai
ABSTRACT
A Research on effects of soil texture on hydrograph unit characteristic and flood
prediction modelling in East Kalimantan need to be developed, because intensity and area
of flood progressively increased. The objectives of this research are : 1) to study the
effects of soil texture on the characteristic of hydrograph unit, 2) to develop flood
prediction models (peak discharge and time to peak discharge) of Separi watershed, and
3) to determine an optimal landuse area composition in line with flood and Separi
watershed management. The location of research site is on Separi watershed in Kutai
Kartanegara, East Kalimantan at 00003-00038 S and 117008-117031 E coordinate
position. Field research has been conducted from January to June 2006. The methodology
of the research based on several steps, e.i. : 1) data collecting, 2) flood prediction models
develop-ment, 3) model accuration testing, and 4) model application. The model of flood
prediction based on: 1) modelling of production function and 2) modelling of transfer
function. The result showed that soil texture has an effect towards peak discharge and
time to peak discharge. Soil with loam texture has peak discharge higher than soil with
sand and clay texture, whereas time to peak discharge of soil with clay texture is higher
than soil with loam and sand texture. Flood prediction (peak discharge and time to peak
discharge) based on land characteristics and watershed geomorphology was able to
simulate peak discharge and time to peak discharge, which has no different result
compared with result from measurement. Analysis of optimum composition landuse with
decreasing peak discharge and time to peak discharge indicated that compositions of
landuse in Separi watershed are 54% for forest area, 1,9% for farm/garden, 0,12% for
urban, 0,5% for paddy field, 42% for shrubs/ underbrush, and 1,99% for coal-mining.

Keywords : Soil texture, Hydrograph unit, Flood prediction, Watershed