Anda di halaman 1dari 17

LAPORAN

PRAKTIKUM FISIKA DASAR I


JUDUL PERCOBAAN
PRINSIP KERJA KATROL

OLEH :
NAMA

NIM

JURUSAN

HARI / TANGGAL

KELOMPOK

ASISTEN

LABORATORIUM FISIKA DASAR


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM

UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA
2014 / 2015

II. PRINSIP KERJA KATROL

2.1. TUJUAN PERCOBAAN


1. Melakukan percobaan yang menunjukkan prinsip kerja katrol dapat memudahkan
mengangkat beban.
2. Mampu menunjukan melalui percobaan dan perhitungan perbedaan keuntungan
mekanik dengan menggunakan beberapa katrol.

2.2. ALAT DAN BAHAN


1. Katrol Tunggal dan Katrol Ganda
......................................................................................................................................
2. Tali Nilon
......................................................................................................................................
3. Neraca Pegas.
......................................................................................................................................
4. Statif.
......................................................................................................................................
5. Beban.
.......................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-1

2.3. DASAR TEORI


Pesawat sederhana digunakan untuk melipatgandakan gaya atau mengubah arah gaya.
Jika peswat sederhana melipatgandakan gaya, maka gaya yang dikeluarkan lebih kecil
dibandingkan dengan gaya yang diperlukan untuk melakukan suatu pekerjaan tanpa bantuan
pesawat sederhana. Besaran yang menyatakan pelipatgandaan hasil dari suaru peswat sederhana
terhadap gaya atau jarak perpindahan disebut keuntungan mekanis.
Salah satu bentuk pesawat sederhana adalah katrol. Katrol adalah alat berupa roda yang
dapat berputar pada porosnya. Untuk menggunakan katrol diperlukan tali atau mata rantai.
Secara umum katrol dikelompokkan menjadi dua yaitu: katrol tetap dan katrol bergerak. Dalam
pemakaian seringkali digabungkan beberapa katrol yang selanjutnya disebut sebagai sistem
katrol.

Gambar 1. Macam-macam katrol

Tinjau gambar 1a, untuk mengangkat beban seberat FB dengan cara menarik tali dengan
gaya sebesar FK. Pada kontrol tetap (Gambar 1a) hanya terdapat satu penggal tali yang
menahan berat beban, maka besar gaya Fk , untuk menarik beban sama dengan berat FB atau :
FB = Fk
Penggunaan satu katrol tetap hanya mengubah arah gaya kuasa, sehingga keuntungan
yang diperoleh saat menggunakan adalah memudahkan pengangkutan benda saja. Pada
pemakaian satu buah katrol bergerak, beban yang akan diangkat digantungkan pada katrol
seperti Gambar 1b. Gaya berat FB, ditahan oleh dua buah penggal tali, maka
FB = 2 Fk
Keuntungan mekanis dengan menggunakan katrol bergerak adalah perbandingan antara besar
gaya beban FB dan gaya kuasa Fk.
Keuntungan Mekanis = FB / Fk = 2
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-2

Jelas bahwa untuk mengangkat suatu benda dengan satu katrol bergerak, cukup
mengerjakan gaya yang diperlukan untuk mengangkat benda tersebut jika tanpa
menggunakan bantuan katrol. Katrol bergerak (Gambar 1c) juga sering dipergunakan. Gaya
berat FB, di tahan oleh dua buah penggal tali, maka
FB = 2Fk
Keuntungan mekanis pada sistem katrol ini adalah perbandingan antara besar gaya beban dan
gaya kuasa.
Keuntungan Mekanik = FB / Fk = 2
Sehingga untuk mengangkat benda sistem katrol 4c cukup menggunakan gaya berat
benda. Perbedaan antara sistem katrol ini dengan satu katrol bergerak adalah arah tarik Fk.
Gaya tarik pada sistem katrol ini

mengarah ke bawah sehingga akan lebih memudahkan

pekerjaan, bila dibandingkan dengan penggunaan satu katrol bergerak saja yang arah tariknya
ke arah atas.
Seringkali berat beban yang kita pindahkan mencapai beberapa ton. Untuk mengangkat
nya kita gunakan katrol ganda/katrol majemuk (Gambar 1d). Katrol majemuk merupakan
gabungan dari beberapa katrol diam dan katrol bergerak.
Seperti tampak pada gambar 1d kita akan menarik tali dengan gaya Fk agar beban berat
FB dapat terangkat. Gaya berat FB besarnya sama dengan gaya gaya bekerja pada sejumlah
penggal tali yang menahan berat beban.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015
I-3

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-4

2.4. PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN


1. Tentukan berat dari beberapa beban yang digunakan dengan menggunakan neraca pegas.
2. Gantungkan katrol tunggal ke peyangga (statif) (seperti Gambar 1.a)
3. Hubungkan seutas tali ke katrol dengan satu ujung tali diikatkan pada beban dan ujung
yang lainnya dipegang.
4. Tarik tali yang menghubungkan beban dan katrol tersebut hingga beban terangkat.
5. Catat berat beban sekarang.
6. Ulangi langkah 1 s/d 4 untuk katrol ganda. (seperti Gambar 1.c dan 1.d)
7. Lakukan juga untuk katrol digantungkan ke tali (seperti Gambar 1.b).
8. Lakukan dalam satu keadaan minimal 10 kali.

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-5

2.5. TUGAS PENDAHULUAN


1. Apa yang dimaksud pesawat sederhana? Sebutkan?
2. Sebutkan kegunaan katrol pada kehidupan kita.
3. Mengapa dalam mengangkat beban yang berat orang sering menggunakan katrol.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015
I-6

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-7

2.6. DATA HASIL PENGAMATAN


A. Massa Beban
Tabel 1. Tanpa Katrol
No.

Tabel 2. Katrol Tetap

Massa Beban (kg)


I

II

No.

III

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

Tabel 3. Katrol Bergerak


No.

II

II

III

Tabel 4. Katrol Ganda

Massa Beban (kg)


I

Massa Beban (kg)

III

No.

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

Massa Beban (kg)


I

II

III

Tabel 5. Katrol Majemuk


No.

Massa Beban (kg)


I

II

III

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-8

B. Gaya
Tabel 1. Tanpa Katrol
No.

Tabel 2. Katrol Tetap

Gaya (N)
I

II

No.

III

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

Tabel 3. Katrol Bergerak


No.

II

II

III

Tabel 4. Katrol Ganda

Gaya (N)
I

Gaya (N)

III

No.

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

Gaya (N)
I

II

III

Tabel 5. Katrol Majemuk


No.

Gaya (N)
I

II

III

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-9

2.7 PENGOLAHAN DATA


...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-10

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-11

...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-12

2.8. ANALISA
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-13

2.9. TUGAS AKHIR


1. Tentukan selisih berat beban setelah dengan sebelum menggunakan katrol dari
masing-masing beban.
2. Berapa persen selisih berat beban dengan menggunakan katrol tersebut.
3. Hitung Gaya yang kita berikan untuk menahan beban dengan menggunakan katrol
dari masing-masing percobaan secara teori.
4. Bandingkan hasil praktek dengan hasil perhitungan secara teori.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015
I-14

2.10. KESIMPULAN
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-15

LAMPIRAN GAMBAR

Lembar Kerja Praktikum Fisika Dasar I TA. 2014/2015

I-16