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Token Ekonomi : Ke Arah Modifikasi Tingkahlaku

E-melkan IniBlogThis!Kongsi ke TwitterKongsi ke Facebook Pernah tengok promosi mana-mana kedai atau pasaraya tak yang katakan kalau beli RM100 percuma parking, atau beli RM 50 dalam setiap minggu dapat cabutan bertuah atau paling terdesak kumpul tiga penutup tin boleh jadi jutawan. Ye kew? Ini semua contoh je... tiada kaitan antara yang mati ataupun yang masih hidup. Sedar atau tidak semua promosi ini adalah satu bentuk ke arah mengglakkan orang ramai membeli. Dalam konteks modifikasi tingkahlaku, [membeli = tingkahlaku] manakala [percuma parking, cabutan bertuah, jadi jutawan = ganjaran/peneguhan]. So, ini semua ada kaitan dengan satu kaedah yang membentuk tingkahlaku yang dikenali sebagai Token Ekonomi. Token Ekonomi adalah satu daripada kaedah yang telah digunakan secara meluas dalam membemtuk sesuatu tingkahlaku. Ubahsuai terhadap sesuatu tingkahlaku dipanggil sebagai modifikasi tingkahlaku. Token ekonomi dapat meneguhkan lagi sesuatu tingkahlaku. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan 'token'? Token bukan tokan ye... Token ini adalah satu keadaan atau benda yang mempunyai nilai (value) yang boleh dikumpul dan ditukar yang menjadi sokongan kepada sesuatu peneguhan tingkahlaku. Kebaikan token ekonomi ini adalah boleh ditukar secara serta merta. Dan ianya boleh digandingkan dengan mana-mana peneguhan yang lain. Bagaimanakah untuk kita boleh menggunakan kaedah token ekonomi ini?

Langkah-langkah perlaksanaan Token Ekonomi


1. Kenalpasti terlebih dahulu tingkahlaku yang mahu diubah. 2. Lakukan satu 'baseline' untuk mengetahui apakah yang diperlukan untuk mengubah tingkahlaku tersebut dengan berkesan. 3. Kenalpasti peneguhan yang sesuai berdasarkan dapatan daripada 'baseline'. Peneguhan yang sesuai biasanya bersifat 'extrinsic' seperti ganjaran wang ringgit, markah tambahan atau hadiah. Yang penting peneguhan itu mestilah dapat menggalakan kepada perubahan tingkahlaku. 4. Pilih token yang mahu digunakan. Token biasanya adalah dalam bentuk benda yang boleh mewakili sesuatu peneguhan itu. Contohnya seperti 'sticker', cop, plastik coin ataupun kad. 5. Kenalpasti bantuan sedia ada. Ini bergantung pada situasi. Kalau ada, ada... Kalau tiada pun tak pe.. Tapi bantuan sedia ada biasanya adalah orang yang boleh membantu dalam proses perubahan tingkahlaku itu misalnya seperti sukarelawan, guru, ataupun saya. 6. Pilih satu tempat atau lokasi yang sesuai. Biasanya ini bergantung kepada apakah dan siapakah sasaran kita yang mahu diubah tingkahlakunya. Jika pelajar sekolah tempatnya di bilik darjah atau sebaliknya. Biasanya dalam mengunakan kaedah token ekonomi modifier tidak memiliki banyak pilihan. 7. Menguruskan kesan dan hasilnya. Dalam hal ini adalah penting untuk pastikan peneguhan yang dijanjikan memang benar-benar wujud. Selain itu, modifier perlu menjelaskan prosuder penukaran dan kegunaan token dengan jelas. Dan yang penting mesti ada rekod atau catitan yang menandakan jumlah token yang diberi.

Token economy merupakan salah satu bentuk penguatan (reinforcement) positif. Token economy adalah suatu sistem dalam modifikasi perilaku melalui penguatan positif yang berasal dari dasar operant conditioning. Respons dalam operant conditioning, terjadi tanpa didahului stimulus, melainkan oleh efek yang ditimbulkan oleh reinforcer. Reinforcer itu sendiri sesungguhnya adalah stimulus yang dapat meningkatkan kemungkinan timbulnya sejumlah respons tertentu (Syah, 1999. H.98). Metode token economy dikembangkan oleh Ayllon dan Azrin (dalam Indrijati, 2002 hal.9). Konsep token economy adalah pemberian reinforcement yang langsung terhadap perilaku sesuai dengan yang ditentukan dalam aturan-aturan dalam kelas. Menurut Indrijati (2002, h.10), metode token economy ini efektif pada seluruh tingkat usia. Pada situasi dimana kontrol yang sangat ketat dibutuhkan maka metode token economy menjadi metode intervensi yang baik. Keuntungan dari metode ini adalah reinforcement yang konkret, fleksibilitas dalam pilihan reinforcement, minat peserta didik yang tinggi terhadap reinforcement dan kemudahan dalam melakukan revisi program ini. Berdasarkan uraian yang telah disebutkan di atas, terlihat pentingnya untuk mengetahui apakah metode token economy salah satu metode modifikasi perilaku yang merupakan pengembangan dari metode reinforcement dan dikatakan efektif bagi setiap seluruh usia, efektif pula jika diterapkan bagi siswa kelas lima peserta mata pelajaran Matematika di Sekolah Dasar. Siswa kelas lima Sekolah Dasar termasuk pada masa kelas tinggi Sekolah Dasar, yang melihat nilai hasil belajar sebagai tolak ukur kemampuan mereka. Hal ini juga berlaku pada bidang Matematika. Prestasi belajar Matematika merupakan salah satu petunjuk untuk melihat kecerdasan seorang anak (Santrock, 2008, hal.37).

Basic requirements
Three requirements are basic for a token economy.[1]

Tokens
Tokens have to be used as reinforcers. A token is an object or symbol that can be exchanged for material reinforcers, services or privileges (back-up reinforcers). In applied settings a wide range of tokens are being used: coins, checkmarks, images of small suns, points on a counter. These things are worthless. Their value lies in the fact that they can be exchanged for valued things. Technically speaking tokens arent primary reinforcers, but secondary or learned reinforcers. Lots of research has been done on token reinforcement, including animal studies.[2]

Back-up reinforcers
Tokens have no intrinsic value, but can be exchanged for other valued reinforcing events: backup reinforcers. Most token economies offer a choice of differing back-up reinforcers:

Material reinforcers: sweets, cigarettes, journals, money Services: breakfast in bed, having your room cleaned, activities Privileges and other extras: passes for leaving the building or area, permission to stay in bed, phone calls, having your name or picture on the wall.

There are plenty of possible back-up reinforcers. Theyre chosen in function of the individual or group for which the token economy is set up, or depending on the possibilities available to the staff. Before starting they decide how many tokens have to be paid for each back-up reinforcer. Often price lists are exposed or given to the clients. Some back-up reinforcers can be bought anytime, for other exchange times are limited (e.g. opening times of a token shop).

Specified target behaviors


Using exchangeable tokens isnt sufficient for a token economy. The contingencies have to be specified before introducing the program. Sometimes client manuals are written to specify how many tokens can be earned by each target behavior (including the exact criteria being used). When a staff member gives tokens to a client just because he judges hes behaving positively, isnt part of a token economy. Thats just arbitrarily giving tokens. Criteria have to be clarified before starting the program. If making your bed is a target behavior, staff and clients have to know how a well-made bed looks like: do the sheets have to be put under the mattress, cushion on top? Often these specifications are hard to make: eating politely, positive cooperation how to specify these? Theres a broad range of possible target behaviors: self-care, attending activities, academic behavior, disruptive behavior. Clearly specified behavioral criteria can facilitate the learning process. A token economy helps people experience the immediate

consequences of their behavior and get a grip on their life. Their social environment becomes more predictable. While planning how many tokens can be earned by each target behavior some factors have to be considered: one has to assure that everyone can already earn a minimal amount of tokens for a minimal effort, and on the other hand one has to arrange that clients dont earn too much too soon, making more effort useless. Sometimes the possibility of punishment by token loss is included, technically called 'response cost': disruptive behavior can be fined with the loss of tokens. This also should be clearly specified before the application starts. Clients can be involved in the specifying of the contingencies.

Other features of a token economy


Besides the 3 basic requirements, other features are often present.[3]

Social reinforcement
Token reinforcement is essential, but is always accompanied by social reinforcement. Tokens are intended to make reinforcement explicit and immediate, and to strengthen behavior, but in the end social reinforcement should be sufficient to maintain whats been learned.

Shaping
All principles of operant learning are applied within a token economy. Shaping implies clients arent expected to do everything perfectly at once; behavior can be acquired in steps. Initially clients can be reinforced for behavior that approaches the target. If the target behavior is keeping attention during a 30 minutes session, clients can initially already get (perhaps smaller) reinforcement for 5 minutes of attention.

Immediacy of reinforcement
Reinforcement will greater influence behavior if given shortly after the response is emitted. The longer people have to wait for a reward, the less effect and the less they will learn. This is the principle of delay discounting. Immediate token reinforcement can bridge later reinforcement.

Learning to plan ahead and save earnings


Sometimes clients can earn larger rewards like the permission to spend a weekend at home, going to a movie, or having a class excursion. When such rewards would be given at once for one instance of a target behavior, the scarce resources would soon be depleted and consequently the incentives would be lost. One advantage of tokens is they can be used to divide larger rewards into parts: clients can save tokens to buy more expensive rewards later. This implies they shouldnt immediately spend all earned tokens to attractive smaller rewards, and learn to plan ahead. This way they can acquire self-control.

Individual and group contingencies

Mostly token economies are designed for groups. The system is running for a whole ward or class. Within this group contingency specific individual goals and reinforcers can be added. Though sometimes a token economy is designed for only one specific individual.

Consistent application
The power of a token economy largely depends on the consistency of its application. To achieve this thorough staff training is essential. Some token economies failed exactly on this point.[3] Token economies imply rights and duties for clients as well as for staff. When according to the system a client deserved tokens, he should get them, even when a staff member judges he doesnt deserve them because he has been impolite the day before. Family education and involvement is very important. They can support the system or they can undermine it, for instance by secretly giving undeserved rewards.

Leveled system
Often token economies are leveled programs. Clients can pass through different levels until they reach the highest level. At that point behaviors are performed without token reinforcement. Higher levels require more complex behaviors. The incentive to progress from one level to the next is the availability of increasingly desirable reinforcers.

History of the token economy


In the early 19th century, long before there was any knowledge about operant learning, there were some precursors of token economies in schools and prisons. In those systems points could be earned and exchanged for all kinds of things and privileges. Only in the 1960s the first real token economies arose in psychiatric hospitals. Teodoro Ayllon, Nathan Azrin and Leonard Krasner were important pioneers in these early years.[4][5] The very first token economy, bearing that name, was founded by Ayllon and Azrin in 1961 at Anna State Hospital in Illinois. In the 1970s the token economies came to a peak and got widespread. In 1977 a major study (a randomized controlled trial), still considered a landmark, was published.[6] This study successfully showed the superiority of a token economy compared to standard treatment and specialized milieu therapy. Despite this success token economies massively disappeared from the 1980s on. It became fairly quiet on that front, having to do with a variety of problems and criticism.

Problems and controversy


Especially the application of token economies with adults became a matter of criticism. In addition some impediments and the evolution of mental health care caused troubles.

Dramatic changes in the mental health system


Token economies had proven their effectiveness and utility for chronic psychiatric patients. They can require months or even years to achieve optimal results. This causes problems when

insurance and government policies increasingly require the shortest possible hospital stays. Emphasis was put on community-based treatment. Outpatient and home-based care were the future. It wasnt easy for token economies to adapt to this evolution.

Legal and ethical issues


At the same time there was a growing concern for patient rights. The right to have their personal properties, basic comfort and freedom of choice of treatment constrained the possibilities for token economies. In addition ethical and personal concerns of staff members arose: is it ethically justified to use cigarettes as back-up reinforcers, is it human to rely on reward and punishment as means for treatment (behavior modification often is reduced to this by opponents), isnt sincere human contact much more valuable and effective, isnt human interaction reduced to trade, isnt this manipulating people?

Client resistance
Application of a token economy to adults sometimes triggers client resistance.[7] People can feel to be forced. Badly designed token economies even can induce aggression.

Response maintenance and generalization


Problems with maintaining whats been learned and the generalization toward new situations have been signaled. When the token programs stops the acquired behavior might disappear again.

Extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation


Rewarding behavior could increase the extrinsic motivation and at the same time decrease the intrinsic motivation for activities.

Recent applications and findings


In the last 50 years plenty of research has been done on token economy. The first 20 years were especially productive. Despite controversy and a lack of implementation token programs are alive and well in several settings.

Adults
In adult settings token economies are mostly applied in mental health care. The criticism that clients have no choice and are being forced, is countered by offering them the choice to enter the token program or not to enter, or to leave again once entered. The vast majority of clients voluntarily chooses to stay in the program. Research shows the effects of token economies can more or less be divided into three categories:

No effect: 5 to 20% of the clients does not (or only minimally) respond to the token economy; Only effect while the token economy is active and no effect once stopped: in this case the token economy is functioning as a prosthesis (like a wheelchair; it doesnt cure but is necessary to keep functioning well; Well established long-term effects (including community reintegration).

Schizophrenia

The first token economies were designed for chronic, treatment-resistant psychotic inpatients. Even now token economies are applied to clients with schizophrenia. Sometimes the token economy is being used as a lasting prosthesis.[8] Sometimes its used to help so-called treatmentresistant clients towards resocialization. A token economy (of course always in combination with other interventions) succeeded in the community reintegration of 78% of the clients within an average period of 110 days, after more than 7 years of uninterrupted hospital stay.[9] Research shows clients experience the token economy positively.[10] Several recent reviews of psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia explicitly mention token economy as an effective, evidence-based treatment.[11][12]
Acute units

The application of token economies has been extended from psychiatric rehabilitation services to acute psychiatric units. A token economy was successful in decreasing the aggression on a ward where clients on average stayed for less than three weeks.[13]
Substance abuse

As a result of heavy ethical criticism, token economies developed negative connotations and, as a result, systems were sometimes introduced under other names. This was especially the case in substance abuse treatment settings (although some systems for smoking cessation continue to use the term token economy).[14] For some time, systems derived from token economies were used under the name contingency management; initially this was more broadly defined and referred to any direct coupling of consequences (reinforcements or punishments) with behaviour (for example staying clean [15][16]); later it referred specifically to one kind of token economy. The community reinforcement approach can be combined with contingency management;[17] tokens are used, whereas contingency management employs the term "vouchers" (or related terms). Research shows this kind of token economy is easily applied outside of hospitals and is effective, allowing for less hospital-based treatment - although contingency management is used in the treatment of drug abuse in both inpatient and outpatient settings.
Developmental disorders

Token economy is also being applied in settings for adults with developmental disabilities. Target behaviors can be all kinds of social behavior and self care, or the decreasing of inappropriate or disruptive behavior.[18]

Children and adolescents


For a long time token economies have been applied to children and adolescents with developmental disabilities as well as in schools.
Developmental disabilities

Token economy is effective for children with developmental disabilities. Research shows it can help to diminish disruptive behavior and promote social behavior.[19]
Schools

Token economy is applied in diverse schools, in special education as well as in other schools. Positive results can imply increased attention and decreased disruptive behavior.[20] In educational settings token economy seems to raise the intrinsic motivation.[21] But theres still need for more research.[22]

5.6.3Token Ekonomi (Hadiah) Satu teknik behaviorisme yang biasa digunakan ialah token ekonomi atau pemberian hadiah. Ini merupakan satu prosedur yang teratur di mana token atau hadiah diberikan sebagaipeneguhan untuk tingkah laku yang bersesuaian . Token ini adalah dalam bentuk bendaseperti duit syiling plastik, markah, atau apa sahaja benda yang boleh ditunaikan atauditebus (cashed in) dengan barang-barang bernilai atau kemudahan-kemudahantertentu (privileges) . Token ekonomi telah dibuktikan berkesan di mana teknik ini digunakandi institusi-institusi seperti hospital, sekolah, klinik, rumah penjagaan kanak-kanak dan penjara.Prosedur ini boleh disesuaikan dengan apa sahaja keadaan, dan digunakan dalam situasiyang pelbagai.Sebagai contoh, dalam persekitaran sekolah, seorang kaunselor boleh menyediakan satustruktur token ekonomi untuk digunakan sebagai peneguhan kepada murid yang melakukantingkah laku yang positif, dan menyenaraikan jenis-jenis hukuman, dendaan atau kehilangankemudahan sekiranya didapati berlakunya kegagalan mematuhi peraturan, atau gagalmenjalani sesuatu tanggungjawab. Teknik ini telah didapati amat berkesan apabiladigunakan kepada klien yang mengalami masalah yang melibatkan perlakuan yangbiasa atau yang lebih kompleks. Pelaksana teknik ini mendapati teknik ini amat sesuaidigunakan khusus untuk melupuskan tingkah laku yang maladaptif atau untuk membentuk tingkah laku yang adaptif. Suasana penyampaian hadiah di dewan sekolah Persoalannya sekarang ialah bolehkah tingkah laku yang sudah diubah melalui strategi iniberterusan atau ia akan lupus selepas beberapa ketika sahaja? Misalnya, selepas seorangmurid yang berkelakuan lansang atau agresif, suka bergaduh, suka mengusik orang lain,dikenakan proses perubahan dengan teknik ini, dan nampak ada perubahan positif, adakahperubahan positif ini akan berterusan?Kaunselor behaviorisme profesional akan mempertahankan keberkesanan strategi ekonomitoken, tetapi mengaku terdapat masalah dalam hal memastikan perubahan yang telah dicapaiitu berterusan dan berkekalan. Kaunselor yang merancang dan menyediakan struktur ekonomitoken berkenaan harus bersedia untuk memastikan perubahan akan berterusan denganmelakukan perkara-perkara seperti berikut:minta bantuan pekerja-pekerja lain seperti guru kelas, guru-guru yang mengajar murid berkenaan, ibu bapa untuk membuat komitmen membantu dan memahamikonsep dan matlamat ekonomi token;memilih tingkah laku yang besar kemungkinan akan mudah mendapat peneguhandari masyarakat dan persekitarannya;mematuhi prinsip modifikasi tingkah laku seperti mengagihkan token atau hadiahserta merta, adil dan konsisten;hadiah atau token yang diagihkan

itu masih mempunyai nilai peneguhan; danmemastikan tingkah laku yang diubah itu adalah tingkah laku yang dikehendaki diluar sekolah.Untuk menguji kefahaman anda, sila jawab latihan berikut.