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Extend of Ownership Enjoyment of Land

Harta (property):

Harta tak alih (immovable) - adalah harta yang tidak boleh dialihkan iaitu tanah dan semua yang melekat padanya. Harta alih (moveable) - adalah harta selain dari hartanah termasuklah barang-barang dan chattel.

Pemunyaan bermakna hak milik atas harta alih atau hartanah. Pemunya tanah yg sah & berdaftar memiliki tanah melalui pemberimilikan oleh PBN @ melalui pembelian (pindahmilik) dari individu lain. Umumnya pemunyaan termasuk: a. hak untuk memilikinya / mendudukinya b. hak eksklusif untuk menggunakan sesuatu c. hak untuk melupuskannya d. hak untuk mewariskannya selepas mati s. 5 Registered Proprietor

Milikan menggambarkan sesuatu yang lebih rendah kepentingannya dari pemunyaan. Milikan bermakna sesuatu yang berada di tangan atau di dalam pemilikan/penguasaan seseorang walaupun ia bukan hak miliknya. Contohnya: penyewa tanah, penerima pajakan dan pemegang lesen pendudukan sementara (LPS). Tidak akan ada hak (c) dan (d) di atas.
Lawful Possession Tenant, Lease, Charge TOL Unlawful Possession Squarter Ttrespasser



cujus est solum euis est usque ad coelum et ad inferos

Concept Piece of land BELOW THE SURFACE

Corbett v Hill (1870) LR Eq 671 Tam Kam Cheong v Stephen Leong [1980] 1 MLJ 36 POSITIVE S. 44(1)(a) and(c) 1. Natural incident of proprietorship Restrictions on Ownership 2. Acquired easement under s. 286 3. Imposed LAROW under s. 388 4. Compulsory Acquisition NEGATIVE s. 44(1)(b) PRIVATE AGREEMENT By STATE AUTHORITY

s. 441(a) Limb 1

The exclusive use and enjoyment of air space

Common Law Development Absolute - No Restriction Kelsen v Imperial Tobacco Co (1975)2 QB 334 Held: Invasion of the plaintiffs air space was a trespass and not a mere nuisance. National Land Code 1965 Not Absolute 4 considerations s. 44(1) Subject to other provisions of NLCSubject to any other written lawReasonable and necessaryLawful-

Does air space subject to ownership of the proprietor

Bernstein of Leigh (Baron) v Skyviews & General (1978)QB 479 s. 19 (1) Civil Aviation Act 1969


Does proprietors right of enjoyment affected if negligence occur resulting to material loss an damage.

Karrupanan v Balakrishnen, Chong Lee Chin & Ors [1994] 3 MLJ 584 s. 19 (2) Civil Aviation Act 1969 Woolerton andWilson v Richard Costain Ltd [1970] 1 WLR 411 Private v Public Issue

Is there any need to balance the rights of proprietor against the rights of people England: Rosebery Ltd v Rocklee Ltd [2011] All ER 139 Malaysia: ChenYue Kiew v Angkasamas Sdn Bhd [2003] 4 MLJ 365


s. 441(a) Limb 2

The exclusive use and enjoyment of and the land below that surface
Common Law Development Absolute - No Restriction National Land Code 1965 Not Absolute 4 considerations s. 45(2) minerals, rock material and forest produce are belongs to State Authority. s. 70 Exception under NLC: permit.

Bulli Coal Mining v Osborne (1899) AC 351

Trespass of underground; steal a neighbours coal. It may be committed in good faith. Some circumstances would render the wrongdoer liable to a prosecution of felony. Star Energy Weald Basin Ltd v Bocardo SA [2010] UKSC 35 Does drilling the well under Bocardos land an actionable trespass? Yes. The owner of the surface is the owner of the strata beneath it, including the minerals that are to be found there.

Equity Corporation Sdn Bhd v Thye Sun Quarry Sdn Bhd [2002] 6 MLJ 74
Defendant sought to terminate the lease. Plaintiff seeks specific performance claiming that the defendant had breach the term failing to obtain the quarry license and other permits in 1993. That leads the Authorities refused to issue a quarry license to the plaintiff in 1997.

s. 44(1)(b) Concept

Right to the support of land in its NATURAL STATE There is no interference of human activity. If soil erosion as a catastrophic activity, no claim against adjoining landowner. Negative Right: does not give a corresponding positive right to support from the adjoining property, but merely gives a right to take action if existing natural support from the adjoining land is lost or interfered with Ainul Jaria et al, p. 95 Support for adjacent land


Support for adjacent slope land National Land Code Madam Chah Siam v Chop Choy Kong Kongsi (1939) Immediately upon disposal by State Authority

Common Law Principle Dalton v Agus (1881)

At times be acquired for uninterrupted enjoyment Ohna Mohamed Abu Bakar v Tho Yan Poh (1914) Yong Joo Lin v Fung Poi Fong (1941)

Guan Soon Tin Miing v Ampang Estate Ltd [1973] 1 MLJ 25 Yip Shou Shan v Sin Heap Lee Marubeni Sdn Bhd [2002] 5 MLJ 113


s. 44(1)(c) Concept

Land abuts on the foreshore / river / public places s. 5 of foreshore (between shoreline and the low water mark) Subject to: Any express provision in IDT, lease or license s. 46(1) land affected by encroachment by the sea revert to PBN s. 49 cease to form part of the land - Government of the State of Penang v BH Oon [1971] 2 MLJ 235 s. 353(2) re survey of the land having natural boundaries no compensation payable by PBN - Re Sithambaram Chettiar (1955) MLJ 213 Admiral Cove Development Sdn Bhd v Balakrishnan a/l Devaraj [2011] 5 MLJ 309 Misrepresentation to the physical state of the property accessibility directly to the beach