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Model Atom JJ.

Thomson
Pada awal 1900an, J.J. Thomson mengusulkan model atom baru yang mengikutkan keberadaan partikel elektron dan proton. Karena eksperimen menunjukkan proton memiliki massa yang jauh lebih besar dibandingkan elektron, maka model Thomson menggambarkan atom sebagai proton tunggal yang besar. Di dalam partikel proton, Thomson memasukkan elektron yang menetralkan adanya muatan positi dari proton. !enurut Thomson, atom terdiri dari suatu bulatan bermuatan positi dengan rapat muatan yang merata. Di dalam muatan positi ini tersebar elektron dengan muatan negati yang besarnya sama dengan muatan positi . "ara yang populer untuk menggambarkan model ini adalah dengan menganggap elektron sebagai kismis #plumb$ di dalam kue puding proton, sehingga model ini diberi nama model kue kismis #plumb%pudding model$. &alaupun model atom Thomson adalah yang pertama yang memasukkan konsep adanya proton dan elektron yang bermuatan, model Thomson tidak mampu melewati pengamatan pada eksperimen%eksperimen berikutnya. 'ebagai (atatan, proton yang digunakan dalam model Thomson ini bukanlah partikel proton yang ditemukan di model yang lebih modern. )ahkan sesungguhnya dapat dikatakan model Thomson tidak memiliki proton, namun sebuah sel bermuatan positi . Pengaruh model atom Dalton dapat dilihat dengan jelas pada model Thomson. Dalton berspekulasi bahwa atom adalah benda padat, dan Thomson mendukung gagasan ini dalam modelnya dengan mengelompokkan elektron dan proton bersama%sama. Dari hasil per(obaannya, Thomson menyatakan bahwa sinar katoda merupakan partikel penyusun atom #partikel sub atom$ yang bermuatan negati yang selanjutnya dinamakan sebagai elektron. *tom merupakan partikel yang bersi at netral. +leh karena elektron bermuatan negati , maka untuk menghasilkan muatan total netral harus ada muatan positi . Dengan demikian, Thomson telah menyempurnakan teori atom dari Dalton dan mengemukakan teori atomnya yang dinamakan sebagai teori atom Thomson. Teori atom Thomson menyatakan bahwa, Atom merupakan bola pejal yang bermuatan positif dan didalamya tersebar muatan negatif elektron The ele(tron was identi ied as a parti(le in 1-9. by J. J. Thomson and his team o )ritish physi(ists./01/91 2le(trons are identi(al parti(les that belong to the irst generation o the lepton parti(le amily. 2le(trons ha3e 4uantum me(hani(al properties o both a parti(le and a wa3e, so they (an (ollide with other parti(les and be di ra(ted like light. 2a(h ele(tron o((upies a 4uantum state that des(ribes its random beha3ior upon measuring a physi(al parameter, su(h as its energy or spin orientation. )e(ause they are a type o ermion, no two ele(trons (an o((upy the same 4uantum state5 a property known as the Pauli e6(lusion prin(iple./101 7n 1-90, )ritish physi(ist J. J. Thomson, with his (olleagues John '. Townsend and 8. *. &ilson,/01 per ormed e6periments indi(ating that (athode rays really were uni4ue parti(les, rather than wa3es, atoms or mole(ules as was belie3ed earlier. Thomson made good estimates o both the (harge e and the mass m, inding that (athode ray parti(les,

whi(h he (alled 9(orpus(les,9 had perhaps one thousandth o the mass o the least massi3e ion known, hydrogen. 8e showed that their (harge to mass ratio, e:m, was independent o (athode material. 8e urther showed that the negati3ely (harged parti(les produ(ed by radioa(ti3e materials, by heated materials and by illuminated materials were uni3ersal./;<1 The name ele(tron was again proposed or these parti(les by the 7rish physi(ist =eorge >. >it?gerald, and it has sin(e gained uni3ersal a((eptan(e./;01

[sunting] J.J. Thomson: Elektron


Pada tahun 1-99, Joseph John Thomson meneliti (ahaya ultraungu dalam tabung sinar katoda. Dipengaruhi oleh kerja James "lerk !a6well, Thomson menyimpulkan bahwa sinar katoda terdiri atas partikel%partikel bermuatan negati , yang dia sebut corpuscles #belakangan disebut 9elektron9$. Dalam penelitian tersebut, Thomson menempatkan pelat logam #yaitu, katoda$ dalam tabung hampa, dan menyinarinya dengan radiasi rekuensi tinggi. Kelemahan Teori atom Thomson Tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana susunan elektron dan muatan positi di dalam atom Perkembangan Berikutnya Penemuan%penemuan baru dalam bidang isika ternyata mampu membuka (akrawala baru pemahaman atom oleh manusia. Penemuan elektron oleh J.J. Thomson menyebabkan model atom yang dikemukakan Dalton tidak dapat diterima lagi. Dengan gugurnya model atom Dalton ini, Thomson terdorong untuk mengemukakan teori atom baru yang dikemukakannya pada tahun 190@. Thomson melukiskan bahwa atom bukanlah merupakan partikel terke(il yang tidak dapat dibagi%bagi lagi, seperti yang dipahami manusia sebelumnya. 7a melukiskan bahwa atom mempunyai bentuk seperti bola yang muatan positi nya terbagi merata ke seluruh isi atom. !uatan positi itu dinetralkan oleh elektron%elektron bermuatan negati yang tersebar di antara muatan positi tadi. Teori atom ini diterima se(ara luas oleh para ilmuwan hingga akhir abad ke% 1-. Dalam perjalanan berikutnya, teori atom Thomson inipun akhirnya gugur oleh pengujian yang dilakukan 2rnest Auther ord. Pengujian itu dilakukan dengan (ara menembaki lempengan emas yang sangat tipis #ketebalan 0,01 mm$ dengan partikel al a. *pabila model atom Thomson itu benar, maka gerakan partikel al a tidak akan dibelokkan sewaktu menumbuk lempeng emas.

Elektron
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2stimasi teoritis dari densitas elektron untuk atom 8idrogen dengan beberapa orbit elektron Elektron adalah partikel subatomik. !emiliki muatan listrik negati sebesar %1.0 C 10%19 (oulomb, dan massanya 9.10 C 10%<1 kg #0.D1 !eE:(;$. 2lektron umumnya ditulis sebagai e-. 2lektron memiliki partikel lawan yang dikenal sebagai positron yang identik dengan dirinya namun bermuatan positi . *tom tersusun dari inti berupa proton dan neutron serta elektron%elektron yang mengelilingi inti tadi. 2lektron sangat ringan jika dibandingkan dengan proton dan neutron. 'ebutir proton sekitar 1-00 kali lebih berat daripada elektron. 2lektron adalah salah satu dari sekelas partikel subatom yang dikenal dengan lepton yang diper(aya merupakan partikel dasar #yakni, mereka tak dapat dipe(ah lagi ke dalam bagian yang lebih ke(il$. 2lektron memiliki spin 1:;, artinya elektron merupakan sebuah ermion, dengan kata lain, mematuhi statistik >ermi%Dira(.

Sejarah
2lektron pertama kali ditemukan oleh J.J. Thomson di Baboratorium "a3endish, Fni3ersitas "ambridge, pada tahun 1-9., pada saat beliau sedang mempelajari 9sinar katoda9.

[sunting] Rincian Teknis


Penjelasan mengenai elektron dibahas di mekanika kuantum dengan Persamaan Dira(. Dalam !odel 'tandarnya, elektron membentuk suatu doublet dalam 'F#;$ dengan neutrino elektron, karena ia berinteraksi lewat interaksi lemah. 2lektron memiliki dua rekan massi3e lagi, yang muatannya sama namun berbeda massanya, muon dan tau.

[sunting] Arus Listrik


Jika elektron bergerak, lepas bebas dari pengaruh inti atom, serta terdapat suatu aliran #net low$, aliran ini dikenal sebagai arus listrik. 7ni dapat dibayangkan sebagai serombongan domba yang bergerak bersama%sama ke utara namun tanpa diikuti oleh penggembalanya. !uatan listrik dapat diukur se(ara langsung menggunakan elektrometer. *rus listrik dapat diukur se(ara langsung menggunakan gal3anometer. *pa yang dikenal dengan 9listrik statis9 bukanlah aliran elektron sama sekali. 7ni lebih tepat disebut sebagai sebuah 9muatan statik9, menga(u pada sebuah benda yang memiliki lebih banyak atau lebih sedikit elektron daripada yang dibutuhkan untuk mengimbangi muatan positi sang inti. Jika terdapat kelebihan elektron, maka benda tadi dikatakan sebagai 9bermuatan negati 9. Jika terdapat kekurangan elektron dibanding proton, benda tersebut dikatakan 9bermuatan positi 9. Jika jumlah elektron dan proton adalah sama, benda tersebut dikatakan 9netral9.

[sunting] Penemuan
'ekitar periode 1-.0%an, *hli kimia dan isika 7nggris, 'ir &illiam "rookes membuat tabung sinar katoda pertama untuk menghasilkan ruang hampa udara bertekanan tinggi didalamnya./11 Dia kemudian menunjukkan bahwa sinar luminescence yang mun(ul dalam tabung membawa energi dan bergerak dari katoda ke anoda. Bebih jauh, dengan menerapkan sebuah medan magnet, dia dapat mengalihkan sinar tersebut, sehingga hal ini dapat memperagakan bahwa (ahaya dapat dikendalikan dengan sinar negati ./;1/<1 Pada tahun 1-.9, dia mengusulkan hal ini dapat dijelaskan se(ara logika dengan apa yang dia sebut sebagai persamaan Gradiant matterG. Dia menyarankan bahwa pada keadaan seperti ini, bagian (ahaya ini akan mengandung molekul negati yang dapat diarahkan dengan ke(epatan tinggi dengan menggunakan katoda./@1

J. J. Thomson
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J. J. Thomson

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'ir Joseph John Thomson #1-D0%19@0$. Portrait by *rthur 8a(ker.

Born Died 'ationality $ields "nstitutions Alma mater A&ademi& ad(isors

1- De(ember 1-D0 "heetham 8ill, !an(hester, FK <0 *ugust 19@0 #aged -<$ "ambridge, FK Fnited Kingdom Physi(s Fni3ersity o "ambridge Fni3ersity o !an(hester Fni3ersity o "ambridge John 'trutt #Aayleigh$ 2dward John Aouth "harles =lo3er )arkla "harles T. A. &ilson 2rnest Auther ord >ran(is &illiam *ston John Townsend J. Aobert +ppenheimer +wen Ai(hardson

'otable students

&illiam 8enry )ragg 8. 'tanley *llen John Heleny Daniel >rost "omsto(k !a6 )orn T. 8. Baby Paul Bange3in )althasar 3an der Pol

Plum pudding model Dis(o3ery o ele(tron Dis(o3ery o isotopes !ass spe(trometer in3ention >irst m:e measurement Kno)n %or Proposed irst wa3eguide Thomson s(attering Thomson problem "oining term Gdelta rayG "oining term Gepsilon radiationG Thomson #unit$ 'otable a)ards *eligious stan&e Iobel Pri?e or Physi(s #1900$ *ngli(an +ignature

'otes Thomson is the ather o Iobel laureate =eorge Paget Thomson.

+ir Jose!h John ,J.J.- Thomson, +!, >A' #1- De(ember 1-D0 J <0 *ugust 19@0$ was a )ritish physi(ist and Iobel laureate, (redited or the dis(o3ery o the ele(tron and o isotopes, and the in3ention o the mass spe(trometer. 8e was awarded the 1900 Iobel Pri?e in Physi(s or the dis(o3ery o the ele(tron and his work on the (ondu(tion o ele(tri(ity in gases.

Contents
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1 )iography o 1.1 "areer 1.1.1 "athode rays 1.1.1.1 >irst e6periment 1.1.1.; 'e(ond e6periment 1.1.1.< Third e6periment 1.1.; Iobel Pri?e 1.1.< 7sotopes and mass spe(trometry 1.1.@ +ther work ; *wards < )ibliography @ Iotes D Ae eren(es 0 26ternal links

[edit] Biography
Joseph J. Thomson was born in 1-D0 in "heetham 8ill, !an(hester in 2ngland, o '(ottish parentage. 8is ather died when he was 10 years old./11 7n 1-.0 he studied engineering at Fni3ersity o !an(hester known as +wens "ollege at that time, and mo3ed on to Trinity "ollege, "ambridge in 1-.0. 7n 1--0, he obtained his )* in mathemati(s #'e(ond &rangler and ;nd 'mithGs pri?e$ and !* #with *dams Pri?e$ in 1--<. 7n 1--@ he be(ame "a3endish Pro essor o Physi(s. +ne o his students was 2rnest Auther ord, who would later su((eed him in the post. 7n 1-90 he married Aose 2lisabeth Paget, daughter o 'ir =eorge 2dward Paget, K"), a physi(ian and then Aegius Pro essor o Physi( at "ambridge. 8e athered one son, =eorge Paget Thomson, and one daughter, Joan Paget Thomson, with her. +ne o ThomsonGs greatest (ontributions to modern s(ien(e was in his role as a highly gi ted tea(her, as se3en o his resear(h assistants and his a orementioned son won Iobel Pri?es in physi(s. 8is son won the Iobel Pri?e in 19<. or pro3ing the wa3elike properties o ele(trons. 8e was awarded a Iobel Pri?e in 1900, 9in re(ognition o the great merits o his theoreti(al and e6perimental in3estigations on the (ondu(tion o ele(tri(ity by gases.9 8e was knighted in 190- and appointed to the +rder o !erit in 191;. 7n 191@ he ga3e the Aomanes Be(ture in +6 ord on 9The atomi( theory9. 7n 191- he be(ame !aster o Trinity "ollege, "ambridge, where he remained until his death. 8e died on <0 *ugust 19@0 and was buried in &estminster *bbey, (lose to 'ir 7saa( Iewton. Thomson was ele(ted a >ellow o the Aoyal 'o(iety on 1; June 1--@ and was subse4uently President o the Aoyal 'o(iety rom 191D to 19;0.

'ir Joseph John Thomson.

[edit] .areer

[edit] .athode rays


Thomson (ondu(ted a series o e6periments with (athode rays and (athode ray tubes leading him to the dis(o3ery o ele(trons and subatomi( parti(les. Thomson used the (athode ray tube in three di erent e6periments.

[edit] First experiment


7n his irst e6periment, he in3estigated whether or not the negati3e (harge (ould be separated rom the (athode rays by means o magnetism. 8e (onstru(ted a (athode ray tube ending in a pair o (ylinders with slits in them. These slits were in turn (onne(ted to an ele(trometer. Thomson ound that i the rays were magneti(ally bent su(h that they (ould not enter the slit, the ele(trometer registered little (harge. Thomson (on(luded that the negati3e (harge was inseparable rom the (athode rays.

[edit] Second experiment


ThomsonGs se(ond e6periment. 7n his se(ond e6periment, he in3estigated whether or not the rays (ould be de le(ted by an ele(tri( ield #something that is (hara(teristi( o (harged parti(les$./;1 Pre3ious e6perimenters had ailed to obser3e this, but Thomson belie3ed their e6periments were lawed be(ause they (ontained tra(e amounts o gas. Thomson (onstru(ted a (athode ray tube with a pra(ti(ally per e(t 3a(uum, and (oated one end with phosphores(ent paint. Thomson ound that the rays did indeed bend under the in luen(e o an ele(tri( ield, in a dire(tion indi(ating a negati3e (harge.

[edit] Third experiment

ThomsonGs third e6periment. 7n his third e6periment, Thomson measured the mass%to%(harge ratio o the (athode rays by measuring how mu(h they were de le(ted by a magneti( ield and how mu(h energy they (arried. 8e ound that the mass to (harge ratio was o3er a thousand times lower than that o a hydrogen ion #8K$, suggesting either that the parti(les were 3ery light or 3ery highly (harged. ThomsonGs (on(lusions were bold, (athode rays were indeed made o parti(les whi(h he (alled 9(orpus(les9, and these (orpus(les (ame rom within the atoms o the ele(trodes themsel3es, meaning that atoms are in a(t di3isible. The 9(orpus(les9 dis(o3ered by Thomson are identi ied with the ele(trons whi(h had been proposed by =. Johnstone 'toney. 8e (ondu(ted this e6periment in 1-9.. Thomson imagined the atom as being made up o these (orpus(les swarming in a sea o positi3e (harge5 this was his plum pudding model. This model was later pro3ed in(orre(t when 2rnest Auther ord showed that the positi3e (harge is (on(entrated in the nu(leus o the atom.

[edit] 'obel Pri/e


ThomsonGs dis(o3ery was made known in 1-9., and (aused a sensation in s(ienti i( (ir(les, e3entually resulting in him being awarded a Iobel Pri?e in Physi(s in 1900./<1 8e notes that prior to his work, #1$ the #negati3ely (harged$ (athode was known to be the sour(e o the (athode rays5 #;$ the (athode rays were known to ha3e the parti(le%like property o (harge5 #<$ were de le(ted by a magneti( ield like a negati3ely (harged parti(le5 #@$ had the wa3e%like property o being able to penetrate thin metal oils5 #D$ had not yet been subje(t to de le(tion by an ele(tri( ield. Thomson su((eeded in (ausing ele(tri( de le(tion be(ause his (athode ray tubes were su i(iently e3a(uated that they de3eloped only a low density o ions #produ(ed by (ollisions o the (athode rays with the gas remaining in the tube$. Their ion densities were low enough that the gas was a poor (ondu(tor, unlike the tubes o pre3ious workers, where the ion density was high enough that the ions (ould s(reen out the ele(tri( ield. 8e ound that the (athode rays #whi(h he (alled (orpus(les$ were de le(ted by an ele(tri( ield in the same dire(tion as negati3ely (harged parti(les would de le(t. &ith the ele(trons mo3ing along, say, the 6%dire(tion, the ele(tri( ield 2 pointing along the y% dire(tion, and the magneti( ield ) pointing along the ?%dire(tion, by adjusting the ratio o the magneti( ield ) to the ele(tri( ield 2 he ound that the (athode rays mo3ed in a nearly straight line, an indi(ation o a nearly uni orm 3elo(ity 3L2:) or the (athode rays emitted by the (athode. 8e then remo3ed the magneti( ield and measured the de le(tion o the (athode rays, and rom this determined the (harge%to%mass ratio e:m or the (athode rays. 8e writes, 9howe3er the (athode rays are produ(ed, we always get the same 3alue o e:m or all the parti(les in the rays. &e may...produ(e great (hanges in the 3elo(ity o the parti(les, but unless the 3elo(ity o the parti(les be(omes so great that they

are mo3ing nearly as ast as light, when other (onsiderations ha3e to be taken into a((ount, the 3alue o e:m is (onstant. The 3alue o e:m is not merely independent o the 3elo(ity...it is independent o the kind o ele(trodes we use and also o the kind o gas in the tube.9 Thomson notes that 9(orpus(les9 are emitted by hot metals and 9"orpus(les are also gi3en out by metals and other bodies, but espe(ially by the alkali metals, when these are e6posed to light. They are being (ontinually gi3en out in large 4uantities and with 3ery great 3elo(ities by radioa(ti3e substan(es su(h as uranium and radium5 they are produ(ed in large 4uantities when salts are put into lames, and there is good reason to suppose that (orpus(les rea(h us rom the sun.9 Thomson also des(ribes water drop e6periments that enabled him to obtain a 3alue or e that is about twi(e the modern 3alue, and (lose to the then (urrent 3alue or the (harge on a hydrogen ion in an ele(trolyte.

[edit] "soto!es and mass s!e&trometry


7n the bottom right (orner o this photographi( plate are markings or the two isotopes o neon, neon%;0 and neon%;;. 7n 191<, as part o his e6ploration into the (omposition o (anal rays, Thomson (hannelled a stream o ioni?ed neon through a magneti( and an ele(tri( ield and measured its de le(tion by pla(ing a photographi( plate in its path. Thomson obser3ed two pat(hes o light on the photographi( plate #see image on right$, whi(h suggested two di erent parabolas o de le(tion. Thomson (on(luded that neon is (omposed o atoms o two di erent atomi( masses #neon%;0 and neon%;;$, that is to say o two isotopes. This was the irst e3iden(e or isotopes o a stable element5 >rederi(k 'oddy had pre3iously proposed the e6isten(e o isotopes to e6plain the de(ay o (ertain radioa(ti3e elements. ThomsonGs separation o neon isotopes by their mass was the irst e6ample o mass spe(trometry, whi(h was subse4uently impro3ed and de3eloped into a general method by ThomsonGs student >. &. *ston and by *. J. Dempster.

[edit] 0ther )ork


7n 190D Thomson dis(o3ered the natural radioa(ti3ity o potassium./@1 7n 1900 Thomson demonstrated that hydrogen had only a single ele(tron per atom. Pre3ious theories allowed 3arious numbers o ele(trons./D1/01

[edit] Awards

Aoyal !edal #1-9@$ 8ughes !edal #190;$ Iobel Pri?e or Physi(s #1900$ "opley !edal #191@$

[edit] Bib iography

1--<. A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings An essay to which the Adams !ri"e was adjudged in #$$%& in the 'ni(ersity of )ambridge. Bondon, !a(millan and "o., pp. 1@0. Ae(ent reprint, 7')I 0%D@<9%D090%;. 1---. Applications of *ynamics to !hysics and )hemistry. Bondon, !a(millan and "o., pp.<;0. Ae(ent reprint, 7')I 1%@0;1%-<9.%0. 1-9<. +otes on recent researches in electricity and magnetism intended as a se,uel to !rofessor )lerk-Maxwell.s .Treatise on /lectricity and Magnetism.. +6 ord Fni3. Press, pp.63i and D.-. 1991, "ornell Fni3ersity !onograph, 7')I 1%@;9.%@0D<%1. 19;1 #1-9D$. /lements 0f The Mathematical Theory 0f /lectricity And Magnetism. Bondon, !a(millan and "o. '(an o 1-9D edition. #with J.8. Poynting$. A Text book of !hysics in 1i(e Volumes !roperties of Matter& 2ound& 3eat& 4ight& and Magnetism 5 /lectricity6 Ia3arro, Jaume, ;00D, 9Thomson on the Iature o !atter, "orpus(les and the "ontinuum,9 )entaurus @.#@$, ;D9%-;.

Plum pudding model


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#Aedire(ted rom Thomson *tomi( !odel$ Jump to, na3igation, sear(h * s(hemati( representation o the plum pudding model o the atom. 7n ThomsonGs mathemati(al model the 9(orpus(les9 #or modern ele(trons$ were arranged non%randomly, in rotating rings. The !lum !udding model o the atom by J.J. Thomson, who dis(o3ered the ele(tron in 1-9., was proposed in 190@ be ore the dis(o3ery o the atomi( nu(leus. 7n this model, the atom is (omposed o ele(trons #whi(h Thomson still (alled 9(orpus(les,9 though =.J. 'toney had proposed that atoms o ele(tri(ity be (alled electrons in 1-9@$ /11 , surrounded by a soup o positi3e (harge to balan(e the ele(tronGs negati3e (harge, like negati3ely% (harged 9plums9 surrounded by positi3ely%(harged 9pudding9. The ele(trons #as we know them today$ were thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many stru(tures possible or positioning multiple ele(trons, parti(ularly rotating rings o ele(trons #see below$. 7nstead o a soup, the atom was also sometimes said to ha3e had a (loud o positi3e (harge. The model was dispro3ed by the 1909 gold oil e6periment, whi(h was interpreted by 2rnest Auther ord in 1911/;1 to imply a 3ery small nu(leus o the atom (ontaining a 3ery high positi3e (harge #enough to balan(e about 100 ele(trons in gold$, thus leading to the Auther ord model o the atom, and inally #a ter 8enry !oseleyGs work showed in 191< that the nu(lear (harge was 3ery (lose to the atomi( number$ to the *ntonius Ean den )roek suggestion that atomi( number is nu(lear (harge. 23entually, by 191<, this work

had (ulminated in the solar%system%like #but 4uantum%limited$ )ohr model o the atom, in whi(h a nu(leus (ontaining an atomi( number o positi3e (harge is surrounded by an e4ual number o ele(trons in orbital shells. ThomsonGs model was (ompared #though not by Thomson$ to a )ritish treat (alled plum pudding, hen(e the name. 7t has also been (alled the &ho&olate &hi! &ookie model or blueberry mu%%in model, but these mental pi(tures assume the parti(les as stati(, whi(h they were not or Thomson. ThomsonGs paper was published in the !ar(h 190@ edition o the !hilosophical Maga"ine, the leading )ritish s(ien(e journal o the day. 7n ThompsonGs 3iew, 666 the atoms of the elements consist of a number of negati(ely electrified corpuscles enclosed in a sphere of uniform positi(e electrification& 666 /<1 7n this model, the ele(trons were ree to rotate within the blob or (loud o positi3e substan(e. These orbits were stabili?ed in the model by the a(t that when an ele(tron mo3ed arther rom the (enter o the positi3e (loud, it elt a larger net positi3e inward or(e, be(ause there was more material o opposite (harge, inside its orbit #see =aussGs law$. 7n ThomsonGs model, ele(trons were ree to rotate in rings whi(h were urther stabili?ed by intera(tions between the ele(trons, and spe(tra were to be a((ounted or by energy di eren(es o di erent ring orbits. Thomson attempted to make his model a((ount or some o the major spe(tral lines known or some elements, but was not notably su((ess ul at this. 'till, ThomsonGs model #along with a similar 'aturnian ring model or atomi( ele(trons, put orward also in 190@ by Iagaoka a ter the !a6well model o 'aturnGs rings$, were earlier harbingers o the later and more su((ess ul solar% system%like )ohr model o the atom.