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DAFTAR ISI

BAB 1 : Pendahuluan

BAB 2 : Apakah Brand Itu?


2.1 Definisi Brand
2.2 Jenis-jenis Brand
2.3 Cara Kerja Brand
2.4 Anatomi Hubungan Brand & Stakeholder

BAB 3 : Pengembangan Brand


3.1 Strategi Membangun Brand
3.2 Brand Execution
3.3 Brand Equity
3.4 Strategi Branding

BAB 4 : Komunikasi Brand


4.1 Cara Kerja Komunikasi Pemasaran
4.2 Proses Pemilihan Brand
4.3 Promosi & Periklanan

BAB 5 : Penutup
BAB I

PENDAHULUAN
BAB II

PENGEMBANGAN BRAND
DEFINISI BRAND
• American Marketing Association
• Philip Kotler
• Tjahyo Harry Wilopo
JENIS BRAND
• Tujuan:
– Fungsional
– Citra
– Eksperiental
• Fungsi:
– Memberikan Identitas
– Membangun Loyalitas
– Sebagai Pembeda
– Sebagai Sarana Promosi
– Membangun Citra Perusahaan
– Menarik Stakeholders
How Brands Work…
NAMA

OBYEK

SIMBOL

CITRA PRODUK

CITRA ORGANISASI
How Brands Works…
Perspektif IMC
- Transformasi
- Brand Promises -> Ciri dan
Karakteristik
- Brand Experience -> Persepsi
- Brand Equity -> Citra Organisasi
Hubungan Brand dengan:

• Stakeholder
• Konsumen
• Karyawan
ANATOMI HUBUNGAN
BRAND & STAKEHOLDER
Acquisition versus Retention
• Dalam hubungan brand yang menguntungkan,
menjual produk ke konsumen yang sudah ada
lebih murah daripada menjual ke konsumen
baru.
• Prinsip dasar dalam IMC adalah perusahaan
harus lebih fokus dalam pengulangan (retention)
dari konsumen yang sudah ada daripada
akuisisi dari konsumen baru.
Kepercayaan
• Kepercayaan konsumen berdasarkan apakah
perusahaan melakukan apa yang dikatakan dan apakah
produk dan karyawannya memiliki kesatuan.
• Image dapat saja diciptakan namun reputasi yang baik
merupakan persepsi yang diperoleh dari pengalaman
baik yang terjadi berulang terhadap brand.
• Untuk memfasilitasi kepercayaan, perusahaan harus
menyadari fakta bahwa kepercayaan merupakan sebuah
faktor yang berupa realitas dan persepsi.
Hal-hal yang paling penting dalam menciptakan
kepercayaan dalam hubungan komersial adalah:

– Kepuasan (satisfaction)
Kepuasan dibentuk oleh berbagai input, seperti performa produk
yang positif, atribut brand yang menguntungkan yang tidak
ditawarkan oleh pesaing, pengetahuan bahwa orang lain juga
menggunakannya dan merasa puas dengan brand tersebut; dan
respon perusahaan terhadap keluhan atau kebutuhan konsumen.
– Konsistensi (consistency)
Konsistensi dikomunikasikan oleh produk dan jasa secara seragam
sebagai cara perusahaan memposisikan dirinya dan merespon
situasi. Hal ini penting karena konsistensi mempengaruhi ekspektasi
dan menjadi cara untuk mengurangi resiko.

– Kemudahan akses (accessibility)


Ketika terjadi masalah, konsumen ingin merasakan bahwa
mereka memiliki sumber, seperti kemudahan untuk dapat
menghubungi sesorang dengan cepat dan menyelesaikan
permasalahan.

– Responsif (responsiveness)
Konsumen akan merasa bahwa perusahaan perduli dan
menghargai konsumen saat pertanyaan, kebutuhan, dan
keluhan dari konsumen segera ditangani dan diselesaikan.
– Komitmen (commitment)
Konsumen ingin merasakan bahwa perusahaan memiliki
ketertarikan ke hati untuk membantu konsumen daripada
hanya melakukan dan mengatakan untuk penjualan semata.

– Kesamaan (affinity)
Kesamaan muncul saat konsumen mengidentifikasi dirinya
dengan brand atau perusahaan, dan berhubungan denga
orang-orang yang juga menggunakannya.
– Kesukaan (liking)
Menyukai sesuatu seringkali menjadi alasan untuk testimony –
kebanyakan orang membicarakan tentang pengalaman positif
mereka dan hal-hal yang mereka sukai. Jika konsumen tidak
menyukai suatu brand, akan menjadi alasan kuat untuk
disasosiasi.
BAB III

PENGEMBANGAN BRAND
BRAND MESSAGE STRATEGY
DEVELOPMENT
1. The Creative Message Brief
2. Targeting and Customer
Insight
3. Selling strategy
Selling Strategy
Tahapan untuk memutuskan strategi penjualan
yang akan di terapkan terdiri atas :
1. Purpose or key problem
2. Functional area message objective
3. Standart message strategies
4. Appeals and selling premises
Ex
The purpose of this marketing communication is to
convince____________(target
audience)______that______(brand)__________
___will____________(benefit)__________beca
use______________(proof).the result should
be__________(message objective : impact on
consumer)
Common message objectives and
strategies

2.
Think 1. Informationa
Transformational
Create
Create an attiude, Feel
awareness or
attention feeling, emotion,
belief ,or emotion
1111111
3. Behavioral
Create action
4. Relational
Create interactivity
and repeated action

Do
STRATEGIC CONSISTENCY
IMC Planner memfokuskan perhatiannya pada dua
tipe konsistensi yaitu :

3. One-Voice, One- Look

5. Strategic Consistency
THE CONSISTENCY
TRIANGLE

SAY

BRAND
INTEGRIT
Y
CONFIRM DO
BRAND EQUITY

Definisi :
• Menurut Wilopo
• Menurut David Aaker
• Menurut Knapp
Brand Equity adalah kombinasi antara nilai
identitas merek dan semua nilai yang dimiliki
atau diwakili oleh suatu merek secara
keseluruhan.

Suatu merek dikatakan memiliki ekuitas tinggi


jika merek tersebut dipersepsi baik oleh setiap
orang yang berkepentingan dalam merek
tersebut.
Metode menentukan Brand Equity
• Metode premium-pricing
• Metode royalty
Elemen Brand Equity
• brand awareness,
• brand association,
• perceived quality, dan
• brand loyalty.
Asosiasi Brand berdasarkan
A. Atribut produk
B. Intangibles
C. Manfaat yang diberikan produk
D. Bintang iklan
E. Negara atau daerah tertentu
F. Relative price
G. Kelas dan kategori produk
H. Penggunaan produk
I. Pelanggan
J. Lifestyle dan Personality
Value yang didapat perusahaan
jika memiliki ekuitas merek, yaitu:
• Harga premium dan margin keuntungan yang tinggi,
contoh : McDonald, Indomie, Toyota Kijang, Aqua.

• Merek yang kuat akan memberikan peluang bagi


produsen untuk melakukan perluasan merek untuk
mengekploitasi pasar secara lebih mendalam,
contoh : Toyota, ada Toyota Soluna, Altis, Corola,
Camry, Crown.
Merek bisa menjadi basis terbentuknya loyalitas dan
bahkan fanatisme pelanggan,
contoh : Iwan Fals.

Merek bisa menjadi komponen keunggulan bersaing yang


kuat, yang sulit ditiru oleh pesaing,
contoh : Levi’s , terletak pada identitas mereknya yang
sangat kokoh : authenticity, originality, american freedom,
individuality, young & fun, symbol of frontier independence
yang membedakannya dengan yang lain.
BAB IV

KOMUNIKASI BRAND
Cara Kerja Komunikasi Pemasaran
Noise
Clutter, message conflict and
inconsistency

Receiver
Source Message Channel
Target
Company/brand, Brand Newspaper,
Audience
agency Messages mail, magazine,
(Planned, e-mail, TV,
Unplanned, radio, package,
product, salesperson,
service) customer
service, internet

Feedback
Buy/not buy, request information, visit
store, sample product, repeat
(1)Pesan,
(2) Media/saluran,
(3) Noise,
(4) persepsi dan decoding oleh
penerima pesan,
(5) feedback
Empat Sumber Pesan Brand
Product Planned

BRAND

Service Unplanned
The Five Rs of
Purposeful Dialogue
• Recourse
• recognition
• Responsiveness
• Respect
• reinforce
LANGKAH – LANGKAH DASAR DALAM PEMILIHAN
MERK

PROSES KEPUTUSAN KOGNITIF


LANGKAH DIMENSI PSIKOLOGIS
1. Pengenalan masalah Kebutuhan dan keinginan
/ kemungkinan Perhatian
Persepsi Selektif
2. Pencarian informasi Awareness
Pengetahuan tentang
merk
Proses sentral atau
pinggiran
Proses aktif dan passing

3. Evaluasi dari pilihan Respons kognitif / afektif


Ingatan
Preferensi dan keyakinan
Persamaan
Kredibilitas sumber

4. Perilaku, aksi Sample, datang, beli / coba

5. Penilaian terhadap keputusan Kognitif dan kondisi belajar


membeli, Belajar dari kepuasan dan
beli kembali ketidakpuasan
Disonansi kognitif
3 SITUASI YANG MEMPENGARUHI PERILAKU
MEMBELI
MODEL KOGNITIF
Recognize Search for Evaluate Make buying Review
problem or information choices decision decision
Opportunity

MODEL PENGALAMAN
Recognize Evaluate feelings Make buying Review
problem or about choices decision decision
opportunity benefits

MODEL BERULANG/PERILAKU
Recognize Make buying Review
problem or decision decision
opportunity
4 LANGKAH MENUJU KEPUTUSAN MEMILIH
MERK
Tipe dari proses keputusan Rute Produk

Proses kognitif think/feel/do mobil, kebutuhan primer,


keterlibatan tinggi, produk
baru

Proses Pengalaman: impuls do/feel/think snacks, minuman, rokok, dll

Proses Pengalaman: feel/do/think restaurant, event olahraga,


mengalami eksibisi, produk baru dimana
produk dan sampling
diperlukan

Proses Repetisi/ Habit do/think/feel supply partai besar, pembelian


4 LANGKAH MENUJU KEPUTUSAN MEMILIH
MERK
Tipe dari proses keputusan Rute Produk

Proses Repetisi/ Habit do/think/feel supply partai besar,


pembelian
pembelian yang
berhubungan brand loyalty
ADVERTISING,
PUBLIC RELATIONS,
SALES PROMOTION,
EVENT & SPONSORSHIP,
CUSTOMER SERVICE
4 categories of MarComm’s functions (using types of
media):
• Primarily use MASS MEDIA:
– Advertising
– Public Relations
• Use SITUATION and PLACE:
– Sales promotion
– Packaging
– Point-of-purchase
• Use PERSONAL COMMUNICATION:
– Direct-response
– Personal sales
• Use EXPERIENCES:
– Event
– Sponsorship
– Trade show
– Customer service
ADVERTISING (The Awareness Builder) characteristics:

3. Nonpersoal
4. One-way
5. Planned messages paid for by identified sponsor
6. Disseminated to a broad audience
7. To influence audience > their attitudes and behavior

TYPES OF ADVERTISING:

• Target audiences: Consumers; businesses


• Media: Direct mail; print and broadcast
• Geography: Local; regional; national; international
ADVERTISING’s Strengths:
2. Building awareness
3. Adds value to a brand
4. Cost-effective in terms of impressions
5. Control over the content and timing of the message
6. Enables prospective customers
7. Messages are seen by other stakeholders besides just customers
(e.g. Employees, investors, local community, etc)

ADVERTISING’s Limitations:
10. Media waste
11. One-way communication
12. Low credibility
13. Clutter
MERCHANDISING: THE REMINDER DRIVERS

• Merchandising: is extending a brand image through promotional


activities at the retail level.
• Merchandising is concerned how is a brand is displayed.
• E.g.: POP materials, shipper-displays, banners, signs, counter
stands, floor stands, TV monitors, shelf signs/talkers, end-cap
displays, etc.

STRENGTHS:
8. Direct attention to a brand or particular product offering at the
point of sale.
9. Increase the level of customer consideration >
action>purchase>sales.
10. Provide links between out-of-store brand communication and the
in-store shopping experience.
LIMITATIONS:
3. Retailer’s resistance to using them.
4. The failure of salespeople to promote their use.
5. Small portion of customers remembered.
PACKAGING: THE LAST AD SEEN BEFORE BUYING

3. Packaging is an important part of a brand’s identity; distinguished


a branded product from a generic one.
4. Package is a medium for carrying a planned brand message.
5. Package is like a miniature outdoor board with millions of potential
exposures.
E.g. Coca-Cola hourglass shape bottle.

STRENGTHS:
9. As a container protects products.
10. Strong visual statement that brings brand personality.
11. Provide important decision information.
12. Showcase of promotions.
13. Add value to brand positioning.
LIMITATIONS:
Packaging is its potential for clogging up landfills > redesigning
>more disposable.
PUBLIC RELATIONS: THE CREDIBILITY BUILDER

• James Grunig & Todd Hunt: ”PR is management of communication


between an organization and its public”.

• Denny Griswold: ”PR is the management function that evaluates public


attitudes, identities the policies and procedures of an individual or an
organization with the public interest, and plans and executes a program of
action to earn public understanding and acceptance”.
PRACTICE AREAS of PUBLIC RELATIONS:

3. Corporate Relations
4. Crisis Management
5. Marketing Public Relations (Brand Publicity)
6. Media Relations
7. Employee Relations
8. Financial or Investor Relations
PR uses two different kinds of advertising:

1. Public service announcement (PSA)


2. Corporate advertising

IMAGE vs REPUTATION: Image can be created but Reputation is


earned.

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION: manages a full range of


stakeholder relationships, its focus on the corporate brand, image
and reputation.

MARKETING PUBLIC RELATIONS (MPR): ”The uses of non-paid


media to deliver positive brand information designed to positively
influence customers and prospects’
BRAND PUBLICITY: ”Using news releases and another media tools to
broaden awareness and knowledge of a brand or company”.

MPR is used:
• To build brand credibility;
• To make product news announcements;
• To reach hard-to-reach target audiences.
STRENGTHS of MPR:
2. Brand awareness
3. Acceptance and Credibility
4. Cost-Effectiveness
5. Clutter busting
6. Reaching the Hard to Reach Audiences
LIMITATIONS of MPR:
3. Less control of brand publicity because the
messages filtered by media gatekeepers
4. Not easy to measured
5. Mass media will not run stories about the same
company or brand too frequently
SALES PROMOTION: Intensifying Consideration
Sales promotion is ”a marketing communication function that
encourages action by adding tangible value to a brand offerring”.
Sales Promotion:
• Consumer Sales promotion > used as part of a pull strategy.
• Trade Sales Promotion > important tool in a push strategy.

Consumer Sales Promotion Tools:


8. Coupons 7. Sweepstakes & Contests
9. Price reductions 8. Tie-in Promotions
10. Rebates 9. Loyalty Promotions
11. Premiums
12. Specialties
13. Sampling
STRENGTHS of Sales Promotion:
2. Increase distribution
3. Balance demand
4. Control inventory levels
5. Respond to competitive programs
LIMITATION of Sales Promotion:
2. Still has a questionable image as a simply a way to
’buy sales’. >< convincing brand is a good value.
3. Not necessarily cost-effective.
4. For only the best deal, not a long-term brand
relationship.
5. Successful program will follow soon by competitors.
EVENT:
”is a promotional occasion designed to attract and involve a
brand’s target audience.

Event Characteristics:
5. Reach a certain audience
6. Involving
7. Generate brand publicity
Company use event in three ways:
3. Create the event
4. Participate in the event
5. Sponsor the event
SPONSORSHIP:
”is a financial support of an organization, person, or activity
in exchange for brand publicity and association.

Sponsorship:
5. Differentiate and add value to brand
6. As one of main ways in which a brand develops
associations
Guidelines for choosing sponsorship:
3. Target audience
4. Brand image reinforcement
5. Extendibility
6. Brand involvement
7. Cost-effectiveness
8. Other sponsors
STRENGTHS of Event & Sponsorship:

3. Enhance company’s or brand’s visibility by associating


it with something positive.

5. Good relationship-building activities that emotionally


bind customers to a company or brand.
LIMITATION of Event & Sponsorship:

3. Depending on the scope of the event, they tend to


directly involve only a small percentage of a brand’s
target audience.
4. ROI of most event sponsorship determined also by
other MC functions.
5. Lack of controlling of the design & management of
sponsored event.
CUSTOMER SERVICE: The Retention Driver:

” is the process of managing customer’s interactive


experiences with a brand”.
When customer service is good > brand
relationships are strengthened.
When it is bad> they are weakened or destroyed.
Characteristics of Good Customer Service:
Attitude
3. Employee performance
4. A customer-service department
5. Technical support provided
6. Facilities, operations and arrangements
Reasons why companies using Customer Service:

3. Competitive advantage
4. Customers’ demands
5. Customers’ expectations
6. Relationship maintenance
7. Increased technological sophistication of product
Strength and Limitation of Customer Service:
Strength: its contribution to the maintenance of a customer
relationship during and after purchase has been made.

Limitation: because rarely managed as part of a marketing


program, the communication dimension of customer
service are usually not integrated into the overall
marketing communication approach. ***(end)