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Attention and Perception

M.Vijayalakshmi
Assistant Professor
Attention
tindakan yg terarahkan pikiran berkaitan
dengan objek atau perilaku tertentu
Konsentrasi atau memfokuskan kesadaran
terhadap objek
-Woodworth
Definition of Attention
Proses memilih beberapa stimulus sesuai
minat dan sikap individu di lingkungannya
-Sharma R. N. (1967)
Karakteristik
Selektif
Arah aktivitas mental mengetahui,
merasakan, kesediaan
Pergantian
Tertarik sesuatu yg baru
Memastikan kesadaran terhadap objek
Menciptakan sikap perhatian pada
individu
Types of Attention

Attention

Non-
volitional Volitional

Enforced Spontaneous Implicit Explicit


Attention
Non-volitional
dipaksa (instingtif)
Spontan -(perasaan)
Volitional
Implicit -(didapat dr satu keinginan utk
bertindak)
Explicit -(didapat dari beberapa keinginan
utk bertindak)
Gangguan
Stimulus yg menganggu perhatian dari
objek yg menjadi fokus kita
Example:
-suara musik di jalan menganggu
perhatian siswa di kelas
Tidak perhatian
Tidak adanya perhatian
Tanda
Tidak peduli
Gerakan mata tidak fokus
Tidak terlihat paham
Resah, gerak2 tubuh tak jelas
Penyebab tidak perhatian

Kurang
minat
Lelah
atau
butuh

Muncul Kurang
gangguan motivasi
Tipe tidak perhatian

menyeluruh

sebagian
Penentu perhatian
Objective/External factors Subjective/Internal factors
Stimulus Insting
ukuran minat
Intensitas kebutuhan
perubahan Mental set
kontras Mood
kebaruan Kondisi fisik
gerakan kebiasaan
pengulangan keturunan
Kontras
Sensasi
Indrawi jalan ke pengetahuan
Mengetahui sesuatu melalui apa yg
dirasakan indra
Percepsi
Perception = Sensation + interpretsi yg
berarti
Proses mengetahui sesuatu objek dan
fakta menggunakan indra/ senses
-R.S. Woodworth and D.G. Marquis
Characteristics
Meaningful
Selective
Our past experience determines the nature of
perception
Synthetic activity
Analysis in perception
Analysis and synthesis occur at the same time
Process of integration takes place
Law of Perceptual Organization
Figure and Ground Relationship
Determinants of Perception
External Factors
i. Proximity
ii. Similarity
iii. Continuity
iv. Closure
Internal Factors
i. Past experiences
ii. Attitude or Mental set
Errors in Perception

Illusion

Hallucination
Illusion
That which does not really exist
Visual Illusion
Auditory Illusion
Optical Illusion physically equal,
subjectively and psychologically unequal
Muller-Lyer Illusion
Optical Illusion
Horizontal Vertical Illusion
Hallucination
False perception
Mirage
Images when not present
Imagery mental capacity to form
images
Eidetic image immediate image
Defining Mental Disorder
Meaning of Concept
Generalized image or idea which
stands for a group of objects that
have some common characteristics
Man, Animal, Book, Car, Tree etc. -
Concepts
Types of Concepts
Concepts

Imaginary
Simple Complex

Concepts of Concepts of
Objects Aspects

Quality Relations
Jerome Bruners classification
Concept Formation
Gagnes Hierarchical Learning Theory

Signal Learning
S-R Learning
Chaining
Verbal Association Learning
Multiple Discrimination Learning
Concept Learning
Rule/Principle Learning
Problem Solving
John Deweys Problem Solving
Awareness of the Problem
Recognition of the problem
Collection of Data
Formulation of Hypotheses
Evaluation or Testing of Hypothesis
Making of Generalization
Teachers Role
Moderate Motivation
Encourage Divergent Thinking
Problem should be presented as a whole
Level of Difficulty
Active Manipulation
Practice
Incomplete Solution of Problems
Piagets
Cognitive Development Theory
Sensory Motor Stage
- (Birth to 2 years)
Pre-operational Stage
- (2 to 7 years)
Concrete Operational Stage
- (7 to 11 years)
Formal Operational Stage
- (11 years to adulthood)
Bruners Cognitive Development or Meaning
Verbal Learning Theory

1 Enactive Motor actions and Pre-school


Representation Movements Stage

2 Iconic Sensory Images or Childhood


Representation Mental Pictures Stage

3 Symbolic Words, Symbols, Adolescence


Representation Formula Stage
Bruners
Theory of Instruction 4 features
Concept Maps
Lead from
Ausubels Theory of Advanced Organizers

Novak and Gowin


developed Concept Maps in Teaching
Concept Maps

It is useful in explaining the


general principles formed out of
many related ideas and also the
mutual relationships existing
between the various general
principles themselves
Concept Map
Uses of Concept Maps
To understand:
The relationship between the various ideas put forth in a
lesson -
Lead to the general principles
How the different general principles are themselves related
To prepare a classified summary of the ideas learnt in a lesson -
Hierarchical way
Linkage
Cross linkage
Helps the teacher to prepare the lesson for the class
Given as a follow up activity to pupils Home Assignment
Promotes Analytical thinking in students
Learning become meaningful and comprehensive
Memory - Meaning
Layman capacity to reproduce what is learnt
Psychologists Remembering
Remembering An active process of Mental
search
Remembering Retention & Retrieving
Retention What is learnt
Retrieving Retrieving it when it is required for
subsequent use
Remembering 3 Stages
Learning or Memorizing
Nature of Length or Amount
Learning Meaningfulness
Material
Complexity
Association
Learning
Depends
on Nature of Physical Condition
the Intelligence
Learner
Interest/Motivation
Need
Learning Rote Learning/Meaningful Learning
Methods Spaced/Massed Learning
Whole/Part Learning
Associative Learning
Kinds of Memory
The Multi-store Model
Strategies for Improving Memory
Have the desire or motivation to learn
Meaningful material is learnt quickly and
retained longer
Follow SQ3R method (Survey, Questioning,
Recite, Repeat ad and Review)
Spacing the learning periods
Recitation
Over-learning
Rhymes and logical associations
Mnemonic devices VIBGYOR
Multisensory learning
Periodical rest and sleep immediately after
learning improves retention
Subjects of study arranged
Teacher Instruction Style Concept Maps
Remembering & Forgetting
MEMORY DISORDERS

Result of damage to neuro-anatomical


structures that hinders the storage, retention
and recollection of memories
Progressive including Alzheimers disease
Immediate including disorders from head
injury
Role of Teacher in
Teaching and Learning
Credit to the Sources

Images are taken from


INTERNET Sources
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YOU